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CHRONOLOGICA 

DICTIONARY 
OF  SIND 


CHRONOLOGIAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


■ 


(From  Geological  Times  to  1539  A.D.) 


By 

M.  H.  Panhwar 


■ 


■ 


Institute  of  Sindhology 
University  of  Sind,  Jamshoro 
Sind-Pakistan 


All  rights  reserved. 

Copyright  (c)  M.  H.  Panhwar  1983. 

Institute  of  Sindhology  Publication  No.  99 


First  printed — 1983 

No.  of  Copies 2000 

40  0-0    0 

Price ^Pt&AW&Q 


Printed  at  Educational  Press 
Dr.  Ziauddin  Ahmad  Road,  Karachi. 


> 


Published  By  Institute  of  Sindhlogy,  University  of  Sind  Jamshoro, 

in  collabortion  with  Academy  of  letters  Government  of  Pakistan, 

Ministry  of  Education  Islamabad. 


• 


- 


PUBLISHER'S  NOTE 


Institute  of  Sindhology  is  engaged  in  publishing  informative  material  on 
Sind  under  its  scheme  of  "Documentation,  Information  and  Source  material 
on  Sind".  The  present  work  is  part  of  this  scheme,  and  is  being  presented 
for  benefit  of  all  those  interested  in  Sindhological  Studies. 

The  Institute  has  already  pulished  the  following  informative  material 
on  Sind,  which  has  received  due  recognition  in  literary  circles. 

1.  Catalogue  of  religious  literature. 

2.  Catalogue  of  Sindhi  Magazines  and  Journals. 

3.  Directory  of  Sindhi  writers  1943-1973. 

4.  Source  material  on  Sind. 

5.  Linguist  geography  of  Sind. 

6.  Historical  geography  of  Sind. 

The  "Chronological  Dictionary  of  Sind"  containing  531  pages,  46  maps 
14  charts  and  130  figures  is  one  of  such  publications.  The  text  is  arranged 
year  by  year,  giving  incidents,  sources  and  analytical  discussions.  An  elaborate 
bibliography  and  index:  increases  the  usefulness  of  the  book. 

The  maps  and  photographs  give  pictographic  history  of  Sind  and  have 
their  own  place.  Sindhology  has  also  published  a  number  of  articles  of  Mr. 
M.H.  Panhwar,  referred  in  the  introduction  in  the  journal  Sindhology,  to 
make  available  to  the  reader  all  new  information  collected,  while  the  book 
was  in  press.  This  would  make  this  text  upto  date  to  1983. 

It  is  earnestly  hoped  that  the  information  in  this  book  will  open  new 
venues  for  research.. 


August  15,  1983 


Prof.  Dr.  G.  A.  Allana 

Prof.  Incharge  Institute  of  Sindhology 

Sind  University,  J amshoro. 


m 


CONTENTS 

CONTENTS  OF  TEXT 

CONTENTS  OF  MAPS  AND  CHARTS 

CONTENTS  OF  FIGURES 

INTRODUCTION  BY  AUTHOR 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

TEXT 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

INDEX 


PAGE 

VII 

X 

XIV 

XXI 

xxvn 

1  -392 

after  Page  392 

Page  1-65 

Page  1-70 


CONTENTS  OF  TEXT 


J 


1. 
2. 


3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 


GEOLOGICAL  CALENDAR, 

(3.5  Billion  years  ago  to  present  times). 

PLEISTOCENE  PERIOD  IN  SIND, 

(Early,  Middle  and  Late  Stone  age,  sea  level  changes 

and  Mesolithic  period). 

NEOLITHIC  PERIOD  IN  SIND, 
(7000  B.C.  to  3500  B.C.). 

CHALCOUTfflC  PERIOD  IN  SIND, 
(3500  B.C.  to  1000  B.C.). 


THE  EARLY  INDUS  CULTURE, 
(3000  -  2350  B.C.). 


THE  HARAPPAN  OR  MATURE  INDUS  CULTURE, 
(2350 -1750  B.C.). 

THE  DECLINING  INDUS  CULTURE  OR  FALL 
OF  INDUS  CULTURE, 
(1750  B.C. -1000  B.C.). 


THE  PROTO  -  HISTORICAL  PERIOD, 
(1300 -519  B.C.). 

THE  COMING  OF  RIG-VEDIC  ARYANS, 

(1050 -850  B.C.). 

ACHAEMENIAN  CONQUEST  OF  SIND, 

(519  B.C.). 

GREEK  CONQUEST  OF  SIND  AND  THE  REST 
OF  PAKISTAN, 
(329  -  324  B.C.). 

• 

MAURY ANS  AND  INTRODUCTION  OF  BlfDDHISM 

IN  SIND, 

(324  -  187  B.C.). 

BACTRIAN  GREEKS  AND  CULTURE  EXCHANGE, 

(187  -80  B.C.). 

SCYTHIAN  OR  SAKA  RULE  OF  SIND, 
(80  B.C.  to  46  A.D.). 


PAGE 

1 

6 

17 

22 

28 

35 

50 

58 

61 

68 

PARTHIANS  RULE  OF  SIND, 

(46  -  78  A.D.). 


76 

84 
90 
95 
99 


VII 


16.  KUSHAN  RULE  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF 
BUDDHIST  ARCHITECTURE, 

(65  -  283  A.D.). 

1 7.  SASSANI ANS  AND  RISE  OF  LOCAL  DYNASTIES, 
(283  -  499  A.D.), 

1 8.  RAI  DYNASTY  AND  CLIMAX  OF 
BUDDHIST  POWER  IN  SIND, 
(499-641  A.D.) 

19.  BRAHMAN  DYNASTY, 
(641  -712A.D.). 

20.  UMAYYAD  DYNASTY  AND  ARAB  RAIDS  ON  SIND, 
(669-711A.D.). 

21.  ARAB  CONQUEST  OF  SIND, 

(711  -714A.D.). 

22.  UMAYYAD'S  GOVERNORS  OF  SIND, 
(715-749A.D.). 

23.  ABBASID'S  GOVERNORS  OF  SIND, 
(749  -  854  A.D.). 

24.  DECLINE  OF  ARAB  POWER  IN  SIND, 
(835  -  854  A.D.). 

25.  HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND, 

(854- 1010  A.D.). 

26.  THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  SOOMRA  RISE  TO  POWER, 
(1010  -  1026  A.D.). 

27.  SOOMRA  DYNASTY, 
(1026-1351  A.D.). 

28.  THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  SAMMA'S  RISE  TO  PO\YER, 
(1333-  1351  A.D.). 

29 .  MUHAMMAD  TUGHLAQ'S  EXPEDITION 
ON  SIND  AND  DEATH, 

(1347  -  1351  A.D.). 

30.  FALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA  -  DELHI 
CONFLICT,  j 
(1351- 1368  A.D.). 


3 1 .      SIND  SUBMITS  TO  DELHI, 
(1368  -  1388  A.D.). 


VHI 


'•• 

102 

\. 

\ 

108 

114 

123 

127 

136 

144 

159 

* 
• 
177 

184 

207          < 

218 

291 

l 

299 

s 

311 

326 

CONTENTS  OF  MAPS  AND  CHARTS 


1.      Geological  Map  of  Sind,  showing  formation  of  Sind. 
3.5  Billion  years  ago  to  the  present  time.  (MAP) 


Opposite  Page 

1 


2.  2500  -  1000  B.C. 

The  extent  of  early,  mature  and  declining 
Indus  Civilization.  (MAP) 

3.  4500  -  800  B.C. 

Expansion  of  Copper  and  Bronze  Working  (MAP) 

4.  2000  B.C.  -  1226  A.D.  Drying  up  of  Hakra 
(The  lost  river  of  the  Indian  Desert  and  the 
Rann  of  Cutch).  (MAP) 

5.  1000  B.C.  -1226  A.D.* 

The  Crook  of  Cutch  Making  Cutch  as 
Bridge  between  Sind,  Kathiawar  and  Western 
Gujrat.  (MAP) 

6.  1000 -50  B.C. 

Expansion  of  Iron  Working.  (MAP) 

7.  1000 -500  B.C. 

Expansion  of  Iron  in  the  Sub-continent  and 

600  -  500  B.C. 

16  Principalities  or  Mahajanpadas.  (MAP) 


8.  640  —  325  B.C.  Sind  Principalities  and  Contemporary 
Achaemenians  (Chart) 

9.  519  B.C.  -1524  A.D. 

Routes  of  Invasion  of  Sind  By  Achaemenians, 
Macedonians,  Bactrians,  Scythians,  Parthians, 
Kushans,  Sassanians,  and  Arghoons,  from  Central 
Asia  through  Afghanistan. 

10.  519  B.C. 
Empire  of  Darius  I 
The  Achaemenian 

1 1.  450  B.C.  The  first  world  Map  showing  Sind  by  Herodotus. 
(Adopted  from  Michael  Grant).  % 

12.  323  B.C. 

Empire  of  Alexander 

1  3.      326  -  324  B.C. 

Alexanders'  Conquest  of  Sind  and  Retreat. 

X 


32 


32 


32 


32 


64 


64 


72 


72 


80 


80 


80 


\ 


32.  SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE, 
(1388-1524  A.D.). 

33.  SAMMA  FEUDS  AND  THEIR  FALL, 
(1512-1521  A.D.). 

34.  SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  TO  REGAIN  SIND, 
(1522-  1536  A.D.) 


336 
368 
379 


• 


IX 


I 


-V 


14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 

20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 
29. 


323  -  187  B.C. 

Mauryan  Empire  to  its  Largest  Extent  in  250  B.C. 

324 -187  B.C. 

Mauryans  and  their  Contemporaries. 

301  B.C. 

Greek  Empire  of  Alexander's  Successor's  and 

Mauryan  Empire  (Sind  became  part  of  Mauryan 

Empire). 

200  B.C.  -  200  A.D. 

Trade  Routes  between  Sind  and  the  Western  World. 


80 
88 

88 


184-70  B.C. 

Bactrian  Greeks  and  their  contemporaries. 

187  -  184  B.C. 

Route  of  Conquest  of  Sind  by  Bactrian  Greeks 

(Demetrius  and  Menander}. 

174  B.C. 

Indo  —  Greek  Roman  and  Hellenic  Empires  in  174  B.C. 


145  B.C. 

Trade  Routes  Parthian  and  Greek  Empires. 

74  B.C. 

Empires  of  Parthians  and  Scythians  (Including  Sind). 

70  B.C.  -  46  A  J). 

Scythian  Rulers  and  their  Contemporaries. 


88 

88 
88 
88 


96 


46  -  78  A.D. 

Parthians  and  their  Contemporaries. 

65  -  283  AJX 

Kushans  and  their  Contemporaries. 


100  -  750  A.D. 
Cities  of  Sind. 


150  A.D.  The  World  According  to  Ptolemy 
(Adopted  from  Michael  Grant). 

150  A.D.  Map  of  Sind  and  Adjoining  Territories 
according  to  Claudius  Ptolemy  (Based  on  McCrindle 
1885). 

v 
176-499  A.D. 

Sassanids  and  their  contemporaries  in  Sind  and 
adjoining  areas. 

XI 


104 

104 
104 

104 

112 


s 


30.  138A.D. 
Khusan,  Parthian  and  Roman  Empires.  112 

31.  230A.D. 
Ardasir's  Empire,  Trade  and  Trade  Routes.  112 

32.  400  A.D. 
Vahlikas  of  Sind  and  the  Gupta  Empire.  112 

33.  499  -  640/41  A.D. 
Rai  Dynasty  of  Sind  and  Their  Contemporaries.  120 

34.  640  A.D. 
Rai  Sehasi  -  II 's  Sind,  Harasha  Empire  and 
Contemporary  Sub  -  continents.  120 

35.  641  -  662  A.D. 
Chach's  Sind  and  its  Division  as  Hieun  Tsang  saw  them.  128 

36.  640/41  -  725  A.D. 
Contemporaries  of  Brahman  Dynasty.  128 

37.  711- 714  AJ). 
Conquest  of  Sind  by  the  Arabs.  136 

38.  712-751A.D.  .   ,  . 
Umayyad  Governors  of  Sind  and  their  Contemporaries.  136 

39.  751  -  854  A.D. 
Abbasid  Governors  of  Sind  and  their  Contemporaries.  1 84 

40.  854- 1011  AX). 

Habaris  of  Sind  and  their  Contemporaries.  184 

41.  925  A.D. 


Indian  Sub  -  continent  in  925  A.D.  and  Habari 

Kingdom  of  Sind.  1 84 

42.  854- 1011  A.D. 

Habaris  and  Adjoining  Local  Arab 

Kingdom  in  951  A.D.  '  184 

43.  951  A.D.  Istakhri's  Map  of  Sind  (Modern  names  in 
Brackets).  Northern  Frontier  of  Sind  was  about 
50  Miles  Noth  of  Multan,  Lasbela,  Part  of  Makran 

upto  Kej,  Kalat,  Sibi,  and  Gandova  formed  part  of  Sind.  184 

44.  976  A.D.  Ibn  Haukal'  s  Map  of  Sind  (Based  pn  Elliot  (1867).  184 

45.  1025  A.D. 

Khafif  Soomra  and  Contemporary  Sub-continent.  224 

XII 


46.  1011  -  1351/52  A.D. 

Soomras  of  Sind  and  their  Contemporaries. 

47.  1150  A.D.  the  Sind  and  the  Neighbouring  Territories 
from  Al-Sharif  Al-Idrisi.  Based  on  seventh  section  of 
the  second  clime  (Bodleian  Library,  MS— Greaves). 


48. 
49. 

50. 

51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 


1236  A.D. 

Indian  Sub-continent  in  1236  A.D.  on  death  of  Atlatmish. 

1333  AJ). 

Ibn  Batuta's  Routes.  To  Janani,  Sehwan  and  Lahri  Bandar, 

and  Return  Route  to  Multan  and  Delhi. 

Sind  in  1351  A.D. 

Muhammad  Tughlaq's  Invasion  of  Sind  and 

Taghi's  flight  to  Sind. 


1000  -  1525  A.D. 

Soomra  —  Samma  Cities,  of  Sind. 


1352- 1524  A.D. 

Sammas  of  Sind  and  their  Contemporaries. 

1441  A.D. 

Indian  Sub-continent  Around  1441  A.D. 

1508  AJ). 

Indian  Sub-continent  as  Portugese  saw. 

1508  A.D. 

Sind  Boundaries  under  Jam  Nizamuddin  and 

Areas  under  his  active  influence. 


• 


224 

240 
240 

296 

296 
212 
212 
344 
344 

368 


56. 

57. 

Human  Races  of  the  Sub-continent. 

1517-1523  A.D. 

Shah  Beg's  Military  Operations  in  Sind. 

368 
368 

58. 

1524- 1554  A.D. 

Shah  Hasan's  Military  Operations  in  Sind. 

368 

59. 

1500- 1700  A.D. 

Tribal  Map  of  Sind  and  the  Communication  Routes. 

392 

60. 

1608-  1700  A.D. 
Administrative  Map  of  Sind. 

V 

392 

XIII 

8.      23000  -  1700  B.C.  Saddle-quern  and  muller  stone  found  from  Mohenjo 
Daro. 


9.  3000  -  2500  B.C.  Painted  pot  from  Amri,  presently  at  Mohenjo  Daro 

10.  2800  -  2300  B.C.  General  view  of  Kot  Diji  Excavations. 

11.  2700  -  2400  B.C.  Nal  ware  and  tools  from  Baluchistan. 

12.  2800  B  .C.  Kot  Dijian  ware. 
13  Shahi  Tump  ware. 

14.  2300  —  1700  B.C.  General  view  of  excavations  of  Mohenjo  Daro. 

15.  Typical  Indus  culture  objects. 

16.  Zhob  ware. 

17.  2300  -  1 700  B.C.  A  well  inside  a  house  at  Mohenjo  Daro. 

1 8.  2300  -  1 700  B.C.  A  low  street  at  Mohenjo  Daro, 

19.  2300  -  1700  B.C.  30  feet  wide  main  street  Mohenjo  Daro. 

20.  Kuli  Ware  from  Baluchistan. 

21.  2200  -  2100  B.C.  The  great  bath  at  Mohenjo  Daro,  reconstructed. 

22.  2200  -  2100  B.C.  The  great  bath,  Mohenjp  Daro. 

23.  2300  -  1700  B.C.  Interior  of  a  typical  house  at  Mohenjo  Daro 
(reconstructed). 

XIV 


CONTENTS  OF  FIGURES 

1.  Rampithecus,  who  lived  14  million  years  ago. 

2.  7  —  5  million  years  old  set  of  teeth  found  in  1930,  at  Siwalik  hills. 

3.  1.6  —  1.5  million  years  old.  Advanced  Australopithecus. 

4.  Fossil  men. 

5.  10,000  B.C.  to  2500  B.C.  Microlithic  fishig  tools. 

6.  10,000  B.C.  to  present  times.  Primitive  drill  machine,  to  bore  holes 
into  stone. 

7.  10,000  B.C.  to  present  times.  Ancient  quern  and  saddles  evolved  by  food 
gathering  tribes. 


- 


24.  2300  —  1700  B.C.  Reconstruction  of  grannary  at  Mohenjo  Daro. 

25.  2300  —  1700  B.C.  An  axonometric  reconstruction  of  a  house  at  Mohenjo 
Daro. 

26.  2300  -  1 700  B.C.  Chert  flakes  and  polished  cores  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

27.  2300  —  1700  B.C.  Bronze  and  copper  tools  and  implements  from 
Mohenjo  Daro. 

28.  2300  -  1800  B.C.  Bead  necklace  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

29.  2300  -  1 700  B.C.  Stone  and  gold  bead  necklaces  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

30.  2300  -  1700  B.C.  Fayence  bracelet  from  Harappa. 

31.  2300  -  1700  B.C.  Terracotta  toy  bull  cart  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 
3  2.      Bullock  cart  of  modern  Sind. 

33.  Separate  harrowing  and  sowing  by  tubes  in  the  field. 

34.  2300  -  1800  B.C.  Stone  weights  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

35.  2300  -  1800  B.C.  Figurine  of  mother  goddess  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

36.  2300  -  1800  B.C.  King  priest  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

37.  2600  —  2300  B.C.  Copper  wand  surmounted  by  our  camel  from  Khurb 
Iran. 

38.  2300  -  1700  B.C.  Bronze  statue  of  dancing  girl  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

39.  2300  -  1700  B.C.  Predecessor  of  the  game  'Chess'  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

40.  2300  —  1700  B.C.  Steatite  seals  and  their  impressions  with  script  and 
animal  design  from  Mohenjo  Daro. 

41.  2300  -  1700  B.C.  Gods  and  their  motifs  carved  on  the'Indus  seals. 

42.  i.        2300  -  1700  B.C.  Indus  Seal  showing  a  boat, 
ii.      2300  —  1700  B.C.  Indus  Seal  showing  sacrifice  and  three  horned  god 

in  a  pipal. 
iii.     2300  —  1700  B.C.  Indus  seal  showing  a  bullman  killing  a  horned 
tiger. 

43.  Indus  Seals  and  Mythology.  v 

44.  550  —  325  B.C.  Punch  marked  Coins  of  pre- Alexandrian  Era. 

45.  Comparative  table  of  symbol  on  Indus  valley  seals  and  punch  marked 
coins. 

XV 


46.  1 750  -  1 700  B.C.  Cemetry-H  Cultural  ware  of  the  declining  Indus 
Culture. 

47.  1750  —  1700  B.C.  Jhukar  ware  produced  during  the  early  period  of 
declining  Indus  Culture. 

48.  1 100  —  900  B.C.  Jhangar  ware  produced  during  the  late  declining  Indus 
Culture. 

49.  day  baked  sling  stones  Mohenjo  Daro. 

50.  Present  day  potter  and  his  wheels. 

51.  Head  of  Darius  —  I  from  relief  art  Bistun. 

52.  Darius  —  I,  giving  audience. 

53.  The  hall  of  audience  at  Persipolis. 

54.  Winged  bull,  from  the  gate  way  of  tomb  of  Xerxes  at  Bistun. 

55.  Naqsh-i-Rustam:  Rock  Tombs  of  Achaemenian  Kings  and  fire  altar. 

56.  333  -  323  B.C.  Alexander  from  a  coin. 

57.  First  century  B.C.  Alexander  in  the  battle  of  Issus. 

58.  326  B.C.  Medal  struck  by  Alexander  to  celebrate  the  defeat  of  Poros. 

59.  Ptolemy  -  I  (d.  280  B.C.). 

60.  Coin  of  Selukus,  general  of  Alexander. 

61.  323  —  184  B.C.  Punch  marked  coin  of  Mauryan  or  early  Sungan 
dynasties. 

62.  323  —  231  A.D.  Punch  marked  Coins  of  first  three  Mauryan  emperors, 
Chandragupta,  Bindusara  and  Asoka. 

63.  3rd  century  B.C.  Mauryan  column  found  at  Pataliputra. 

64.  i.       Evolution  of  Hebrew  Script  from  Cananite  and  South  Arabian 
Scripts. 

Evolution  of  Greek  and  Hehrew  Scrints  from  Phoenician  Srrint. 


ii.       Evolution  of  Greek  and  Hebrew  Scripts  from  Phoenician  Script, 
iii.      Kharoshthi  Script  on  Silver  scroll, 
iv.      Brahmi  script  from  Girnar  rock. 

65.       180-160  B.C.  Coin  of  Menander. 


66.  Coin  of  Demetrius. 

67.  Parthian  horseman. 


XVI 


S 


68. 
69. 
70. 

71. 
72. 
73. 

74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
S3. 
84. 
85. 
86. 

87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 

91. 


End  1st  Century  A.D.  Coin  of  Kujula  Kara  Kad  phises  —  I  the  Kushan. 

Second  century  A.D.  Coin  of  Kamshka. 

l.        144  -  150  A.D.  Another  coin  of  Kanishka  -  I. 
ii-       150-162  A.D.  Coin  of  Huvishka  Kushan. 

Kushan  plough  with  vertical  and  curved  yoke  pole. 

Coin  of  Kadphises  —  II,  in  Kharoshthi  script. 

1st  century  B.C.  —  1st  century  A.D.  Scytho-Parthian  pottery  from 
Banbhore. 


Sassanian  coins. 

Pahlavi  —  Sassanian  script. 

Crowns  of  Sassanian  Kings. 

590  —  628  A.D.  A  Sassanian  King  in  an  armour,  on  a  horse  back. 

4th  —  7th  century  —  Brahma  in  brass  from  Bahmanabad. 

Stupa  at  Mirpurkhas  restored. 

Development  of  a  dome. 

Marble  door  jamb.  Gori  temple  —  Tharparkar. 

Signature  of  emperor  Harasha  from  a  copper  plate. 

711  —  714  A.D.  A  type  of  catapult  or  'Manjanique'. 

General  plan  of  Jami  Masjid  Banhore  (Debal). 

Banbhore  (Debal)  citadal  fortification. 

Earthen  ware  can,  decorated  with  Sassanian  type  moulded  frieze  of 
animals  from  Banbhore  (Debal). 

Pre-Muslim  period  pottery  mould  from  Banbhore  (Debal). 

Inscribed  glazed  pottery  from  Banhore. 

Pot  shreds  with  Dev-Nagri  inscriptions,  from  Banbhore. 


907  A.D.  Kufic  inscriptions  of  Habari  period  from  Banbhore. 


Excavations  of  Siva  temple  at  Banbhore. 

XVII 


92.  5th  —  8th  century  A.D.  Siva  lingum  from  temple  in  situation  at 
Banbhore. 

93.  Friday  mosque  at  Isfahan. 

94.  Masoleum  of  Oljeilu,  the  Mongol  King  at  Sultania. 

95.  Coin  of  Mahmood  of  Ghazni. 

96.  Coin  of  Masaud  of  Ghazni. 

97.  Muhammad  Bin  Sam's  coin  struck,  at  Kanauj. 

98.  608  A.H.  (1213  A.D.)  coin  of  Altatmish. 

99.  Cold  coin  of  Ghiasuddin  Balban. 

100.  729  A.H.  (1330  A.D.)  Gold  coin  of  Muhammad  Bin  Tughlaq. 

101.  Brass  coin  of  Muhammad  Tughlaq  (forced  currency). 

102.  Soomra  period  clay  vessel  with  engraved  patterns. 

103.  Soomra  period.  9-wick  oil  lamp. 

104.  i.       Hindu  diety  of  carved  stone. 

105.  i.        11th  —  13th  century  Bronze  die  for  casting,  from  Tharri. 
ii.      Another  die  from  Tharri. 

106.  11th  —  14th  century.  Floral  geometrical  pattern  on  clay  tiles. 

107  (i)  15-16th  century.  Carved  tomb  stone  showing  a  cavalryman  and 
infantry  man  armed  with  sword  sheild  bow  and  arrows  from  pir 
patho. 

(ii)  15- 16th  century   carved  tomb  stone  showing  in  relief  three  horsemen 
armed  with  swords  shields  and  arrows  from  Pir  Patho. 

108.  Tomb   of  Murki   Bibi   and   Mughali  Bibi  from  Ahmadabad  (Gujarat). 

109.  Tomb  of  king  Fateh  Khan's  sister. 

110.  Inscription  on  the  grave  of  Tajuddin  and  Mian  Fateh  Khan. 

111.  First  or  second  quarter  16th  century,  Tomb  of  Shaikh  Jiyo  at  Makli. 

112.  Tomb  of  Jam  Nizamuddin  Interior  view. 

113.  Interior  view  of  Tarn  Nizamuddin 's  tomb;  (Mehrab). 

114.  Mehrab  of  the  tomb  of  Jam  Nizamuddin  (out  side  view). 

XVIII 


115.  Fine  engraving  in  stone  from  tomb  of  Jam  Nizamuddin,  Makli. 

116.  Grave  of  Darya  Khan  with  inscriptions. 

117.  Enclosure  the  Tomb  of  Darya  Khan  (Mubrak  Khan) 

118.  Inscription  on   the  southern  gate  of  tomb  of  Darya  Khan  in  Naskhi 
script. 

119.  Humayun  seated  on  throne. 


XIX 


INTRODUCTION  BY  AUTHOR 

In  my  book  'Ground  water  in  Hyderabad  and  Khairpur  Divisions', 
published  in  1964,  I  have  explained  how  I  used  history  of  the  river  Indus, 
history  and  historical  geography,  archaeology  and  anthropology,  geology  and 
geophysics,  metereology  and  hydrology,  fauna  and  flora  and  soils  and  geogra- 
phy of  Sind,  to  locate  fresh  ground  water  in  the  region.  In  the  said  study, 
which  I  started  in  1951,  I  read  and  collected  a  large  number  of  books  and 
articles  on  the  above  subjects  and  simultaneously  studied  contemporary  and 
historical  maps.  In  order  that  this  material,  collected  with  great  efforts  may 
not  be  lost  to  posterity,  I  compiled  the  same,  and  Institute  of  Sindhology, 
University  of  Sind,  published  it  in  1977  as  'Source  Material  on  Sind'. 

Inspite  of  the  fact  that,  unlike  conventional  bibliographies,  this  book 
^  gave  descriptions,  albeit  briefly,  of  contents  of  many  books,  and  in  the  notes 

the  sources  of  some  fifty  two  important  subjects  were  also  given,  I  felt  that 
the  small  bits  and  pieces  of  material  that  were  available  bounteously  in  various 
sources,  were  bound  to  gp  un-noticed  for  decades  to  come,  and  these  may 
therefore  be  put  together  in  some  rational  order  for  scholars  as  well  as 
laymen,  so  as  to  cut  down  time  and  efforts  on  researches  they  do  from  time 
to  time. 

In  1966,  I  came  across  extracts  from  Caetani's  'Chronographia  Islamica', 
which  gave  me  an  idea  that  the  plentiful  bits  and  pieces  of  information  thus 
available  on  various  aspects  of  Sind's  past,  could  be  put  in  a  chronological 
order,  on  similar  lines,  with  description  in  brief  of  incidents  and  sources.  I 
set  to  do  this  in  1970,  making  out  cards  for  various  years.  While  I  was  almost 
through  with  the  work,  in  1974,  in  Brasov  (Romania),  I  came  across  the  book 
'Chronological  History  of  Romania',  in  English  language.  Giurescu,  the  direc- 

Itor,  had  started  the  chronology  from  Palaeolothic  i.e.  Early  Stone  Age 
(1000,000  years  ago)  and  had  incorporated  in  it  important  writings  and  travel- 
lers experiences  in  Romania.  Unlike  Caetanei,  the  author  had  given  some 
details  of  incidents,  but  no  sources.  I  had  enough  information  to  start  chrono 
logy  of  Sind  from  Geological  times  rather  than  the  Early  Stone  Age,  and 
could  give  not  only  the  sources  but  also  my  own  views  on  relevant  matters 
and  issues.  That  way  the  'Chronology'  on  Sind  would  become  more  useful 
than  the  works,  which  had  so  beneficently  motivated  me.  The 
work  thus  went  under  complete  revision.  In  the  next  three  years  the  draft 
of  the  present  work  which  extends  to  1539  A'.D.  was  ready.  I  had  to  use  this 
as  cut  off  year,  because  historical  and  other  records  of  post  1539  A.D.  are 
easily  available  and  it  woul  not  need  much  of  an  effort  and  search  to  prepare 
follow-up  volumes  on  similar  lines. 

Once  the  new  work  was  in  hand,  a  lot  of  interesting  and  surprising 
m  information  came  afloat.  I  had  neither  anticipated  nor  planned  for  it  and  new 

facts  helped  to  correct  misunder-standings  created  by  many  classical  writings 
and  texts.  A  few  note  worthy  examples^are  : 

. 
—       60,000  years  back  Sind  was  submerged  into  sea,  which  started  receding 
only  from  its  northern  borders  about  12000  years  back.  It  was  not  until 
9000  years  ago  that  the  sea  was  near  Hyderabad.  This  delayed  Mesolithic 
period  in  Sind  but  its  presence  has  already  been  proved. 

XXI 


Neolithic  revolution  in  Sind  lagged  behind  that  in  Egypt  and  Mesopotamia 
for  the  same  reason,  and  had  Sind  not  been  under  the  sea  Neolithic  and 
Mesolithic  periods  would  probably  have  preceded  the  other  two  civili- 
zations, as  is  proved  by  Mehrgarh  excavations  near  Sibi  dating  back  to 
6000  B.C. 

The  Indus  civilization  in  Sind  from  Amrian  times  onwards  was  the 
result  of  knowledge  of  the  behaviour  of  the  river  Indus  and  skill  at 
growing  winter  crops  on  preserved  moisture  in  the  active  flood  plains. 
Its  Maturity  in  the  Mohenjo  Daro  times  was  a  consequence  of  develop- 
ment of  elaborate  irrigation  system  and  its  Decline,  the  result  of  change 
of  the  main  course  of  the  river  Indus,  destroying  the  irrigation  system. 

The  rig-Vedic  Aryans  did  not  come  to  the  Sub-continent  until  after 
1050  B.C.,  and  to  Sind  only  after  850  B.C.  They  could  not  have  des- 
troyed Mohenjo  Daro.  Their  official  language,  which  also  came  so  late, 
could  not  be  mother  of  the  then  existing  local  languages. 

The  Bactrian  Greeks,  Scythians  and  Parthian  ruled  Sind  for  nearly 
300  years.  During  their  rule  Barbarican  (Banbhore)  became  the  leading 
port  of  the  East  including  the  Sub-continent.  Ranikot  Fort  too  was 
built  then.  Around  that  period  also  flourished  the  town  of  Brahmanka, 
which  later  on  became  Brahamanabad. 

—  Sassanids  ruled  Sind  only  for  a  brief  period  from  238  to  356  A.D.  and 
not  for  some  three  centuries  as  was  hiterto  believed. 

—  A  powerful  dynasty  of  Vahlikas  ruled  Sind  at  the  end  of  the  fourth 
and  the  early  5th  century  A.D.,  and  Gupta  never  had  any  hold  on  Sind. 

—  Rais  of  Sind  were  neither  governors  of  Sassanids  nor  were  of  Hun  origin. 
They  were  of  local  non-Rajput  clan.  The  Rajputs  categorised  them  as  low 
caste  or  Sudras,  but  in  Sind  they  won  and  held  a  respected  social  positon 
which  lead  them,  albeit  briefly,  to  status  of  rule  in  the  country.  J* 

—  A  major  change  in  the  course  of  the  river  Indus  in  the  Southern  Sind  at 
the  end  of  7th  century,  brought  about  a  major  migration  of  population 
from  that  area  to  Cutch  and  Kathiawar,  deserting  of  the  area,  and 
consequently  weakening  of  Brahman  dynasty's  hold  over  this  land  so 
much,  that  Arabs  simply  had  to  march  over  the  area  and  this  facilitated 
the  Arab  conquest. 


Local  Arab  Habaris  rule  of  Sind  from  854  to  1011  A.D.  could  be  cons- 
tructed and  fully  indicated. 


—  Same  way,  the  reconstruction  of  Soomra  and  Samma  dynasties  has  been 
accomplished  without  using  un-realiable  folk-lore  which  was  only  created 
and  composed  in  15th  century  and  afterwa/ds. 

—  The  decline  and  fall  of  Samma  power  in  Sind  was  caused  by  Sind's 
involvement  in  fueds  of  Samma  dynasty  of  Cutch  and  Rao  Khengar's 
avenging  pressures  on  Feroz  Shah.  In  the  end  even  Khengar's  compen- 
satory efforts  to  restore  Sind  to  Feroz  Shah  from  Arghoons  failed. 

XXII 


The  new  material  in  this  chronology  so  made  available  and  further 
encouraged  me  to  explain  and  elaborate  some  controversical  or  unknown 
issues  and  I  wrote  a  number  of  articles,  which  are  complimental  as  well 
supplimental  to  this  book.  The  readers  may  wish  to  refer  to  some  of  these 
namely:— 

—  Sind  Cutch  Relations. 

—  Ranikot  fort,  its  unique  location. 

—  Brahmanka,  Bralimanva,  Brahmano,  Bahmanabad  and  Mansoora. 

—  Stone  Age  in  Sind, 

—  International  trade  of  Sind,  from  its  port  of  Barbarican,  200  —  B.C.  — 
200  A.D. 

—  Languages  of  Sind,  4000  B.C.  —  1000  A.D.,  based  on  archaeological 
evidence. 

—  5000  years  of  Irrigation  in  Sind. 

—  Failure  of  a  gate  of  Sukkur  Barrage,  a  lesson  from  history  of  Sind. 

—  Pre-Neolithic    Food   Resources,  and  Hunting  Tribes  of  Sind,  6000  — 
3500  B.C. 

Since  the  book  was  in  the  press  for  nearly  seven  years,  new  writings  and 
findings  on  Sind's  past  needed  to  be  added  to  this  book,  specially  th?  excava- 
tions of  Jerring  at  Mehrgarh  and  Allchin's  location  of  Stone  Age  sites  at 
Rohri,  Shahan  Shah  Baloach  (actually  Ubhan  Shah)  and  Nawab  Punjabi 
(Actually  Unar  farm  and  Unar  house).  There  was  also  a  very  important  finding 
of  Dr.  Rafique  Mughal  that  there  was  a  continuation  of  the  same  civilization 
from  Amrian  times  to  Jhangar  culture  i.e  3500  B.C.  —  900  A.D.,  and  he 
categorizes  it  as  Early,  Mature  and  Declining  Indus  culture.  Being  un-aware  of 
the  work,  this  book  categorises  the  three  periods  as  different  cultures  by 
different  groups  of  people.  This  version  of  mine  should  be  considered  as 
superceded,  no  change  other  than  this  is  called  for  in  the  chronology.  The 
above  articles  of  mine  have  utilized  all  new  material  made  available  in  the  past 
1 0  years. 

I  have  used  Radio-carbon  dates  in  the  toxt.  A  word  about  the  Radio- 
carbon eating  therefore  is  essential.  Many  archaeologists  in  the  past  have  been 
too  critical  of  this  method.  Some  have  rejected  it  and  others  have  accepted  it 
only  provisionally.  I  have  considered  it  a  very  scientific  method  and  watched 
its  critics  ultimately  surrender.  In  practie  it  consists  of  verifying  the  Radio- 
active carbon- 14  content,  in  the  samples  of  carbon  found  from  the  archaeolo- 
gical sites.  There  is  carbon  dioxide  present  in  upper  atmosphere  which 
becomes  radio-active  by  interaction  of  cosmic  rays.  This  Radio-active  carbon 
dioxide  alongwith  the  other  carbon  djpxide  available  in  lower  atmospheric 
layer  is  absorbed  by  plants  to  form  carbon.  In  5730  years  the  Radio-active 
carbon  decays  to  half.  Thus  by  checking  the  percentage  of  Radioactive 
carbon  in  charcoal,  wood„straw,  linen,  ropes,  grain  or  other  plant  material 

XXIII 


from  the  sites,  it  is  possible  to  find  the  date  when  that  sample  was  removed  or 
harvested  from  the  field.  The  results  by  this  method  have  shown  inaccuracies 
with  older  samples.  For  example,  the  Amrian  sample  would  show  less 
life  by  500-600  years.  Research  carried  out  over  period  of  past  30  years  has 
now  given  a  satisfactory  answer  to  the  effect  that,  Radioactivity  in  the  at- 
mosphere has  not  been  uniform  over  the  centuries.  It  has  fluctuated  some 
what,  and  was  less  some  5500  years  ago  and  therefore  Amrian  samples  would 
show  some  inaccuracies.  From  the  living  samples  of  8000  year  old  trees  found 
in  U.S.A,  their  actual  life  based  on  number  of  rings  and  Radio-active  carbon 
in  each  ring,  the  corrections  for  various  dates  have  been  worked  out.  In  the 
text  I  have  gone  by  Radio-carbon  dates  wherever  available  and  invariably 
given  MASCA  correction  to  arrive  at  the  calenderial  dates.  In  general  Radio- 
carbon dates  are  shorter  by  500-600  year  when  samples  show  3000  B.C.,  and 
shorter  by  100  years  for  samples  of  1000  B.C.  Since  the  beginning  of  Chris- 
tian Era  they  need  no  correction,  meaning  thereby  that  Radio-activity  in 
upper  atmosphere  has  remained  constant  in  past  2000  years. 

The  text  includes  46  maps  and  14  charts.  About  150  historical  maps  of  ^- 

Sind  and  adjoining  area,  have  been  drawn  under  my  supervision  by  two 
draughtmen's  between  1977  and  1983.  There  are  no  copies  of  any  map 
previously  drawn,  except  in  casa  of  five  maps  of  Herodotus,  Ptolemy,  Haukal, 
Istakhri  and  Idrisi.  The  maps  were  originally  intended  to  be  published  as  A 
Historical  Atlas  of  Sind  and  Adjoining  Areas.  These  maps  supercede  all 
historical  maps  of  Sind  and  adjoining  areas  hitherto  produced  by  other 
authorities.  The  fourteen  charts  give  the  dynastic  rulers  of,  not  only  Sind  but 
important  relevant  areas,  dynasties  and  powerful  contemporary  kingdoms  of 
the  period.  This  way,  the  past  of  Sind  is  revealed  and  brought  out  from 
isolation  and  projected  in  correct  perspective. 

Besides  the  maps,  some  130  photographs  also  form  part  of  the  book. 
Many  of  these  appear  for  the  first  time  in  Pakistan  or  the  Sub-continent. 
These  photographs  are  from  author's  own  collection,  to  be  printed  separately 
as  'Sind's  Past  in  Pictures". 

A  detailed  geographical  index  given  at  the  end  would  make  the  book  an 
easy  reference  work.  More  than  750  books  form  the  bibliography.  In  the  next, 
reference  is  generally  given  by  name  of  the  author,  unless  a  book  is  known 
better  by  its  title,  like  Tuhfat-ul-Kiram.  The  readers  would  not  find  it  difficult 
to  get  full  particulars  of  books  under  such  reference  from  the  bibliography. 
To   avoid   confusion  abbrivates  have  been  avoided  except  in  a  few  cases. 

After  reviewing  full  text  a  new  chronology  of  Sind  has  been  established 
and  for  ready  reference  it  is  reproduced  below  : 

1.  Middle  Stone  Age  in  Upper  Sind.  -  500,000  years  ago  -  35000  B.C. 

2.  Late  Stone  Age  in  Upper  Sind.  -  35000  B.C.  -  9000  B.  C. 

3.  Hunting  and  fishing  tribes.  -  9000  B.C.  -  3500  B.C. 

4.  Mesolithic  period.  -  6000  -  4000  B.C.  -x 

5.  Mesolithic/Neolithic  at  Mehrgarh.  -  60Q0  -  4000  B.C. 

6.  Neolothic  Period  in  Sind.  -  4000  B.C.  -  3500  B.C. 

7.  Chacolithic  Period. 

(Indus  Culture).  -  35000  B.C.  -  900  B.C. 

XXIV 


8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 

14. 

15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 

19. 


20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 

30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 


a)  Amri.  —  Early  Indus  Culture 

(b)  Kot  Diji 

(c)  Mohenjo  Daro  Mature  Indus 
Culture. 

(d)  Ccmentry  H.  ) 

(e)  Jhukar.  )  Declining  Indus 

(f)  Jhangar  )  Culture 
Coming  of  Rig-Vedic  Aryans 

Coming  of  Aryans  to  Sind. 

Composition  of  Rig-Veda. 

Composition  of  later  hymns  of  Rig. 

Veda  and  writting  of  other  3  Vedas. 

Writting  of  Brahmanas. 

Painted  Grey  ware  at  Lakhiyaro 

Pir(Sind). 

A  new  wave  of  Indo-Europeon 

migration  at  Swat. 

Later  Brahmana  period.     • 

Sutra  Period. 

Earliest  Upanishads. 

16  Mahapadhayas  (Kingdoms)  of  the 

Northern  Sub-continent. 

Pali  as  the  official  langauge  of 

Budhists. 

Achaemenians. 

Sind  Principalities. 

Alexander  and  his  successors. 

Maury  ans. 

Introduction  of  Buddhism  in  Sind. 

Bactrian  Greeks. 

Scythians. 

Parthians. 

Kushans  (Upper  Sind). 

Parthians  (Lower  Sind  and  the  whole 

Sind  after  175  A.D.). 

S  ass  an  i  ans. 

Vahlikas. 

Sind  principalities. 

Huns  of  Malwa. 

Rais. 

Brahmans. 


36. 

Umayyad  Governors. 

37. 

Abbasid  Governors, 

38. 

Habaris. 

39. 

Soomras. 

40. 

Sammas. 

41. 

Arghoons. 

42. 

Tarkhans. 

! 


-  3500  -  2300  B.C. 

-  2800  -  2300  B.C. 

-  2300  -  1650  B.C. 

-  1750-  1350  B.C. 

-  1650  -  1350  B.C. 

-  1200.B.C.  -900  B.C. 

-  901000  B.C.  in  Swat, 

900  -  800  B.C.  in  Baluchistan, 
800  B.C. 

-  1000  B.C. 

-  1000  -  800  B.C. 

-  800  -  600  B.C. 

-  800  B.C. 

-  713 -440  B.C. 

-  700  B.C. 

-  600  -  200  B.C. 

-  600  -  500  B.C. 

-  600  -  500  B.C. 

-  550    B.C.    -    2nd    century    of 
Christian  era. 

-  5 19 -450/400  B.C. 

-  450  -  400  -  325  B.C. 

-  325  -  323  B.C. 

-  321  -  187  B.C. 

-  272  B.C. 

-  184 -70  B.C. 

-  70  B.C.  -  46  A.D. 

-  46  A.D.  -  78  A.D. 
-78-  175  A.D. 

-  78  -  283  A.D. 

-  283  -  356  A.D. 

-  356  -  415  A.D. 

-  415  -'475  A.D. 

-  475  -  499  A.D. 

-  499  -  641  A.D. 

-641     -    711    whole    of   Sind, 
715-725  A.D., 
Eastern  Sind. 

-  711 -750  A.D. 
-v  751  -854  A.D. 

-  854-  1011  A.D. 

-  1011  -  1351  A.D. 
-1351-  1524  A.D. 

-  1524-  1554  A.D. 

-  1554-  1591  A.D. 


XXV 


43.    Mughal  Governors. 


44.  Kalhoras. 

45.  Talpurs. 

46.  British 

47.  Government  of  Pakistan. 


-  1587  -  1591  A.D  Upper  Sind 
-1591   -   1700  A.D.  Whole  of 

Sind. 

1700    -    1736   A.D   &   Lower 

Sind. 

-  1700- 1783  A.D. 

-  1783- 1843  A.D. 

-  1843  -  1947  A.D. 

-  1947  -  To  date 


It  is  hoped  that  this  book  will  provide  a  handy  reference  matiral  on 
Pre-history  and  History  of  Sind  not  only  to  scholars,  research  workers  and 
teachers,  but  also  to  students  and  laymen  interested  in  the  subject. 


. 

July 

15, 

1983 

M.  H.  PANHWAR 

54-D,  Block-9 

Clifton  Karachi. 

Tele:  534105 


• 


~> 


s 


S 


XXVI 


- 


r 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Thanks  are  due  to  the  following  individuals  and  organizations,  for  their 
kind  permission  to  make  use  of  their  personal  and  official  libraries,  collec- 
tions of  photographs,  museum  objects,  and  for  their  periodic  comments  on 
this  work,  while  it  was  kindly  being  serialized  over  a  long  period  of  8  years  by 
Syed  Ghulam  Mustafa  Shah  in  his  esteemed  Journal,  Sind  Quarterly;  to 
Muhammad  Ishtiaq  Khan,  Director,  Archaeology,  Government  of  Pakistan, 
for  permission  to  reproduce  photographs  from  their  various  published  works; 
to  Mr.  M.M.  Baig,  librarian,  Department  of  Archaeology,  Pakistan,  to  lend  me 
a  large  number  of  books  for  reference;  to  Dr.  Rafique  Mughal,  whose 
scholarly  work  established  for  the  first  time  that  the  Indus  Civilization  and 
Culture  consisted  of  Early,  Mature  and  Declining  phases,  embracing  periods 
from  Amri  to  Jhangar,  enering  a  total  of  about  2500  years;  to  Mr.  Halim 
whose  excavations  at  Mansura  confirmed  historical  records  on  its 
destruction;  to  Mr.  Khursheed  Shaikh  for  discussions  on  various  archaeologi- 
cal sites;  to  Mr.  S.A.  Sidiqi  photographer  of  Department  of  archaeology,  for 
photographs  reproduced  from  various  sources. 

To  the  publishers  i.e  Vice-chancellors,  Shaikh  Mubarak  Ayaz  for  autoris- 
ing  publication,  and  Mr  Elias  Abro  for  granting  various  financial  and  adminis- 
trative sanctions;  to  Dr.  G.  Allana,  Director,  Institute  of  Sindhology,  for 
volunteering  to  publish  this  book,   and  also  his  permission  to  photo  copy 
certain  books  and  objects  from  the  Institute's  Museum;  to  Prof.  M.A.  Siddiqi 
Director  General  Pakistan  Academy  of  Letters    for   contribution   of  funds 
for  this  publication;  to  Mr  Ham  id  Akhoond  and  Zafar  Kazmi  for  loaning 
many   pieces   from   Sind  Museum    for  photographing  and  drawing;  to  Dr. 
N.A.G.  Khan  for  going  through  the  manuscript,  getting  it  retyped  and  correc- 
ted; to  draughtsmen  Zaheer  and  Aslam,  for  wroking  more  than  6  years  to 
produce  150  maps  and  charts,  of  which  60  are  reproduced  here;  to  Late  Syed 
Hassamuddin   Rashdi  for  pointing  out  some  important  new  sources;  to  Dr 
Riazul-Islam  for  allowing  me  to  make  use  of  his  important  material  on  Samma 
period  of  Sind;  to  Muhammad  Aijaz  Sidiqi  for  reading  proof  of  the  text  and 
of  the  maps  reproduced  herein;  to  Muhammad  Ibrahim  Joyo  for  reading 
through  and  setting  the  text  in  order  for  the  press  and  also  for  reading  proof 
of  its  first  48  pages;  to  Mr.Israr  of  Screeno  for  the  design  of  the  cover,  to  Mr. 
Feroz  of  Educational  Press,  Karachi,  who  was  invariably  helpful  and  co-opera- 
tive, to  Mr.  Allah  Rakhio  Butt  for  preparing  a  detailed  subject  index  for  the 
book;  and  finally  to  Mrs.  Mehtab  Rashdi  for  taking  keen  interest  in  pushing 
through  the  finalization  of  book  in  shortest  time,  «ince  her  taking  over  as  the 
director  Institute  of  Sindhology. 


M.H.  PANHWAR 


XXVII 


«..-.. 


GEOLOGICAL 

MAP 

OF   SIND 

SHOWING    FORMATION  OF    SIND 

3.5  BILLION    YEARS  AGC 

TO   THE 

PRESENT    TIME 

Jfcfl 


LEGEh 


International    Boundary 

Divisional    Boundary. 

River    Indus 

Railway   Line _ 

Lale    Eolian   sand._ 

Rann    of   cutch    or    flat  mu« 

Tidal    mud    deposits 

Piedmont  deposits 

Coarse  detrital  or  sub-piedr 
Flood    plain-  deposits  (Lower 

F I ood   p la i n-  deposits 

Late  Streambed  and  meandc 
Early  Streambed  and  meande 
Late  Deltaic  flood-plan  dc| 
Early  Deltaic  flood-plan  d< 
Late  Tidal  delta- march  depo 
Early    Tidal   delta-march    de 

Braided- stream  deposits 

Early    Eolian    sand _..., 

Pelistocene  sedimentary  rock 

Alluvium _ 

Late  Eocene  sedimentary  ro 
Early  Eocene  sedimentary  i 
Pliocene  and  Miocene  sedimi 
Miocene  sedimentary  rocks 
Late  Oligocene  and  Eocene  s 
rocks._ _ 

Early  Oligocene  and  Eocene 
rocks_. _ 

Paleosene  sedimetary  rocks... 
Cemplex  dunes,  relief  more  thi 
Eolion  sand  extinct  stream 
Loess   and    flood-plain  depos 

m iddle  terr ace 

Longjtudenal  sand  dunes  ai 

ing    playalike    deposits 

Pre-camprian  Nagar  Parkci 
metamorphic  rocks 


GEOLOGICAL    MAP   OF   SIND 

SHOWING    FORMATION   OF    S1ND 
3.5  BILLION    YEARS  AGO    TO   THE    PRESENT    TIME 


r\r\^xv 


LEGEND 


International    Boundary _ 

Divisional    Boundary 

River   Indus 

Railway  Line _ _ 

Late    Eolian   sand._ _ _ 

Rann    of  cutch    or    flat  mud _ 

Tidal   mud   deposits 

Piedmont  deposits J 

Coarse  detrital  or  sub-piedmont  deposits. 

Flood    plain  -  deposit  slower   terrace) 

Flood    plain- deposits _. 

Late  Streambed  and  meander-belt  deports 
Early  Streambed  and  meander-belt  deposits- 
Late    Deltaic    flood- plan  deposits 

Early   Deltaic   flood- plan   deposits. 

Late  Tidal  delta- march  deposits 

Early    Tidal   delta-march   deposits 

Braided- strea m  deposits _.., 

Early    Eolian    sand 

Pelistocene  sedimentary  rocks 

Alluvium _ « 

Late     Eocene  sedimentary  roks 

Early    Eocene   sedimentary    roks 

Pliocene  and  Miocene  sedimentary  rocks- 
Miocene  sedimentary    rocks 

Late  Oligocene  and   Eocene  sedimetary 
rocks._ _ 

Early  Oligocene  and  Eocene  sedimetary 
rocks.. _ _ 

Paleosene   sedimetary  rocks 

Cemplex  dunes,  relief  more    than   100    feet. 

Eolion    sand    extinct   streams 

Loess   and    flood-plain  deposits   of  the 

middle  terrace _ 

Longjtudenal   sand  dunes  and  interven- 
ing   playalike    deposits. 

Pre-camprian    Nagar   Parker  granite 
metamorphic  rocks .-_.., 


EIM 


mm 


K3*^3 


EES3 


mm 

duns 


[ITTT] 


mm 


S3H3 


* 


2500-1000   B.C. 

THE   EXTENT   OF   EARLY,  MATURE   AND 
DECLINING  INDUS  CIVILIZATION 


IL 


INDEX 

1.  BOUNDARY   OF    EARLY    INDUS    CIVILIZATION..         ... 

2.  BOUNDARY    OF   MAluRE   INDUS  CIVILIZATION.  _ 

3.  INTERNATIONAL  BOUNDARIES •— 

4.  PRESENT   PROVINCIAL    BOUNDARIES 

5.  EARLY  INDUS    SITES- • 

6.  MATURE   INDUS  SITES  ' ° 

7.  OECHNING   INDUS  SITES  -* 

8.  LAHLV    AND   MAU*E   SUES...  9 

9-   MODERN   TOWNS- O 

W.CEASE    FIRE   LINE  (1948). 


SO         WO       BO        200  Kilomet/re. 
I  I  l=J 


m«2 

GEOLOGICAL    CALENDAR 

PRE-CAMBRIAN  PERIOD 


3,500,000,000  or  3.5  billion  years  ago  or 
even  earlier: 

Pre-Cambrian  rock  formations  of  Nagar 
Parkar  Hills. 

No  life  existed  then  except  algae. 

Some  scientists  are  now  of  the  opinion 
that  these  rocks  may  be  5  billion  years 
old;  others  put  it  about  190  to  300  mil- 
lion of  years. 


■ 

I 


' 


• 


PALEOCENIC  PERIOD 


62,000,000-48,000,000  years  ago  or  62-48 
million  years  back: 

Formation  of  Ranikot  Series  opposite 
to  Sann,  Manjhand,  Budhapur,  and  etc., 
containing  fossilized  trees. 

The  type  of  animal  life  that  had  deve- 
loped since  Pre-Cambrian  rocks  and  ex- 
isted at  this  time  consisted  of  insects, 
fish  (Choncrich),  thyes  (Cartialihous) 
and  bony  fish.  Birds  were  evolving. 
Mammals  had  not  reached  full  stage  of 
development.  Man  did  not  exist  then. 
In  plant  life,  fungus,  algae,  mosses, 
ferns,  club  mosses,  pewer  grasses,  palm 
ferns,  (Gymnospermae)  were  all  existing 
as  to-day,  but  Angiospermae  had  just 
started  its  development. 


* 


EOCENE  PERIOD 


47,000,000-39,000,000  years  ago  or  47 
to  39  million  years  back: 

Formation  of  the  Laki  lime-stone  series, 
opposite  to  Laki  and  extending  upto 
Jhimpir,  etc 


v 


CHRONOLOGICAL  D'CTlONARY  OF  SlND 


Same  type  of  life  as  in  Ranikot  Series 
continued,  except  that  bone  fishes  were 
more  developed,  and  so  were  the  birds. 

The  mammals  had  also  reached  a  higher 
stage  of  development. 

Same  vegetative  types  existed  as  in  Rani- 
kot, but  Angiospermae  kept  developing. 

39,000,000-37,000,000  years  ago  or  39-37 
milljon  years  back : 

Formation  of  the  Tiyon  Series  near 
Thano  Bu!a  Khan. 

Same  types  of  animals  and  plants  exist- 
ed as  in  Laki  Series  but  evolution  pro- 
cess was  continuing. 

36,000,000-33,000,000  years  ago  or  36-33 
million  years  back: 

Formation  of  the  Khirthar  Range  of 
mountains. 

Same  type  of  life  as  in  the  Tiyon  Series 
continued  to  exist. 


27,000,000-18,500,000  years  ago  or  27- 
18,5  million  years  back: 

Formation  of  the  Nari  Series  of  Hills. 

Same  type  of  animal  and  plant  life  exist- 
ed as  in  the  Khirthar  Series. 

Angiospermae  in  a  better  stage  of  deve- 
lopment, which  continue  upto  the 
present  times. 


■ 

Earlier  geologists,  Blanford  and  others, 
had  classified  them  among  the  Khirthar 
rocks,  which  are  younger  to  these  series. 

8*-£d  w  ©5,a   ■ 

,iHim 

8©h»2       . 

The  range  commonly  known  as  Khirthar, 
bordering  Dadu  and  Larkana  Districts 
with  Kalat  District,  contains  all  the  5 
ranges,  namely:  Laki,  Khirthar,  Nari, 
Gaj  and  Manchhar.  At  the  foot  of  these 
hills  lies  the  sub-recent  formation  called 
Kachho. 


: 

MIDDLE  AND  LOWER  MIOCENE  PERIOD 

18,500,000-12,000,000  years  ago  or  18.5 
to  12  million  years  back: 

Formation  of  the  Gaj  series. 


- 


GEOLOGICAL  CALENDAR 


3 


Life  and  plants  of  same  type  as  in  the 
Nari  Series  continued  to  exist. 

2,000,000-100,000  years  ago  or  2  million 
years-one  hundred  thousand  years  back: 

Formation  of  the  Manchhar  Series. 

Life  and  plants  were  same  as  in  the  Nari 
Series. 

25,000  yeais  ago  to  the  present  times: 

Recent  formations. 


g 


oeM 
aiT 


It  applies  to  the  Indus  alluvium,  most  of 
which  lies  in  the  irrigated  command  of 
3  barrages,  as  per  reports  of  the  geolo- 
gists, but  rising  of  level  of  sea  by  137 
meters  about  20,000  years  back  has  left  a 
recent  layer  of  sand  between  the  present 
and  past  pedmonts. 


INTERNATIONAL  STONE  AGE  CALENDAR  INCLUDING  THE 

SUB-CONTINENT 


2,000,000  to  1,000,000  years  ago: 

Plio-Pleistocene. 

1,000,000-10,000  years  ago 

The  Palaeolithic. 

1,000,000-1,00,00  years  ago: 

Early  Palaeolithic  Period  or  Early  Stone 


100,000-40,000  years  ago: 

Middle  Palaeolithic  Period  or  Middle 
Stone  Age. 

40,000-10,000  B.C.: 

Late  Palaeolithic  Period  or  Late  Stone 
Age. 

10,000-5500  B.C.: 

Mesolithic  or  EPI-Palaeolithic. 

•ooS 


Some  scientists  assign  1,000,000-30,000 
years  B.C.  to  early  Stone  Age  in  the 
Sub-Continent. 

For  the  Sub-Continent  30,000-10,000 
years  B.C.  has  been  assigned  to  this  Age. 

10,000  B.C.  to  2,000  B.C.  has  also  been 
assigned  to  this  Age  in  the  Sub-Continent. 
v 

Some  times  it  is  called  Early  new  Stone 
Age,  but  this  term  is  usually  not  accepted 
by  the  scientists. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


3500-2300  B.C.: 

The  Neolithic  and  Encolithic  Period 
(New  Stone  Age)  and  the  South  Indian 
Neolithic  period. 

2300-1800: 

Transition  from  Neolithic  to  full  Chal- 
colithic  or  Copper-Bronze-Age  in  Sind. 


1800-800  B.C.: 

Full  Bronze-Age. 

1000-800  B.C.: 

Transition  to  Iron  Age  in  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent. 

600,000  B.C.  to  10,000  B.C.  : 

The  Pleistocene  Age. 
Geologically  it  is  divided  in  the  Glacial 
(cold)  and  Inter-glacial  (Mild)  Periods 
as  under: 

1.  600,000  to  540,000  B.C.  First  Ice 
Age  (Gunz). 

2.  540,000  B.C.  to  480,000  B.C.  First 
Inter-glacial  Period  (Gunz-Mindel). 

3.  480,000-430,000    B.C.    Second   Ice 
Age  (Mindel). 

4.  430,000-240,000  Second  Inter-glacial 
Period  (Mindel-Riss,  the  Great  Inter- 
glacial). 

5.  240,000-180,000,     Third     Ice  Age 
(Riss). 

6.  180,000-120,000.  Third  Inter-glacial 
Period  (Riss-Wurm). 

7.  120,000-19,000  B.C.  Fourth  Ice  Age 
(Wurm). 


The  period  3500  B.C.-1500  B.C.  is  being 
assigned  to  Pakistan  Neolithic.  This 
ofcourse  includes  the  Chalcolithic  Period. 


It  is  also  called  the  Late  Neolithic  Iron 
Age.  The  date  is  tentative.  Further 
exploration  and  excavations  in  Sind 
may  put  the  date  further  back. 


For  Sind  800  B.C.  is  more    probable 
date  as  discussed  under  that  entry. 


Zeuner,  pp.  341-346,  puts  Pleistocene 
glacials  as  825,000  to  115,000  years  old. 
Ericson's  work  places  the  beginning  of 
Pleistocene  to  about  2  million  years  back. 
Emilliani  puts  it  at  300,000  to  425,000 
years  back.  The  above  are  the  geological 
glacial  periods  of  Alps,  the  earliest  pre- 
600,000  B.C.  is  being  called  Donan.  The 
work  done  by  de-Terra  in  Kashmir  and 
Porter  in  Swat  does  not  show  the  Donan 
Period  in  the  Sub-Continent  and,  there- 
fore, has  toen  eliminated.  On  the  Indian 
side  the  work  of  Embleton  and  King  as 
well  as  of  Krishna  Swamy  supports  the 
above  four  glacial  periods  with  slight 
modifications. 

The  latest  compromise  is  to  consider 
pre-Glacial  Pleistocene  about  1  to  1.5 
times  Pleistocene  itself. 


Zoologically  the  3  groups  show  presence 
of  some  Hominid  finds,  namely: 


GEOLOGICAL   CALENDAR 


8.     19,000    B.Con-wards:  (a)    The  Upper  Pleistocene 

Fourth  Post-Glacial  period. 

showed: 

(1)  Ngandong  as   Homo  E  rectus    or 
Pithecanthropus. 

(2)  The  Homo-Sapiens  of  the  period 
were: 


Monts,  Circeo,  Gibralter.  Engis 
Spy,  La  Chapelle,  La  Berrasia, 
Lake  Eyasie  Tabun,  Krapina. 
Saccopastores  and  Ethringsdf. 

(3)  Mt.  Carmel  and  Fontechevades 
were  among  the  Homo  speciei. 

(b)    Middle  Pleistocene 

showed: 

(1)  Chu  Koutien,  Trinil,  Casablanca 
Ternifine,  Rabat,  Montmaurin 
Mauer,  Modjokerto  and  Oldovavi 
were  among  the  Homo  Erect  us. 

(2)  Neanderthal  was  among  the 
Homo-Sapiens. 

(c)    Lower  Pleistocene 

showed: 

Australopithecus    in    China    and 
South  Africa. 

In  the  Sub- Continent,  detailed  work  on 
Pleistocene  Is  lacking  though  a  lot  of  work 
has  been  done  in  Europe.  This  applies 
particularly  to  the  Upper  and  Middle 
Pleistocene  periods. 

In  Sind,  virtually  little  or  no  work  has 
been  done  on  Lower  Pleistocene. 


' 


*itv> 


toft 

PLEISTOCENE  PERIOD  IN   SIND 

(THE  STONE  AGE) 

»w 


Archaeologically  the  Pleistocene  is  also 
divided  in  the  following  three  periods: 

1 .     600,000-100,000  B.C.  Lower  Palaeo- 
lithic (Older  Old  Stone  Age). 


2. 


3. 


100,000-40,000  B.C.  Middle  Palaeo- 
lithic (Middle  Old  Stone  Age). 


40,000-10,000  B.C.  Upper  Palaeo- 
lithic (Upper  Old  Stone  Age). 

At  the  end  of  Pleistocene  period  i.e. 
10,000  B.C.,  major  human  races  namely : 

Mongoloids  (Asia),  Negroids  (Central 
Africa),  Caucasoids,  and  Australoids 
were  in  existence. 


'.be  • 


t»ii*    ■ 


*uA 


no 


During  Pleistocene  Period,  the  human 
specie  (Pithecanthropus  or  Homo  erectus) 
is  associated  with  early  hand-axe  indus- 
tries. The  earliest  evidence  comes  from 
China  which  indicates  that  they  knew 
the  use  of  fire.  The  earliest  tools  in  the 
Older  Stone  Age  were  made  from  lumps 
of  stone  or  pebbles.  This  flint  in  turn 
served  to  work  up  wood  and  bones. 
These  three  raw  materials  i.e.  stone, 
wood  and  bone  further  served  as  weapons. 
Thus  ancient  Man  or  Homo  Erectus 
Animal  lived  in  groups  on  simple  hunting 
and  gathering  wide  range  of  vegetable 
foods. 

They  lived  in  caves.  Religion  probably 
existed  for  hunting  cults.  There  was 
no  concept  of  the  Creator. 

If  pre-glacial  Pleistocene  is  accepted  to  have 
lasted  1  to  1 .5  times  the  glacial  pleistocene, 
then  the  existence  of  Horn  >  Erectus  goes 
back  1,200,000,  to  1,500,000  years. 

Pleistocene  Mammal  Palaeonology  is  in  its 
infancy  in  the  Indo-Pak  Sub-Continent. 

During  the  period,  Bosnamadicuss  (wild 
cattle)  grazed  in  this  Sub-Continent. 

Zeuner  suggests  that  Zebu  may  have 
descended  from  the  above  cattle. 

The  humpless  bull  (Bosprimigenius)  on 
seals  of  Mohenjo-Daro    appears  to  be 


PLEISTOCENE  PERIOD  IN  $IND   (THE  STONE  AGE) 


. 


I 


ancestor  of  the  variety  still  available  in 
Sind,  but  it  is  of  the  Western  Asian  origin. 
When  exactly  it  reached  Sind  is  yet  not 
known. 


3-rftuos 

I 


• 


• 


1.000,000-5500  B.C. 
STONE  AGE. 


Elephas  Namadiacus  and  Elephas  Husu- 
dricus  have  been  found  associated  with 
both  the  Early  and  Middle  Stone  Age 
tools  in  the  Indian  Sub-Continent. 

The  bones  of  these  animals  alongwith 
stone  tools  have  been  found  in  the 
Narbada,  Godavari  and  Bhima  Valleys. 
A  date  of  120,000  to  60,000  years  B.C. 
has  been  suggested  by  Khan  in  the  Annals 
of  the  Geology  Department,  Aligarh 
University,  Vol.  IV,  1968. 

Unfortunately,  there  is  lack  of  this  type 
of  work  on  Sind,  mainly  due  to  the  rise 
of  the  Sea  level  about  20,000  years  back. 


' 


The  Congress  of  the  Asian  Archaeology 
in  New  Delhi  in  1961  decided  that  in  the 
existing  state  of  knowledge,  the  Stone 
Age  may  be  divided  into  Early,  Middle 
and  Late  Stone  Ages. 

In  Baluchistan  and  Sind,  for  some  period 
of  settled  life,  animal  husbandry  and 
some  form  of  cultivation  depended  solely 
on  the  use  of  stone.  These  are  supposed 
to  constitute  primary  Neolithic  phase  or 
Mesolithic  or  EPI-Palaeolithic  Phase 
during  their  last  4500  years  (9500-5500 
B.C.). 

Bridget  &  Allchin,  p.  53. 

Lai  B.B.  (1956)  has  reported  some  early 
stone  age  tools  from  the  valley  of  the 
Beas  river.  He  has  shown  that  pro- 
portion   of    chopping    tools    decreases 


EARLY  STONE  AGE 


' 
1,000,000-100,000  years  ago: 

Early  Stone  Age  in  the  Sub-Continent. 

We  have  very  little  cultural  information 
on  this  subject  in  the  Sub-Continent, 
beyond  that  to  be  gained  from  stone 
tools  themselves,  including  hand-axe  in- 


8 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


dustries  parallel  to  those  of  Western 
Asia,  Europe  and  Africa. 


The  tools  include  hand  axe  and  cleaver 

core  tools  of  discoidal  and  elliptical 

outline,  and  also  chopping  tools  and 
flakes. 

Such  tools  have  been  and  may  really 

be  the  middle  stone  age  tools  rather  than 

the  early  stone  age  tools. 

The  earliest  stone  age  was  connected 
with  simple  hunting  and  food  gathering, 
but  no  provision  for  future  require- 
ments. The  men  lived  in  small  groups- 
always  in  danger  of  extinction,  high  rate 
of  mortality  and  low  life  expectancy. 

This  was  the  period  of  great  hand  axe 
culture  in  the  Old  World;  but  substan- 
tial material  has  not  betn  discovered  in 
the  Sub-Continent.  This  continued  till 
middle  Pleistocene. 

SEA  LEVEL  CHANGES  IN  THE  MIDDLE  AND  LATE  STONE  AGES 

IN  SIND 
100,000  years  B.C.  to  date: 

The  Sea  level  rise  in  relation  to  present 
level  in  meters  during  the  period  has 
been  as  under: — 


rapidly  as  one  moves  to  south-west  or 
south-east  from  the  Punjab  i.e.  towards 
Sind  or  Bikanir.  This  isoue  has  been 
examined  in  details  under  sea  eve! 
changes  in  next  entry. 

Early  stone  age  tools  definitely  classified 
from  Soan  are: 

Chopping  tools,  hand-axes  and  cleaver 
as  shown  by  de  Terra  and  Paterson. 

Finding  of  Early  Stone  Age  tools  from 
the  Luni  river  near  Nagar  Parker  raises 
an  interesting  question  of  types  of  tools 
used  in  Sind  and  Punjab  then,  which 
now  lie  buried  many  feet  under  the 
ground. 


Gorden,  p.  6. 

Patterson:    Wor'd  Correlation  of  Pleis- 
tocene, p.  395. 


Shepard     and    Curray,    Oceanography, 
Vol.  IV,  1967,  pp.  283-291 . 


5,000  years  back  3  meters 
10,000  years  back  37  meters 
20,000  years  back 

over  120  meters 
30,000  years  back  30  meters 
40,000  years  back  90  meters 
50,000  years  back 

over    1 30  meters 

60,000  years  back    90  meters 

52  meters 

30  meters 

1 5  meters 

0  meters 


70,000  years  back 

80,000  years  back 

90,000  years  back 

10,0000  years  back 


M»ti 


Zeuner,    The  Pleistocene  Period. 

The  statement  clearly  shows  that  the 
Indus  Plains  must  have  been  flooded 
upto  125  contour  lines  10,000  years  back 
and  if  the  Sind  plains  have  risen  by  13 
feet  since  Mohenjo-daro,  it  would  mean 
that  the  sea  touched  the  contour  of  1 60 
feet  in  the  year  10,000  B.C.  i.e.  it  was 
near  the  present  city  of  Larkana.  Tn 
11,500  B.C.  or  95,00  B.C.,  the  sea  must 
have  touched  the  present  Ruk  Stat1  on. 
Multan  area  remained  submerged  upto 
20,000   B.C.    In   a   situation   like   this, 


i 


1 


1 


PLEI8TO0BNB  PERIOD  IN  SIND    (THE  STONE  AGE)  9 

any  settlement  of  Early  or  Middle  Stone 
Age  in  the  Indus  Plains  and  Thar  must 
lie  buried  by  many  score  feet.  Any 
stone  industries  surviving  in  hilly  country 
have  to  be  450  feet  above  the  present  sea 
level.  20,000  years  back  the  whole  of 
the  Indus  alluvial  plains  upto  Multan. 
the  whole  Thar  desert  and  the  western 
part  of  Rajistan  must  have  been  under 
the  sea. 

In  the  East,   Bangladesh,   West    Bengal, 

Bihar  and  large  parts  of  Uttar   Pradesh 

must  have  been  under  the  sea.     There  is 

possibility   that    the    Eastern    and    the 

Western  Gulfs  may    even    have  joined 

together  for  some  centuries.    This  must 

have  caused  migration  of   people  from 

Sind  and  other  affected    areas  to    the 

Deccan  Plateau.    The  next    10,000  years 

may  have  helped  in  developing  racially  the 

Dravadian  people,  who  still  pre-dominate 

Deccan. 
I 

About  12,000  years  back  the  sea  started 
receding  from  the  Upper  Sind.  The 
mesolithic  man  depending  mostly  on 
fishing  from  the  Indus,  trapping  birds 
from  the  Indus  forests  and  also  hunting, 
must  have  moved  probably  from  the 
Deccan  and  often  from  the  Punjab  and 
Baluchistan. 

The  Messrs  Hunting  in  the  Report  of 
Mohenjo-daro  state  that  the  sea  level 
rose  to  present  Multan  by  about  1 1, 500 
years  B.C.  This  is  incorrect. 

While  drilling  for  water,  I  came  across 
charcoal  and  stone  pieces  from  depth  of 
bpto  100  feet  and  even  more  This 
collection  along  with  the  data  of  the  site 
was  kept  at  Tando  Jam  Workshop  and 
appears  to  have  been  lost  now      Messrs 


to 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


■ 


Hunting  Technical  Services  were  also 
able  to  find  some  pieces  of  stone  while 
drilling.  The  stone  did  not  appear  to 
have  originated  from  the  Western  Hills 
of  Sind. 

9000  years  back,  the  sea  coast  must  have 
been  north  of  Hyderabad,  and  possibly 
near  Hala.  The  Indus  fish  and  forests 
must  have  attracted  large  number  of 
Mesolithic  fishermen  and  hunters  by  this 
time.  Sind  was  capable  of  supporting 
higher  density  of  population  than  any 
other  part  of  the  Sub-Continent  under 
conditions  existing  then.  It  was  prob- 
ably during  this  time  that  crude  raft 
boats  and  fishing  hooks  were  evolved. 
Skin  floats  and  nets  for  fishing,  would 
probably  have  come  a  little  later. 


MIDDLE  STONE  AGE  OR  MIDDLE  PALAEOLITHIC 


100,000-40,000  years  B.C.  : 

Middle  Stone  Age  in  the  Sub-Continent 
falls  between  47,000-27,000  B.C. 

Radio  carbon  dating  for  Middle  Stone 
Age  deposits  for  the  Peninsular  India, 
fall  within  this  period.  Parallel  dates 
for  the  West  Asian  Stone  Age  in  Israel, 
Syria,  Lebanon  and  Iraq  are  54,000  to 
38,000  B.C.  In  Afghanistan  the  Mous- 
terian  assemblage  has  been  dated  32,000 
B.C. 

Sanghao  in  N.W.F.P.  is  the  Earliest 
Stone  Age  site  in  the  Sub-Continent.  It 
could  belong  to  the  Middle  Stone  Age 
or  be  even  earlier  as  it  has  not  been 
given  Radio  carbon  testing. 

• 
No   other  Ear.y  or  Middle  Stone  Age 
site  was  known  in  the  Indian  Sub-Conti- 
nent   until  resent  report  of   Fairservis, 


Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  pp.  42-44. 

Fairservis,  Roots  of  Ancient  India, 
New  York,  1971,  p.  76. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  pp.  53,  57  and  68. 

A  large  number  of  Middle  Stone  Age 
tools  have  been  un-earthed  by  de  Terra  & 
Patterson  at  Soan. 

The  Report  on  Sanghao  Cave  Excava- 
tions by  Dr.  Dani  has  done  less  justice  to 
this  unique  site;  in  spite  of  competent 
excavation,  as  stated  by  Bridget  and 
Allchin.  In  this  case,  bone  and  charcoal 
found  are  not  given  Radio-carbon  state 
and,  therefore,  it  has  not  be^n  dated 
properly.  Professor  Rauf  has  located  a 
number  of  stone  Age  Sites  in  Khadeji, 
Mol,  Jerrando,  Thadho  and   Wattenwari 


** 


PLEISTOCENE  PfiRlQD  IN  SIND  (THE  STONE  AGE) 


11 


which  places   only  one  site  in  Sind  near 
Jherrick  in  the  Middle  Stone  Age. 

In  the  Middle  Stone  Age,  man  adopted 
his  life  to  local  need  and  unlike  the  earli- 
est stone  age,  the  hunting  and  food 
gathering  methods  were  improved  and 
some  provision  was  made  for  the  next 
few  days.  It  differed  from  the  Late 
Stone  Age  in  which  hunting  and  food 
gathering  methods  were  more  efficient 
and  there  was  some  provision  for  future 
needs  but  not  self-sufficiency. 

It  was  not  until  the  Neolithic  &  Chalco- 
lithic  cultures  under  which  self-suffi- 
ciency in  food  producing  economy  was 
achieved  with  reserves  for  future. 

In  the  Middle  Stone  Age,  industries 
based  on  flake  tools  developed  from 
those  of  the  early  Stone  Age.  Principal 
tools  were  scrapers  of  flakes  together 
with  other  flake  tools  and  core.  These 
have  been  found  in  some  cases  like  the 
Sanghao  Cave  in  West  Pakistan.  Sind 
caves  have  never  been  examined,  though 
there  are  a  few  in  Sehwan  and  Kotri 
Talukas.  The  Luni  river  in  Rajistan 
close  to  the  Nagarparkar  Taluka  has 
shown  Middle  Stone  Age  tools  in  addi- 
tion to  Early  Stone  Age  tools. 


river  Catchments  m  Sind  Kohistan,  but 
he  has  not  published  his  data. 


. 


LATE  STONE  AGE 


40,000  to  10,000  years  ago: 

Tools  show  signs  of  continuity  with 
those  which  preceded  them.  The  chief 
character  of  these  tools  is  microlith. 

Such  tools  have  been  found  in  Sind  by 
Carter  and  others  but  not  thoroughly 
analysed. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  83. 

Late  Stone  Age  or  the  Mesolithic  industries 
.  of  the  Sub-Continent  must  be  associated 
with  people  like  modern  tribal  groups 
who  lived  by  hunting  and  food  gathering 
and    some    times    are  in    contact   with 


12 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


The  tools  are  small  parallel  side  blades 
from  carefully  prepared  core.  The 
blades  are  small  and  both  the  bulbs  of 
percussion  upon  them  and  the  scars  left 
upon  core  by  their  removal  are  very 
shallow.  Blades  were  struck  off  by  in- 
direct percussion  i.e.  by  means  of  a  bone 
or  hard  wooden  point  placed  on  the  core 
and  struck  with  hammer  as  cold  chisel, 
as  it  is  used  today. 

Rohri  flint  was  used  for  this  purpose. 
A  classified  list  of  tools  published  by 
Sankalia  ( 1966  )  throws  very  little 
light  on  Rohri  cores  and  flakes. . 


In  general  the  Late  Stone  Age  excava- 
tions by  de  Terra  and  Patterson  and 
Sankalia  show  animal  bones  like  domes- 
ticated dog  (Canis  familiarities),  Indian 
humped  Cattle  (Bos  indicus),  water  buf- 
falo (Bubalus  Babalis),  goat  (Capra  hir- 
cus  aegargrus),  domestic  sheep  (Covis 
Orientalis  Vignei  Blyth  race  domesticus) 
and  pig  (sus  Scrofa  Cristatus).  In  addi- 
tion many  wild  animal  bones  like 
Sambar,  Barasingha,  spotted  deer,  hare, 
porcupine  and  monitor  lizard  have  also 
been  found. 

15,000  to  10,000  B.C.  : 

Coarse  pottery  made  by  cave  man  found 
at  Tangi-i-Pabda  in  the  Bakhtiari  Moun- 
tains of  Iran  is  the  earliest  example  of 
pottery.  It  was  deep  black  in  colour, 
due  to  increased  use  of  smoke  in  firing. 
Similar  pottery  was  also  found  in  the 

plains. 

aJqoeq  . 

I 

oi   bn* 


the  Neolithic  or  Chalcolithic  neighbours. 
They  used  bow  and  arrow   for   hunting. 

The  exact  end  of  the  Late  Stone  Age  for 
Sind  is  not  yet  determined  due  to  lack 
of  excavations.  The  Neolithic  that  suc- 
ceeded it  started  in  the  Middle  East 
between  10,000  and  6000  B.C.  The 
exact  date  for  Sind  is  disputed    due    to 

limitation  of  excavations.  Some  authori- 
ties state  that  dog  was  domesticated  later 
in  the  next  millennium  i.e.  8000-7000  B.C. 

See  that  entry. 


•r 

Ghirshman,  pp.  28-29. 

Soon  afterwards,  to  hand  made  pottery  was 
added  a  new  red  ware  with  black  patches 
caused  by  fire.  A  new  art  thereby  deve- 
loped at  Siyalk  in  Iran.  Until  then. 
meatvcut  by  slicing  slabs  was  cooked  in 
lined  roasting  pits  like  Tandur  of  to-day. 
Cole,  p.  2. 


PLEISTOCENE  PERIOD  IN  SIND  (THE  STqNB  AGE) 


MESOLITHTC  PERIOD 


10.013-5,5000  B.C.  (Tentative): 

Neolithic  revolution  started  in  the  Mid- 
dle East,  as  shown  by  excavations  at 
Jarmo,  Jericho  and  Catal  Huyuk.  By 
about  the  end  of  6  millennium  B.C.  or 
5100  B.C.  it  spread  to  Iran. 

These  explorations  were  done  in  1950 
by  Fairservis.  Radio  Carbon  Dating 
was  done  in  1966. 

The  considerable  time  lag  of  food  pro- 
ducing revolution  between  the  Middle- 
East,  Iran,  Baluchistan  and  "Sind  is  not 
reconciliable  and  further  explorations  are 
necessary.  At  3700  B.C.  asses,  sheep, 
goats  and  oxen  were  domesticated  and 
houses  of  mud  brick  or  hard  packed 
clay  (Odikey)  were  constructed.  The 
pottery  was  plain  hand  made.  Accord- 
ing to  Ross,  there  is  no  evidence  of  the 
presence  or  domestication  of  horse,  but 
semi-ass  was  probably  domesticated. 

The  start  of  New  Stone  Age  is  recogniz- 
able by  a  type  of  tool  called  Microlith 
i.e.  a  small  stone  artifact  made  from  a 
flake  blade,  some  times  tiny  and  often 
geometric  in  shape.  Microlithic  are 
the  tools,  and  Mesolithic  is  the  way  of 
life.  Everywhere  it  is  only  the  extension 
of  the  Upper  Palaeolithic. 

Fishing  hooks,  harpoons,  nets  and  bird 
or  animal  traps  were  developed  then. 
Cooking  was  done  in  lined  (stone  or 
mud)  roasting  pits.  Ultimately  at  high 
temperature,  the  mud  turned  into  soft 
but  burnt  brick  lining.  Cooking  in 
this  fashion  may  have  remote  antiquity 
but  evidence  is  not  available. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  100. 
How  and  exactly  when  it  reached    Sind 
and  Baluchistan  is  not  known  due    to 
lack  of  archaeological  exploration  in  thi 
region. 

The  earliest  Neolithic  settlement  in  West 
Pakistan  so  far  excavated  is  not  older 
than  3700  B.C.  as  shown  by  Radio 
Carbon  dating,  is  a  period  I  of  Kile  Gul 
Mohammad  near  Quetta,  analysed  in 
1966. 

Cole,  pp.  2  &  3.  On  pp.  21,  25  and  28,  he 
states  that  sheep  was  the  earliest  known 
domesticated  animal  in  8900  B.C.  Cattle, 
pigs,  etc.,  came  slightly  later  in  the  Nor- 
thern Iraq.  Wild  sheep  Urial  (Oivigeni) 
roamed  in  the  Upper  Sind,  the  Punjab, 
and  U.P.  between  8200  and  5600  B.C. 

Wild  cattle  (Bos  Pimigenius)  was  domesti- 
cated in  Greece  and  Crete  by  6000  B.C. 
and  in  Khuzistan  by  5000  B.C.  The  exact 
date  for  Sind  is  not  known. 

Libby,  W.F.,  Radio  Carbon  Dating, 
Chicago,  1955,  p.  79,  quoting  Braidwood, 
takes  Jarmo  to  6100  B.C. 

- 

Miss  Kathleen  Kenyon,  the  excavator  of 
Jericho  has  assigned  6800  B.C.  to  it, 
basing  the  conclusions  on  Radio  Carbon 
Dating,  as  reported  in  "Digging  up 
v  Jericho",  London,  1957,  pp.  51-57. 


14 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Harvesting  of  wild  cereals  was  also  done 
in  Mesolithic  time  which  could  have 
contributed  to  a  significant  diet  then. 

Microlithic  tools  were  employed  by 
Neolithic  farmers  and  continued  to  be 
used  right  into  the  Bronze  Age. 

The  best  Microlithic  tools  were  found 
in  South  India  (Kandivili  and  Wadi 
Kanama). 

Adequate  work  has  not  been  done  in 
Sind,  though  surface  collections  from  a 
number  of  sites  in  Karachi  District  and 
in  the  vicinity  of  Hyderabad,  show -the 
existence  of  Mesolithic  hunting-  and 
food  gathering  communities  in  Sind, 
probably  to  much  later  date. 

Thus  whereas  in  some  countries  it  was 
Meso  ithic  Period,  in  others  the  Neolithic 
and  Ecnolithic  period,  had  already  start- 
ed.   The  Upper  and  Lower  limits  of  the 
period  are  only  tentative,  at  present. 


?  to  3100  B.C.  : 

The  exact  start  of  this  age  in  Sind  is  not 
known.  Important  innovation  of  the 
period  is  transition  to  farming  as  a  way 
of  life,  thereby  to  produce  economic  life 
with  planted  agriculture  and  animal 
husbandry.  Some  authorities  include  in 
it  the  Copper  and  Bronze  Age,  starting 
around  2300  B.C. ;  but  at  Mohenjo-daro 
it  is  included  in  the  Chalcolithic  Age.  In 
general,  wheat,  barley,  millet,  etc.  were 
grown  and  many  animals  like  sheep, 
goat,  pig  and  ass  were  domesticated. 

People  settled  in  villages  and  later  on  in 
cities  whic'i  some  times  were  fortified. 


Cole,  p.  4. 

Mujamdar,  Exploration  in  Sind  pp.  20-21. 

Gordon,  D.H.,  p.  16. 

Definite  work  in  this  field  in  Sind  is 
lacking  except  flint  factories  at  Rohri 
and  some  sites  in  Western  Hills  around 
the  Manchhar  lake  as  well  as  near 
Karachi.  These  suggest  that  settlements 
were  generally  of  small  groups  and  the 
camp  was  shifted  quite  often,  some  times 
to  exploit  seasonal  foods.  Man  probably 
lived  in  bush-wood  huts  and  some  times 
rubble  masonry  structures  covered  with 
bush-wood. 

The  date  of  transition  from    Mesolithic 
to  Neolithic  is  not  known  for  Sind  yet. 


TONE  AGE) 

' 

!* 

' 

• 

■ 

v 

PLEISTOCENE  PERIOD  IN  SIND  (tHB  STONE  AGE) 


15 


Tho  earliest  city  in  the  Middle  East  was 
Jericho  (8000-6000  B.C. ).  Jewellery  was 
made  from  shells  and  stone.  The  pot- 
tery was  first  produced  in  Iran,  later  on 
painted  pottery  and  finally  potters  wheel 
was  also  invented  in  Iran,  as  discussed 
by  Ghirishman.  It  reached  Sind  at 
Amri  around  3000  B.C.  according  to 
Radio  Carbon  Dating. 

Advanced  civilization  arose  along  the 
Nile  in  Egypt  and  in  Mesopotamia  along 
the  Tigris  and  the  Euphrates. 

In  Sind,  civilization  must  have  contemp- 
oraneously arisen  which  lies  in»the  deep- 
er layers  of  Mohenjo-Daro  and  other 
sites  and  cannot  be  explored  due  to 
water-logging.  In  China,  parallel  Civili- 
zation arose  along  the  Hwang  Ho 
river.  The  crop,  grown  in  Sind  then, 
was  wheat.  Maize  was  grown  in  Ame- 
rica, and  rice  in  China  and  South  India. 
The  oldest  Maize  came  from  Peubla 
(Mexico)  dating  5000  B.C.  as  per  Radio 
Carbon  Dating. 

8000-7000  B.C.  : 

Domestication  of  dogs  in  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent  including  Sind.  The  pariah  dogs 
of  India  were  derived  from  the  Indian 
wolf.  The  domestication  of  dogs  in 
Europe  in  about  7500  B.C.,  was  inde- 
pendent of  Asia.  In  America,  dog  was 
domesticated  around  8400  B.C. 


Sonia  Cole,  Neolithic  Revolution,  British 
Museum,  1970,  pp.  2  and  22. 


Sheep  was  domesticated  about  the  same 
time. 

8000-6500  B.C.  : 

Mesolithic  Period  of  Asia. 

Fishing  introduced  by  means  of  hooks, 
harpoons,  nets  and  traps.    Cooking  in 


€ole,  p.  3. 

As  stated  earlier,  this  invention  must  have 
attracted    large    number    of   Mesolithic 


16 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


stone  or  brick  lined  pots  had  already 

been  practised. 

• 

7000  B.C.  : 

Non-Ceramic  Neolithic  levels  at  Ghari 
Mar  (Afghanistan),  marked  by  flint 
tools,  sickle  blades  cores,  side  scrapers, 
paints,  backed  blades,  burins  and  polish- 
ed bone  points.  Sheep  and  goat  were 
also  domesticated. 


• 


: 


population  in  Sind.  See  also  entry 
100,000  years  B.C.  for  "The  sea  level 
changes." 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  64.  In  Sind, 
little  work  has  been  done  in  this  field,  but 
it  is  expected  that  the  sites  in  Sind  would 
be  younger  by  about  1000  years,  as  the 
Khyber  Pass  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
used  by  the  Ancients.  They  always 
seemed  to  avoid  mountains  and  take 
route  along  the  South-East  Iran,  and 
Makran  to  Sind  via  passes  in  the  Lower 
Sind  or  the  Mula  Pass. 

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5.      10,000  B.  C.  to  2500  B.  C.  Microlithic  fishing  tools. 


- 


6.      10,000  to   present  times  Primitive   drill   machine,   to  bore    holes    into  stone.      Such   drills 
modified  for  one  man  operations  are  still   in   use   for  wood   working. 


•s 


] 

1 


7.      10,000   B.  C.  to   present  times.  Ancient  quern  and   saddles  evolved   by   food   gathering   tribes 


8.     2300-  1700  B.  C.   Saddle-quern   and    muller  stone   found  from   Mohenio   Daro. 


NEOLITHIC  PERIOD  IN  SIND 


t 

r 


7000  B.C.  to  3500  B.C.  : 
Neolithic  stage  of  culture  in  the  Middle 
East  and  possibly  in  Sind.    It  was  3000- 
1 800  B.C.  in  Britain  and  upto  1000  A.D. 
in  New-Zealand. 


6800  B.  C  : 

The  earliest  pottery  known  in  any  part  of 
the  World  coming  from  Catal  Huyuk. 
Field  peas  from  the  same  site  date 
6500  B.C.  From  here  they  migrated  to 
Sind  during  the  Neolithic  times. 

6000-5000  B.C.  : 

Man  starts  the  domestication  of  cattle. 
Its  proof  comes  from  the  Middle  East 
and  Central  Asia.  Goat  was  domesti- 
cated a  little  before  6000  B.C..  but  sheep 
was  the  first. 

4500-4000  B.C.  : 

Wild  purple-pea  was  distributed  from 
the  Mediterranean  to  the  Sub-Conti- 
nent.  It  was  grown  at  Catal  Huyuk  by 
6500  B.C. ;  in  Iraq  and  in  Egypt  by  4500 
B.C. 

4800  B.C-3000  B.C.  : 

Microlithic  sites  at  Bagor  in  Rajistan. 

Sind  should  show  similar  pattern  but 

adequate  excavations  have  not   been 

done. 


Cole,  p.  65. 

The  Lower  Indus  plains  were  suited  to  the 
Neolithic  environments  more  than  Egypt 
and  Iraq  due  to  peculiar  regime  and 
behaviour  of  the  Indus,  flowing  on  the 
ridge  and  inundating  about  20-30  mile 
wide  belt  along  the  either  bank.  Also 
see  3100-3000  B.C. 

Cole,  p.  65. 

This  statement  is  not  acceptable  to 
Ghirshman,  who  thinks  that  the  earliest 
pottery  was  made  by  the  cave  man  in 
Iran  around  15,000-10,000  B.C.  See  also 
entry  15,000—10,000  B.C. 

Cole,  pp.  24  and  28. 

i 


Cole,  p.  18. 


. 


It  must  have  reached  Sind    by  at    least 
phase  IA  of  Amri  and  probably  earlier. 

Agarwal  and   Kusumgar,  pp.  56,  63. 

v 

Microlithic  Rajistan  should  serve   as  an 

example  for  explorations  in    the    Thar 


18 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


desert  of  Sind  where  the  period  should 
normally  show  advance  of  500  years 
merely  on  account  of  more  rainfall,  and 
better  opportunities  for  gazing.  The 
southern   Thar   specially   needs    special 


Similar  Radio  Carbon  dates  for  Ghari 
Mar  and  Darra  in  Afghanistan  are: 
7000-5300  B.C.  and  7800-3000  B.C. 
respectively. 

The  two  sites  show  the  beginning  of 
stone  age  of  the  Neolithic,  having  flint 
tool,  sickle  blades,  core  scrapers  and 
polished  bone  points. 


attention  in  this  respect. 


4000  B.C.  : 


The  Iranian  potters  introduced  black 
paint  on  dark  red  background  consist- 
ing of  rows  of  animals,  birds,  boar 
and  leaping  ibex.  This  was  unique  in 
the  old  world. 

By  the  end  of  this  millennium,  potter's 
art  spread  to  Seistan,  Baluchistan  and 
reached  the  Indus  valley.  To  the  north 
it  reached  Marv  and  possibly  Bactria. 

Sometime  during  this  millennium  a 
crude  potter's  wheel  was  invented  at 
Siyalk  III.  It  was  a  tournette,  a  simple 
slab  of  wood  laid  on  the  ground  and 
turned  by  an  assistant.  This  moved 
slowly  to  the  Indus  valley. 

In  early  phases  of  Kot  Diji,  majority  of 
pottery  was  hand-made,  but  slowly  the 
wheel  turned  pottery  started  replacing 
it.  At  Amri  it  reached  during  its  phase 
1 A  i.e.  just  soon  after  its  start,  where 
too  it  replaced  hand-made  pottery. 


Radio  Carbon  dating  of  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  pre-Chalcolic-Neolithic 

dates  between  4000-3000  B.C.  the  West- 
ern Sind  should  show  similar  trends 
with  a  short  lag,  but  explorations 
are  lacking. 


Ghirshman,  p.  44. 
to* 

■ 
naod 


NEOLITHIC  PERIOD  IN  SIND 


19 


The  oldest  known  pottery  turned  on 
wheel  belonging  to  3250  B.C.  is  excavat- 
ed from  Ur. 

Since  the  wheel  was  introduced  by  the 
Iranians,  this  development  may  have 
taken  place  around  3350  B.C. 

3500  B.C.  : 

The  Neolithic  culture  characterised  by 
chert  and  bone  tools  and  domestication 
of  animals  and  plants  in  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  near  Quetta  based  on 
Carbon  Dating. 

3600-3300  B.C.  : 

Possib'y,  the  first  evidence  of  the  use  of 
pottery  in  the  Sub-Continent  at  Kile 
Gul  Muhammad  near  Quetta.  The 
general  use  of  pottery  in  Iran  goes  back 
to  the  late  5th  millennium  B.C.  as  per 
findings  by  Ghirshman.  In  Sind,  en- 
ough excavations  have  not  been  done 
except  those  by  Mujamdar.  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  pottery  had  mat  marked 
shreds  and  crude  geometrical  designs, 
which  may  belong  to  3400-3300  B.C. 

. 

38 

■ 

3100  B.C.  or  earlier- «3000  B.C.  : 

People  in  Sind  understood  the  annual 
behaviour  of  the  river  Indus  in  the  area 


■ 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  65. 

..   ■    ■     '       i  i 

■ 

■ 
■ 

Fairservis,  W.A.,  "Excavations  in  Quetta 
Valley",  pp.  334-5.  American  Museum 
of   Natural  History,  New  York,  1956. 


The  Radio    Carbon  Dates  for  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  are : 
(i)  3310±60(3468±83)B.C. 
(ii)  3524±83  (3688±85)  B.C. 
(iii)  3547±500(3712±515)B.C,    as    re- 
ported by  Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  336. 

Gordon,  p.  27  estimated  it  at  3100  B.C. 

Fairservis'  estimate  was  3200  B.C. 

Piggot  (1950)  stated  that  cultural  changes 
took  place  *in  north  and  central  Balu- 
chistan probably  due  to  arrival  of  new 
people.  It  has  now  been  concluded  that 
these  people  were  from  the  South- West 
Iran,  who  finally  established  the  earliest 
settlements  at  Amri.    The  Amrians  were 

not  Dravadians. 
v 

sis 


20 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


below  Panjjnad  to  the  sea,  which  inun- 
dated vast  areas  in  summer  depositing 
rich  alluvium  on  which  without  much 
effort  crops  like  wheat,  barley,  oil  seeds, 
etc.,  could  be  planted  in  fall  and  harves- 
ted in  the  next  spring.  Barley  was  found 
in  grain  godowns  of  Egypt  in  4500  B.C., 
and  in  Europe  in  late  Neolithic. 

In  suitable  areas,  where  annual  floods 
could  be  controlled  by  dikes  and  water 
courses,  cotton  and  sessum  could  be 
grown  as  Kharif  summer  crops.  Even 
field  peas,  lentils  and  flax  may  have  been 
developed  then.  The  earliest  finding 
of  cotton  is  from  Mohenjo-Daro  but  it 
simply  means  that  it  was  already  being 
grown  and  used  in  Sind.  Rice  which 
was  grown  in  South  India  soon  reached 
Sind,  as  it  simply  involved  water  control 
by  dikes.  The  manner  of  plant  raising 
could  be  the  same  as  used  by  the  Jatts 
of  Lower  Sind  in  coastal  areas  for  grow- 
ing red  rice  without  much  effort  even  to 
to-day. 

On  the  elevated  areas,  settlements  were 
built.  This  should  be  considered  as  the 
most  important  single  discovery  leading 
to  expansion  of  population  and  deve- 
lopment of  urban  life  in  coming  cen- 
turies in  Sind,  parallel  to  those  at  the 
Nile,  Euphrates  and  Tigris  and,  Hwang 
Ho  rivers.  The  oxen  drawn  ploughs 
were  used  in  the  Middle  East  by  3000 
B.C.  and  appeared  in  Europe  only  in 
1500  B.C. 

Sorghum  came  from  the  tropical  Africa 
south  of  the  Sahara  in  low  rainfall  areas, 
and  travelled  to  Sind  via  Arabia  but  at 
much  later  date. 


Mujamdar  "Explorations  in  Sind"  exca- 
vated Amri  and  Osman  Ji  Buthi,  two 
such  sites  preceding  the  Harappan 
Culture.  This  was  further  confirmed 
by  J.M.  Casal  who  excavated  Amri  to 
lower  levels  and  published  his  findings 
in  Fouilles  d'Amri  in  2  volumes  at 
Paris  in  1964. 

According  to  D.D.  Kombi,  plough  was 
not  used  in  Sind  upto  the  end  of  the 
Harappan  times  i.e.  about  1750  B.C 
but  it  was^a  light  toothed  harrow  identi- 
fied from  ideogram  of  the  Harappan 
script. 


NEOLITHIC  PERIOD  IN  SIND 


21 


3600  B.C.  or  earlier  to  3200  B.  C.  : 

Hunting  forest  cultures  of  Sind  and 
Punjab,  coinciding  with  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  phase  I  &  II.  The  mat 
marked  pottery  of  Makran  appeared  on 
the  scene  around  3200  B.C.,  lasting  a 
100  years  and  lagging  behind  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  by  about  100-200  years. 


■ 


■ 

— 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  pp.  101-104. 

Gordon  records  3400  B.C.  for  this  period 
Radio  Carbon  dating  for  this  period  of 
Kile  Gul  Muhammad  pertains    to  3600- 
3300  B.C.,  and  here,  the  dates  have  been 
adjusted  accordingly. 

Hunting  forest  cultures  of  Sind  and 
Punjab  may  be  much  older  as  discussed 
by  Lambrick  in  History  of  Sind,  Vol.  II. 
In  all  probability  they  would  go  back  to 
8000-6500  B.C.  Also  refer  100,000  years 
B.C.  to  date,  sea  water  level  changes. 

The  river  could  supply  fish,  and  forest 
provide  hunting,  vegetative  fruits,  grains 
and  vegetable  food.  This  would  be 
most  ideal  area  even  for  early  stone  age 
people,  but  information  is  destroyed  by 
rising  of  sea  level  between  100,000  years 
B.C.  to  3000  B.C.  and  by  annual  floods 
resulting  into  silting  of  stone  age  sites 
by  a  few  hundred  feet. 

Explorations  at  the  Tharro  Hill  near 
Gujo,  Shah  Hussain  (Thatta  District), 
Kafir  Kot  and  Budhjo  Takar  (Near 
Tando  Muhammad  Khan)  suggest  that 
there  were  flint  chopping  workshops  at 
these  sites  in  the  3rd  millennium  B.C. 


CHALCOLITHIC  PERIOD  IN   SIND 


CHALCOLITHIC  PERIOD  OF  THE  SUB-CONTINENT 

3500  B.C.  to  about  1000  B.C.  (approximate): 

Use  of  copper  at  Mandigak,  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad,  pre-Harapan  Kot  Diji  and 
Amri  phase  IA. 

The  exact  date  of  the  use  of  bronze  is 
not  certain  though  it  was  found  in  lower 
level  of  Mohenjo-Daro  i.e.  about 
2300  B.C.  In  upper  levels,  it  is  more 
common.  Its  source  was  Rajputana  as 
chemical  analysis  showing  presence  of 
nickel  and  arsenic  indicates. 

3250  B.C. 

The  oldest  known  pottery  turned  out  on 
potter's  wheel  from  Ur. 

■ 


Cole,  p.  46 

The  statement  is  incorrect.  Potter's  wheel 
was  invented  in  Iran  in  later  half  of  the 
4th  millennium  B.C. 


3100-3000  C.B.  : 

The  Neolithic  (Late  Stone  Age  Agri- 
culture) and  Chalcolithic  ( Use  of  copper 
and  bronze  in  agriculture)  started  in  the 
valley  of  the  Indus  and  its  tributaries. 


Ghirshman,  Iran,  p.  44. 


3000  B.C.  : 

Wheel  in  general  use  in  Middle  East. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  pp.  1 1 2-3. 

The  date  has  been  adjusted  in    view  of 

Radio-carbon  dating. 

Shreds  of  pottery  found  at  Karachi  be- 
long to  much  earlier  settlement  than 
any  so  far  excavated  in  Sind  and  must 
belong  to  the  period  much  before 
3100  B.C.  But  detailed  explorations  have 
not  been  done. 

Cole.  p.  42. 

It  had  migrated  to  Sind.  probably  during 
the  same  century,  if  Radio  carbon  dating 
of  Amri  is  acceptable. 


"> 


CHALCOLITHIC  PERIOD  IN  SIND 


23 


3000  B.C.  or  earlier: 

Hexaploid  wheat  was  grown  in  Sind. 
It  reached  China  by  2000  B.C. 
Oxen  drawn  ploughs  were  also  used. 
These  were  introduced  in  Europe  1500 
years  later. 


3000-2900: 

Proto  Elamites  from  Susa  who  had 
spread  to  Persian,  Makran  and  Seistan 
broke  up.  This  resulted  in  eastward 
migration  of  farmers  through  Seistan 
and  Makran,  finally  to  Sind,  bringing 
with  them  potter's  wheel  and  advanced 
Neolithic  culture.  This  is  the  earliest 
migration  of  the  South  Western  Iranians 
in  Sind  so  far  proved. 


3000  B.C.  to  2900  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

The  settlement  at  Kile  Gul  Muhammad 
came  to  an  end,  but  sequence  is  taken 
by  Damb  Sadaat  only  10  miles  south, 
excavated  by  Fairservis.  There  are 
three  phases  of  occupation  giving  Radio 
Carbon  dates  for  various  samples  as: 

Phase  I:  2625,  2425  and  2220  B.C. 

In  Phases  II  and  IN  animal  humped  bull 
with  painted  decoration  was  note- 
worthy. 

De  Cardi  found  contemporary  sites  near 
Kalat.  The  fine  red  ware  with 
painted  designs  and  friezes  of  animals 
was  named  as  Togau  by  him.  The 
Damb  Sadaat  Radio  Carbon  results 
show  following  chronology : 


Cole,  pp.  11  *nd  14. 

This  is,  of  course,  a  conjecture  but 
acceptable  in  spite  of  lack  of  archaeolo- 
gical evidence. 

See  also  entry    3100  B.C.  or  earlier — 

3000  B.C. 

■ 

Cordon,  p.  37,  puts  it  2900-2800  B.C. 
Since  Amri  flourished  around  3000  B.C.. 
these  peasants  must  have  migrated  a 
little  earlier.  Pottery  of  phase  1A  at 
Amri  was  hand-made.,  but  wheel-made 
pottery  was  also  introduced  in  Phase 
1A  i.e.  during  this  century. 
At  Kot  Diji  we  find  mostly  wheel-made 
pottery  after  initial  hand-made  one. 

See  also  entry  3600-3300  B.C. 

There  is  a  dispute  that  these  immigrants 
were  not  Elamitesbut  Ancient  Scythians. 
In  any  case  they  were  not  Dravadians. 

v 


24 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTONARY  OF  SIND 


The  earliest  of  2673  B.C.  for  Phase  I; 
2570  B.C.  for  Phase  II;  and  2351  B.C. 
for  Phase  III  or  earlier.  Kulli  culture 
in  South  Baluchistan  is  a  link  between 
Iraq,  Iran  and  the  Lower  Indus.  The 
Kulli  culture  continued  well  into  the 
Harappan  times. 

3000  B.C.  (tentative): 

While  inhabitants  of  the  Indo-Pak  Sub- 
continent were  in  Mesolithic  hunting 
and  food  gathering  stage  of  develop- 
ment, the  farmers  from  the  South-East 
Iran  started  their  settlement  in  Sind  with 
knowledge  of  agriculture  and  potter's 
wheel.  This  may  have  taken  place  bet- 
ween 3100-3000  B.C.  and  may  have  been 
responsible  for  settlement  of  Amri. 

3000-2000  B.C.  or  later: 

The  establishment  of  Mari-time  rela- 
tions between  Mesopotamia  and  the 
Indian  Sub-Continent,  but  it  flourished 
and  reached  the  peak  only  between  the 
7th  and  6th  century  B.C.  In  this,  the 
Dravadians  took  the  leading  part  though 
the  Indo-Europeans  (Aryans  as  they 
are  misnamed)  of  Sind  also  had  some 
share  in  it.  On  the  western  side,  it  was 
neither  Egyptian  nor  Sumerians  who 
took  the  lead.  It  was  Phoenicians  who 
made  the  modest  beginning. 

The  Phonenician  ships  were  100  feet 
long  and  26  to  33  feet  wide  having  capa- 
city of  400  tons. 

3000-2900  B.C.  : 

Phase  1A  of  Amri,  the  contemporary  of 
early  Kile  Gul  Muhammad's  late  Phase 
III  to  early  Phase  IV  and  Mundigak's 
Phase  II;  while  at  Mohenjo-Daro,  Kot 
Diji  and  Chanhudaro    there  probably 


■ 


Gordon  thinks  agriculture  started  bet- 
ween 3000-2800  B.C.  but  radio  carbon 
dating  by  Agarwal  and  Kusumgar  has 
put  the  beginning  of  Amri  at  2900^1 15 
B.C.  or  earlier. 

boor 

R.K.  Mookerjee,  Indian  Shipping,  Bom- 
bay, 1957,  p.  62. 


Toussant,  p.  24. 


stem 


The  latest  thinking  is  that  Rigvedic 
Aryans  came  between  10502  and  700  B.C. 
and  are  termed  as  Indo-Caspians. 
These  earlier  emigrants  from  Amrian 
times  were  Ancient  Scythians,  an  earlier 
branch  of  the  Indo-Europeans. 

■ 
In  the  opinion  of  recent  writers  the 
excavation  of  lower  layers  of  Mohenjo- 
Daro  could  possibly  be  older  than  Amri. 
When  excavation  becomes  possible  the 
whole  choronology  may  change,  bringing 


CHAICQLITHIC  PERIOD  IN  S'ND 


25 


f 


was  the  Late  Stone  Age.  Harappa  and 
Kalibangan  in  the  Punjab  were  also  1n 
the  Late  Stone  Age. 

Mundigak  (Afghanistan)  and  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  near  Quetta  had  come  out 
of  the  Late  Stone  Age  just  before 
3700  and  3600  B.C.  respectively,  and  by 
this  lime,  Kile  Gul  Muhammad  had  al- 
ready passed  through  Phases  I,  II  and 
in.  Mundigak  had  passed  three  of  the 
6  stages  of  its  Phase  I.  Even  Zhob 
(Periano  Ghundai)  had  come  out  of  the 
Stone  Age  by  3500  B.C.  and  had  passed 
through  Phases  I  and  II. 

By  the  end  of  Phase  I  at  Mundigak, 
grains  of  club  wheat  (Triticum  Com- 
pact urn),  one  of  the  3  ancient  varieties 
probably  native  to  this  region,  Had  come 
up. 

The  same  site  shows  presence  of  sheep, 
goat,  cattle  and  Indian  Jujube  (Zizyphus 
Jujuba  or  boar).  The  bull  figures  at  the 
end  of  Phase  I  and  onwards  occurred  on 
pottery  at  this  site  and  it  is  possible  that 
the  bull  was  domesticated. 

The  Pre-Harrapan  Amri  is  divided  in 
two  periods,  the  first  is  further  divided 
into  4  Phases  classified  as  1A,  IB,  1C 
and  ID. 

The  second  period  is  divided  into 
Phase  II  A  and  Phase  II.  B. 

Phase  I— A  showed  no  structures,  but 
showed  mostly  hand-made  pottery, 
storage  jars  and  shreds  having  bichrome 
and  monochrome  decorations  including 
Togau  C-ware  making  it  contemporary 
of  Anjira  IV.  Wheel-made  pottery  also 
appeared  alongwith  hand-made  pottery 
which  was  dominant. 


the  Lower  layers  of  Mohenjo-Daro  close 
to  Mundigak  and  Kile  Gul  Muhammad. 
Radio  Carbon  dates  for  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  Phase  I  and  II  are  3688±85 
and  3468±82  B.C.  The  corresponding 
MASCA  dates  are  4388  B.C.  and  4168  B.C. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  21. 

Russian   agronomists'  studies  show  that 
wheat  had  first  originated  in  Afghanistan. 

i 


•    i 

Approximate  date   would  be  3100-2900 
B.C.,  as  per  Archaic  evidence. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Phase  1—5  showed  continued  mud 
brick  building  with  bricks  of  irregular 
size  and  sometimes  with  stone  founda- 
tions. Pottery  showed  improvement  with 
wider  range  of  motifs,  and  chert  blades 
and  bone  tools  continued  similarly  as 
in  Phase  1— A. 

Phase  1— C  was  the  climax  of  the  Amri 
culture  and  has  four  structural  phases. 
Houses  of  mud  brick  and  stone  were 
constructed.  Pottery  was  mostly  wheel- 
made  against  that  of  Phase  1-A  where  it 
was  mostly  hand-made.  Potter's  wheel 
was  just  introduced  in  Phase  1-A; 
pottery  has  larger  variety  of  motifs- 
geometrical,  plain  and  polychrome 
styles,  brown,  black,  ochre  (orange 
upon  pink)  in  colour. 

Phase  1— «D  is  continuation  of  Phase 
1—  «C  but  pottery  shows  humped  Indian 
bull,  quadrupeds  like  cheetah,  dog  and 
caprid. 


Phase  1-D  is  contemporary  of  Mandi- 
gak  III  and  Kot  Diji  due  to  a  few  Harap- 
pan  shreds. 

Amri  Period  II  is  divided  in  two 
phase.:  Phase  IIA  and  phase  IIB. 
The  two  phases  show  the  Harappan 
shreds  along  with  Amrian.  The  period 
is,  therefore,  transitional  between  purely 
Amrian  culture  Phase  I  and  Harappan 
Phase  III.  Cross  dating  of  pottery  of 
Period  II  are  with  Mundigak  IV  1 ;  Damb 


Its  approximate  date  would  be  2900  B.C. 
—2800  B.C. 


Its  approximate  date  would  be  2800- 
2700  B.C.  or  later. 

Its  approximate  date  would  be  27(0 
B.C.-2500  B.C.  Radio  Carbon  date 
2670±113  to  2900±133  B.C.  has  been 
assigned  to  it  and  as  per  MASCA  correc- 
tion the  date  is  3600—3320  B.C. 

According  to  Bridget  and  Allchin,  Phase 
1A  and  IB  has  links  with  Kile  Gul 
Muhammad  phase  III  and  IV  and  Mandi- 
gak  HI. 

Its  approximate  date  would  be  2700- 
2500  B.C. 


The  approximate  dates  of  Phase  IIA  are 
2500-2300  B.C.  and  that  for  Phase  II 
2300  B.C.  to  2200  B.C. 

However^  continuation  of  pre-Harappan 
shreds  in  the  beginning  of  centuries 
shows  merging  of  two  cultures  and 
people  after  the  first  destruction  of  Amri. 


CHALCOLITHIC  PERIOD  IN  SIND 


27 


' 


1 


Sadaat  II,  as  well  as  with  Kot  Diji.  The 
Radio  Carbon  dates  of  Damb  Sadaat 
Phase  II  are  2655±202  to  2200±76. 
The  last  date  of  Damb  Sadaat  is  also 
beginning  of  its  Phase  III.  Amri  was 
burnt  at  the  end  of  the  period  i.e. 
around  2200  B.C.  and  entered  in  Phase 
III  a,  b  andc,  lasting  upto  about  1750 
B.C.  This  was  its  Harappan  period. 
Contemporaries  of  Amri  Phase  I  are 
Tharro  (Tharri  Gujo),  Kotras  Buthi 
(South  of  Amri),  Wahi  Pandhi  and 
Ghazi  Shah.  Animal  remains  atAmri's 
Phase  I  are  same  as  in  Baluchistan  with 
the  addition  of  ass  which  may  have  been 
domesticated  in  Sind  between  3600 
B.C.  and  3000  B.C. 

3000-2750  B.C.: 

Bull  pottery  of  Loralai  II,  bichrome 
ware  of  Kechi  Beg,  Amri  and  Loralai  III 
spread  over  these  large  areas  in  a  period 
of  about  250  years.  At  Amri  and  Lora- 
lai 1  (I  it  spread  later  than  at  Kechi  Beg 
possibly  between  2850  B.C.  to  2750  B.C. 


. 


Gordon,  pp.  42-44  puts  it  2900-2750  B.C. ; 
but  dates  have  been  adjusted  in  view  of 
Radio  Carbon  dating  available  for  Amri. 


. 


• 

• 

' 


- 
EARLY    INDUS   CULTURE 


EARLY  CHALCOLTTHIC  CULTURE 

3000-2700  B.C.  : 

Settled  village  and  appearance  of  poly- 
chrome and  bichrome  pottery  in 
Afghanistan,  Baluchistan  and  -Sind— 
similar  to  those  at  Amri. 

This  period  is  classified  by  Dales  as 
Phase  D. 

3000-2700  B.C.  (2900±113  to  2670± 
113  B.C.): 

Amri  Culture  flourished  as  shown  by 
Radio  Carbon  dating. 

3000-2000  B.C.  : 

A  rise  of  10  feet  in  the  sea  level.  The 
sea  coast  then  must  have  been  close  to 
the  present  Tando  Muhammad  Khan 
or  even  Hyderabad  The  rise  in  water 
must  have  submerged  the  whole  Nagar 
Parkar  and  some  coastal  belts  of  Thar. 
Water  must  have  headed  up  around  Laki 
Hills,  where  there  would  be  delta-head 
then.  This  may  have  caused  frequent 
floods  in  Mohenjo-Daro  in  its  earliest 
unexcavated  phases. 

3000-1700  B.C.  : 

Stone  nodules  of  fine  flint  worked  at 
Rohri  were  exported  to  Kot  Diji,  Amri, 
Harappa,  Mohenjo-Daro,  Lothal,  Rang- 
pur  and  Kalibangan  for  manufacture 
of  tools.  The  transportation  may  have 
been  by  the  river  Indus,  the  Gulf  of  the 


. 


Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  86, 
basing   on  Radio  Carbon  dating.     The 
MASCA  corrections  for  only  two  avail- 
able samples  of  Amri  from   Mound   A 
take  it  3600  B.C.— 3320  B.C.     for     its 


early  levels. 


Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  88. 

The  corresponding  MASCA  years  would 

be3600B.C.to3320B.C. 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  Pre-Historic 
Chronology  and  Radio  Carbon  Dating, 
pp.  47-48. 


The  Rann  of  Cutch    was  a  sea    creek. 

The  little  Rann  to  the  south  and  east  of 
Cutch,  made  it  an  island.  The  lost  river 
of  the  Indian  desert,  Sarswati,  then  flowed 
through   the   bed   of   Ghaghar,     Raini, 

Hakra  and  the   present    Eastern     Nara 


EARLY  INDUS  CULTURE 


29 


" 


Rann  of  Cutch,  and  along  the  Kathia- 
war  sea  coast. 

It  was  definitely  the  site  for  flint  even 
in  Late  Stone  Age  and  probably  sup- 
plied flint  to  Baluchistan  sites  establish- 
ed after  3500  B.C. 

The  process  of  making  blades  for  various 
purposes  consisted  in  heating  suitable 
stone  and  shattering  it  with  mild  and 
careful  blows  from  above.    There  may 
have  been  other  sites  between  Laki  and 
Thano  Bulla  Khan.    On  the  top  of  the 
Khirthar  ridge  there    is  300  feet  thick 
basalt   layer   most   suitable  for    axes. 
Adequate  explorations  in  Kohistan  valley 
may  give  clue  to  the  use  of  it,  if  any. 
Rohri  does  show  presence  of  regular  axe 
factories,  but  they  were  flaked  and  not 
ground  at  the  site.     For  grinding,  suit- 
able stone  is  available  in  Kohistan,  but 
there  is  lack  of  evidence  of  the  process. 

2900-2800  B.  C.  : 

Phase  IB  of  Amri  contemporary  to 
Phase  III  of  Kalat,  early  Phase  IV  of 
Kile  Gul  Muhammad  and  end  of  Phase 
II  of  Mundigak.  Rest  of  Sind  and 
Punjab  were  then  still  in  the  Stone  Age. 

The  Phase  III  of  Kile  Gul  Muhammd 
which  had  ended  between  3000-2900 
B.C.,  deteriorated  to  Phase  IV  but  a 
new  settlement  at  Damb  Sadaat  10  miles 
south  of  Quetta  took  up  the  sequence. 
Radio  Carbon  date  for  Damb  Sadaat 
Phase  I  is  2510±70  B.C.  Its  start  co- 
incides with  the  end  of  Phase  1 B  of  Amri, 
and  MASCA  correction  would  put  it 
to  3060  B.C. 

Dr.  Khan  puts  the  beginning  of  the 
Amri  Culture  i.e.  Phase  IA  contem- 


Canal  bed,  to  the  Koree  Creek  via  the 
Eastern  Puran. 

Communications  with  Kathiawar  and 
Cutch  were  easy  and  safe  via  the  two 
rivers,  the  Indus  and  the  Hakra  through 
the  Rann  of  Cutch. 


m 

The  situation  can  reverse  only  if  lower 
strata  of  Mohenjo-Daro  after  excavation, 
prove     otherwise. 


F.  A.  Khan,  "Indus  Valley  and  Early  Iran," 
pp.  62-63. 


30 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


porary  to  early  Dynasty  II  of  Meso- 
potamia; but  his  opinion  is  not  accept- 
able in  view  of  Radio  Carbon  Dating 
even  without  MASCA  correction  which 
takes  it  back  to  3600  B.C. 


2800-2700  B.C.  : 

Phase  I-C  of  Amri,  contemporary  of  the 
end  of  Phase  III  and  early  start  of  Kalat 
(Anjira)  Phase  I  of  the  Damb  Sadaat 
near  Quetta  and  Phase  III  of  Mundigak 
(Afghanistan).  Nothing  can  be  said 
about  Mohenjo-Daro  as  lower  levels 
have  not  been  excavated. 

• 

Radio  Carbon  dating  for  the  1st  Phase 
of  Damb  Sadaat  shows  dates  of  2625 
B.C.  and  2528  B.C.  It,  therefore,  must 
have  started  around  2700  B.C. 

2350-2000  B.C.  : 

Kulli-Mehi  culture  equated  contempo- 
rary of  some  stages  of  pre-Harappan  cul- 
ture at  Kot  Diji  and  Amri  and  also  of 
early  and  Intermediate  Mohenjo-Daro. 

2700  B.C.  : 

Amri  was  already  maturing.  Nal, 
though  began  earlier  than  Kulli,  but 
was  still  in  infancy.  Zhob  was  in  Phase 
RG  III. 

2700-2600  B.C.  : 

Early  occupation  of  Kot  Diji  a  pre- 
Harappan  culture.  Radio  Carbon  dat- 
ing for  Kot  Diji  takes  its  beginning  to 
2605±145  B.C.  and  earlier. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  1 17-123,  De  Cardi 
on  Anjira. 


MASAC  correction    takes  Damb  Sadaat 
to  3060  B.C. 


F.  A.  Khan,  "Indus  Valley  and  Early  Iran," 
p.  71 ,  states  that  it  was  contemporary  of 
the  Harappan  culture.  This  is  unaccept- 
able. Its  beginnings  have  been  traced  as 
contemporary  of  Damb  Sadaat  III 
and  Mundigak  IV.  Former  is  dated  as 
2201  ±165  B.C. 

F.  A.  Khan,  "Indus  Valley  and  Early  Iran  " 
pp.  62-63. 


Radio  Carbon  dates  for  Kot  Diji    based 

on  life  of  5370  years  are: 

2605±145  B.C. 

2335±155VB.C. 

2255  ±140  B.C. 

2090±140B.C. 

Of  these,  the  last  one  is  Harappan. 


EARLY  INDUS  CULTURE 


31 


' 


i 


2700-2500  B.C.  : 

Phase  I-D  at  Amri,  contemporary  of 
Nal  Nundara,  late  Phase  III  and  early 
Phase  IV  at  Kalat,  end  of  Damb 
Sadaat  Phase  I  at  Quetta  and  end  of 
Phase  HI-4  at  Mandigak.  Kot  Diji  en- 
ters pre-Harappan  age.  Radio  Carbon 
dating  for  it  is  2600±145  B.C.  Radio 
Carbon  dateing  for  Damb  Sadaat 
Phase  I  is  2510±73. 

2700-2400  B.C.  or  2605—1*45  B.C.  to 
2255—140  B.C.  : 

Kot  Diji  existed  as  pre-Harappan  settle- 
ment. The  four  Radio  Carbon  dates 
available  for  Kot-Diji  are:— 

Citadel  lower  level,  2605  ±145  B.C. 
Lower  city  level,  2335±156  B.C.  An- 
other lower  city  level  2255±140  B.C. 

An  upper  level  date  for  late  Pre-Harap- 
pan Period  is  2090  +  140. 

The  last  date  belongs  to  the  decayed 
period  of  Kot-Diji  and  is  less  important 
for  true  Harappan  Kot  Diji. 

2600-2500  B.C.  : 

The  early  Nal,  Nundara  and  Amri  con- 
tacts. The  first  peasant  farmers,  who 
settled  in  the  Indus  Valley  carried  bich- 
rome  pottery  with  them  to  the  plains. 
This  pottery  is  called  Amri-ware  and  is 
wholly  different  from  the  Harappan. 
Amri  as  well  as  Nundara  show  bands  of 
sigmas,  lozengos,  chovrons  and  cheque- 
red board  panels. 


The    MASACA    equivalents   are 
2885,  2590  and  2805  B.C. 


3155, 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  110. 


Dales  in  "Chronologies  in  old  World"  has 
assigned  2538—361  B.C.  to  Damb  Sadaat, 
Phase  I. 

- 
• 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  86,  give 
Radio  Carbon  dating  for  Kot  Diji.    This 
would  mean  2750  to  2330    B.C.  at    the 
extreme  ends. 


Radio  Carbon  dates  could  also  be  in- 
accurate within  a  limit  of  200  years.  Tho 
samples  belong  neither  to  the  beginning 
nor  to  the  end  of  the  city.  This  is  another 
error  of  this  method. 

MASCA  correction  puts  the  above  four 
dates  for  Kot  Diji  as  3155,  2885,  2805 
and  2590  B.C. 

Gordon,  pp.  44  &  49  puts  it  at  2700-2600 
B.C. 

This  has  been  readjusted  in  view  of  the 
Radio  Carbon  dating  for  Amri.  Nal 
Nundara  coincided  with  Amri  Phase  1-D 
which  approximates  to  2700-2500  B.C. 

Amri  belongs  to  the  much  earlier  period 
tbsD  Nal  and  Nundara. 


32 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


2605—145  B.C.  : 

The  Pre-Harappan  Early  Period  of  Kot 
Diji  Sind  as  per  Radio  Carbon  dating  of 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania. 

2600-2300  B.C.  : 

Khurab  Cementry  contemporary  of  Ear- 
ly Dynastic  HI  and  some  stage  of  Pre- 
Harappa  (i.e.  Amri  or  Kot  Diji). 

2600-2200  B.  C.  : 

The  three  phases  of  Damb  Sadaat  show 
flake  blades,  described  as  being  of  tan 
chert,  saddle  querns,  stone  chisels 
made  from  cherty  flint  imported  from 
Rohri  Sind. 


Dr.  Khan,  F.A.,  "Kot  Diji  Excavations." 

Khan,  F.  A.  "Indus  Valley  and  Ear  y  Iran," 
p.  68,  thinks  that  it  was  contemporary 
with  Harappa.  This  may  not  be  correct 
as  Harappa  began  around  2350  B.C. 

Gordon,  pp.  45  and  49,  puts  the  date  as 
2600-2100.  This  has  been  corrected  in 
view  of  Radio  Carbon  dates  of  Damb 
Sadaat  being  2655±202  to  2200±76. 
Dales  puts  its  earliest  period  to   2538 — 


361  B.C. 


2500  B.C.  : 

Use  of  bichrome  ware  of  Kachi  Beg — 
Amri  style  persisted  in  Sohab. 


2500  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

Microlithic  site  near  Lyari  river,  7  miles 

W.N.E.  of  Karachi,  centre  of  the  city, 

shows  the  use  of  cherty  flint  from  Rohri. 

They  make  some  link  with  the  Harappan 

Culture. 

A  number  of  microlithic  sites  have  been 
discovered  by  Professor  Rauf,  along  the 
rain-fed  streams  of  Sind  Kohistan.  but 
data  have  not  been  published. 

2500  (tentative)  : 

Ground  and  polished  stone  axe  found 
from  Orangi,  near  Karachi,  is  the  only 
true  type  of  axe  found  in  Sind.  Four 
axe  like  objects  unearthed  at  Mohenjo- 
Daro  are  not  true  axes  but  either  plough 
shares  or  wedges. 


Gordon,  p.  51,  puts  this  date  100 
years  after  founding  of  Mohenjo-Daro 
in  2600  B.C.  i.e.  a  century  after  2600  B.C., 
and  has  been  corrected. 

Todd,  K.R.U.,  Microlithic  Industries  of 
Bombay,  Ancient  India,  No.  6  and 
Palaeolithic  Industries  of  Bombay,  J.R. 
Anthropological  Institute,  Vol.  XIX.  The 
date  is  doubtful  as  enough  explorations 
have  not  been  done.  It  may  be  Pre- 
Harappan  and  may  even  belong  to  much 
earlier  a  date. 

Some  authors  have  assigned  the  date  of 
2500—2000  B.C.  to  it. 


Gordon,  p.  31,  puts  the  date  as  2500-2000 
B.C. 

The  information  on  this  site  is  only 
exploratory  and  the  site  may  belong  to 
the  later  or  even  earlier  periods. 


4 


* 


4r 


9.     3000-2500  B.C.  Painted  pots  from  Amri. 


< 


12.     2800  B.  C.  Kot  Dili  Ware 


<» 


ffi®W 


II.     2700-  2400  B.  C.  Nal  and  Damb  Sadat 
ware  and  tools  from  Baluchistan. 


13.     Shahi  Tamp  and  Quetta  Ware 


• 


14.     2300-  1700  B.  C.  General  view  of  excavations  of  Mohenjo  Daro. 


'  16.     Zhob  ware. 


15.     Typical  Indus  culture   objects. 


< 


v 


J 


c 

1 


<. 


EARLY  INDUS  CULTURE 


2500-2400  B.C.  : 

Phase  II  A  of  Amri,  contemporary  of 
Rana  Ghundai  Phase  III  A,  beginning  of 
Damb  Sadaat  Phase  II  and  Phase  in.  5 
at  Mandigak. 

Kot-Diji  which  had  already  entered  into 
pre-Harappan  age  continued  to  thrive. 

Phase  II  of  Amri  follows  without  the 
cultural  break  whether  it  is  Phase  A  II 
or  Phase  II B  (2400-2300  B.C.)  but  shows 
shreds  of  the  Harappan  type  along  with 
the  Amrian. 

Tharri  Gujo,  Kohtras  Buthi,  Wahi  Pan- 
dhi  and  Gazi  Shah  were  contemporary  of 
Amri  belonging  to  its  pre-Harappan 
period  of  Phase  II  A  or  II  B. 

At  Kot-Diji  painted  pottery  bichrome 
with  cream  slip  and  red  had  parallels  with 
Mudigak  III.  5  and  VI  and  also  has 
similarities  with  Damb  Sadaat  Phases  II 
and  III. 

2400  B.C.  : 

Beginning  of  Shahi  Tump. 

Harappa  already  developing,  contem- 
porary of  mature  phase  of  Kulli.last  days 
of  Nal,  Sohab  still  in  phase  RG  III, 
Anaujinthe  beginning  of  Phase  III,  GAP 
Phase  of  Sialk,  Hissar  in  the  beginning 
of  Phase  3A  and  Akhad  of  Mesopota- 
mia. Shahi  Tump  ended  by  about 
2000  B.C.  as  shown  by  ce.netry. 

2400  B.C.  : 

Age  of  a  fine  wheel-made  globular  vessel 
bearing  shallow  grooves  round  the  belly 
and  painted  black  on  face  with  incurred 
horns  exactly  as  the  vessel  from  Kot  Diji. 


33 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  pp.  110,  117. 

Radio  Carbon  date  of  Damb  Sadaat  for 
this  phase  is  2200±76.  The  phase  I  of 
Damb  Sadaat  goes  back  to  2510±70 
being  contemporary  of  Amri  phase  I  C. 

The  MASCA  readings  for  Damb  Sadaat 
for  the  Phases  I  &  II  are  3060  and 
2900  B.C. 


- 


F.  A.  Khan,   "Indus  Valley  And  Early 
Iran,"  pp.  62-63. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  pp.  145-146,  put  its 
end  at  1800  B.C. 

• 
Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  104,  put 
cemetry  at  Shahi  Tump  at  2000-1900 
B.C.  It  has  yet  to  be  ascertained  whether 
this  site  survived  for  500-600  years.  It 
was  built  on  abandoned  Kulli   site. 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  69. 


* 


34 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


2400-2300  B.  C.  : 

Phase  II  B  at  Amri  contemporary  of 
Phase  (b)  of  Rana  Ghundai.  Damb 
Sadaat  Phase  II  continues  and  end  of 
Mundigak  Phase  III  6.  Kot  Diji  in  pre- 
Harappan  Phase. 

Radio  Carbon  date  of  2335±155  B.C. 
for  this  period  of  Kot-Diji  is  available. 
Some  shreds  of  the  Harappan  alongwith 
the  Amrian  are  found  and  may  be  called 
transitional  between  pure  Amrian  and 
Harappan  which  starts  with  Amri  Phase 

in. 


2371-2316  : 

Rule  of  Sargon  Agade  in  Mesopotamia 
and  its  contacts  with  Meluhha  i.e.  the 
Indus  Civilization  as  believed  so  far, 
could  have  been  with  Amri  and  Kot- 
Diji  rather  than  Mohenjo-Daro  and 
Harappa,  unless  they  were  with  lower 
unexplored  phases  of  Mohenjo-Daro 
which  may  to  Kot-Dijian  or  Amrian. 




Bridget  and  Allchin,  pp.  110,  114. 

In  Kalibangan  (East  Punjab)  pre-Harap- 
pan  (Kot-Dijian)  settlement  established 
for  which  the  earliest  Radio  Carbon  date 
goes  back  to  2370±  1 1 5  B.C.  Its  MASCA 
corrected  year  is  2920  B.C. 

Damb  Sadaat  Phase  II.  Radio  Dates 
assigned  to  it  are  2559±202  and  2200±76 
B.C.  or  with  MASCA  correction  3109  to 
2700  B.C. 

The  MASCA  date  for  this  phase  of  Kot- 
Diji  is  2885  B.C. 

■ 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  322. 



ft 


i 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


2350-2300  B.  C.  : 

Founding  of  Harappa ;  showing  Periano 
affinities  in  the  beginning  and  contacts 
between  the  two.  Soon  after  their 
arrival  at  Harappa  they  built  a  citadel. 

The  founding  is  associated  with  major 
migration  of  new  people  in  Punjab  via 
northern  Baluchistan. 


2350-2250  B.  C.  : 

Structural  remains  lower  than  38  below 
datum—or  Mackay's  early  Phase  III  of 
Mohenjo-Daro. 

2350  B.C.  onwards  to  1000  B.C.  : 

In   Sind  and   Baluchistan,  subsequent 

to  Neolithic  Phase,  copper  and  bronze 

were  used.    This  is  called  Chalcolithic 

period  to  separate  Stone  Age  Neolithic 

from  Metallic  Neolithic. 

• 
2335±155  B.C.  : 

Pre-Harappan  late  period  of  Kot  Diji 
as  par  Radio  Carbon  dating  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania.  The  site  was 
soon  burnt  and  Harappan  culture  super- 
imposed after  an    overlap  of  about  100 


«8€S 


Gordon,  p.  51,  puts  the  date  as  2450-2300 
B.C.  Radio  Carbon  datings  for  Harappa 
are  about  2300  and  archaeologists  now 
do  not  put  it  beyond  2350  B.C.  However, 
pre-Harappan  founding  of  Harappa 
may  be  pushed  back  to  about  2400  B.C. 
Radio  Carbon  dates  of  Mohenjo-Daro 
(Upper  Layers)  cover  period  of  2083±66 
to  1760±115.  MASCA  correction  puts 
it  between  2583-2060  B.C. 

Under  present  circumstances  the  Radio 
Carbon  dating  of  already  excavated  area 
cannot  be  done  and  these  dates  therefore 
represent  only  a  few  samples  of  top 
layers  and  not  the  already  excavated  area. 

■ 
Gordon,  p.  63,  puts  it  as  2600-2500  B.C. 
and  has  been  corrected. 


The    MASCA    correction    date    for    it 
would  be  2885  B.C. 


years. 


■ 


36 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


2370±115  to  1825±110  B.C.  : 

Kalibangan  flourished  as  pre-Harappan, 
Kot  Diji-Sethi  cultural  site. 

2350  B.C.  : 

Beginning  of  the  Harappan  Culture  in 
peripheral  areas  i.e.  Moheno-Daro  and 
Harappa. 

2232±100  to  1820±115  B.C.  : 

In  Kalibangan  Rajistan,  Harappan  Cul- 
ture flourished  as  shown  by  Radio 
Carbon  dating.  Its  lower  strata  were 
Kot-Digian. 

• 

2350-2000  B.C.  : 

The  Harappan  Culture  flourished  in 

nuclear  regions  (Harappa  and  Mohenjo- 

Daro). 

2300  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

Red  ware  decorated  in  black  with  de- 
signs of  animals,  humans,  ibex  heads  and 
hook  patterns  appears  in  Kalat,  Kakh- 
shan,  early  Nal  and  Sind  followed  by 
Harappan  shreds.  Similar  ware  (Togau 
as  is  called)  is  also  found  at  Damb  Buthi, 
Gazi  Shah,  Pandhi  Wahi,  and  is  contem- 
porary of  the  middle  Amri  and  the  earli- 
est Nal.  The  date  may  be  regarded  as 
founding  of  lower  layers  of  Mohenjo- 
Daro's  excavated  areas. 


MASCA    correction 
2920-2125  B.C 


would    put   it    as 


C 


Agarwal  and  Kusuragar,  p.  100, 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  88. 

MASCA  correction  puts  its    period   at 
2782  B.C.— 1865  B.C. 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  100. 


Mujamdar,  Explorations  in  Sind,  pp.  15, 
32  and  37,  and  Plates  XXV,  XXVII  and 
XXVIII.  Also  Gordon,  Pottery  in- 
dustries of  Indo-Iranian  Border  in 
"Ancient  India,"  Nos.  10  and  11,  pp.  163- 
167. 

Gordon  states  it  as  2600  B.C.  which  is 
not  acceptable  in  view  of  the  Radio 
Carbon  dating  of  Mohenjo-Daro.  MAS- 
CA correction  can  put  it  back  to  2583 
B.C.  on  the  basis  of  present  samples,  but 
these  are  samples  from  upper  layers. 
The  founding  of  Harappa  about  the  same 
time  or  slightly  earlier  than  Mohenjo- 
Daro,  shows  migration  of  Indo-Iranian, 
partly  via*  Zhob,  along  the  Zhob  river, 
to  the  Punjab,  but  the  major  portion  of  the 
same  people  migrated  to  Sind,  via  Makran, 
by  avoiding  mountains. 


** 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


2300  B.C.  and  onwards  : 

Use  of  gold  for  ornaments,  etc.,  proved 
by  the  Harappan  sites.  Use  of  gold  in 
pre-Harappan  period  of  Sind  (3000  B.C. 
— -2300  B.C.)  is  not  certain  due  to  lack  of 
adequate  excavations. 

Same  is  the  case  with  silver  which  was 
more  abundant  than  gold.  It  was  used 
for  manufacture  of  ornaments  as  well  as 
vessels. 

2300  B.C.  : 

Zebu  cattle  domesticated  at  Mohenjo- 
Daro. 

* 

2300-2200  B.C.  : 

The  oldest  known  cotton  fibre  from 
Mohenjo-Daro,  was  not  a  primitive 
un-cultivated  type:  but  was  a  developed 
type. 


;  ■ 

2300-2200  B.C.  : 

Kot  Diji  Phase  II  B  pre-Harappan  cul- 
ture flourishing.  A  Radio  Carbon  date 
of  2255±140  B.C.  is  available  for  this 
Phase.  Kalibangan  (East  Punjab)  also 
had  pre-Harappan  Culture  from  at  least 
2370±115or2232±100B.C.  as  shown 
by  the  Radio  Carbon  dating.  In  this  cen- 
tury it  had  reached  its  maturity  at  this 
site.  In  spite  of  close  affinities,  the  two 
sites  are  not  identical 


■ 

■ 

Cole,  p.  31  puts  it  at  2500  B.C. 

This  is  the  earliest  evidence.  Excavation 
of  pre-Harappan  sites  may  push  this 
date  further  up.  The  possibility  is  that 
it  may  go  to  early  Amrian  times. 

Cole,  p.  48  has  put  the  year  as  2500  B.C., 
about  100  years  after  the  establishment 
of  Mohenjo-Daro  according  to  him.  The 
date  has  been  corrected  in  view  of  the 
Radio  Carbon  dating  of  Indus  culture 
sites.  It  is  possible  that  cotton  was 
grown  by  Amrians,  as  man  had  under- 
stood the  behaviour  of  the  river  Indus, 
latest  by  about  3100  B.C.  and  under- 
stood growing  of  kharif  (summer  crops) 
by  putting  levies  or  embankments  and 
allowing  controlled  quantities  of  water  in. 

Kalibangan  pre-Harappan  (Kot-Dijian± 
Sothi  Culture)  continued  from  2370± 
115  B.C.  to  1825±110  B.C.  i.e.  MASCA 
2920-2125  B.C.  Its  Harappan  culture 
lasted  from  2232±100  B.C.  to  1610±110 
B.C.  the  equivalents  are:  2782-1658  B.C. 

Thus,  there  is  overlap  of  many  centuries 
of  pre  and  post-Harappan  between  the  two 
Cultures. 


38 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF   SlND 


The  Amri  pottery  reflects  ties  with  Balu- 
chistan pottery  with  pre-dominance  of 
geometric  patterns.  But  that  of  Kot 
Diji  and  Mohenjo-Daro  differs  from  it 
and  virtually  stands  apart.  They  have 
used  plain  bands  of  colours  or  wavy 
lines  and  limited  use  of  plain  band  and 
other  motifs.  Similar  pottery  is  found 
in  Baluchistan  but  with  heavy  decora- 
tion. The  Kalibangan  pottery  is  also 
named  as  'Sothi'  but  archaeologically 
accepted,  as  "Kot-Dijian".  A  composite 
term  Kot  Diji-Sethi  is  now  assigned  to  it. 

The  Stone  Age  continued  in  the  Penin- 
sular India  upto  2300  B.C.  as  per^rcha- 
eological  information  so  far  collected, 
as  no  bronze  or  copper  tools  so  far  exca- 
vated, date  earlier  than  this.  The 
MASCA  corrected  dates  for  mature 
Kot-Diji  pre-Harappan  period  have  been 
worked  out  as  2920  B.C.  to  2608  B.C. 
According  to  this  correction  Kalibangan 
began  200  years  after  Kot-Diji  in  its  pre- 
Harappan  phase. 

2300-2200  or  2150  B.C.: 

The  end  of  Phase  II  B  and  beginning  of 
Phase  III  A  at  Amri  which  is  in  fact 
Harappan.  The  Phase  II  of  Amri  ends 
about  2200  B.C.  and  the  settlement  is 
destroyed  by  fire. 

The  Mehi  Culture  which  had  come  to 
its  maturity  in  south  Baluchistan  and 
started  probably  around  2200  B.C.  al- 
ready came  to  its  end  around  2050  B.C. 
Mohenjo-Daro  was  in  its  early  stages, 
though  its  date  is  highly  controversial. 
Some  authorities  believe  that  it  lasted 
from  2350  to  2000  B.C.  in  Nuclear  re- 


That  Amri  and  Kot-Diji  maintained 
pre-Harappan  Culture  along  with  Harap- 
pan Culture  at  Mohenjo-Daro  and  later 
on  violent  occupation  of  Kot-Diji  and 
Amri  by  Harappans,  by  setting  them  to 
fire,  but  all  the  same  the  over-lapping 
period  of  the  two  cultures  for  a  century 
or  so  shows  merging  of  the  two  cultures 
of  two  peop'es,  who  most  probably  mig- 
rated along  the  same  route  and  probably 
belonged  to  the  same  racial-group. 


Pre-Indus  Kot  Diji  sites  have  been  found 
almost  in  the  same  area  as  Indus  Culture 
site.  Recent  additions  are  Jalilpur  in  Mul- 
tan  District  and  Sarai  Khola  near  Taxila. 


It  is  interesting  to  note  that  pre-Harappan 
(Amrian-Kot-Dijian)  Culture  occupied 
almost  the  same  area  as  Harappan  (Indus 
Valley)  Culture.  There  is  pressure  from 
the  Indian  archaeologists  to  call  it  as 
Harappan  Culture  rather  than  the  Indus 
Valley  Civilization. 

Their  argument  that  Kalibangan,  Lothal 
and  Rangpur  in  Kathiawar  fall  outside 
the  Indus  Valley  is  incorrect.  Kalibangan 
is  on  the  dried  bed  of  the  Sarswati  (Ghag- 
har,  Hakra,  Raini  &  Nara)  river  of  Indus 
Valley,  now  dried  up.  Lothal  and  Rang- 
pur were  connected  to  Sind  by  the  Rann 
of  Kutch,  then  a  gulf  of  the  se?.,  making 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


39 


J 


gions  (Sind  and  Punjab)  and  from  2200 
to  1 700  B.C.  in  peripheral  regions  of  the 
Sarswati-Hakra  river  and  Kathiawar. 
The  Radio  Carbon  dating  puts  it  about 
2100-1750  B.C.  with  ±50  years.  Chan- 
hu-Daro  probably  started  pre-Harappan 
shreds  along  with  Mohenjo-Daro, 
though  evidence  has  still  not  come 
up.  Harappa  too  was  in  pre-Harappan 
Phase.  The  date  of  its  start  is  not 
certain.  In  Kalibangan  mature  pre- 
Harappan  (Kot-Dijian)  Culture  started 
around  2150  B.C.  or  shortly  afterwards. 
Rest  of  the  Sub-Continent  still  was  in 
Stone-Age  except  Gujrat  where,  Lothal 
developed  Harappan  Culture. 

■ 
■ 

- 

2300-2000  B.C.  : 

Nuclear  Harappan  Culture. 


Cutch  an  island  and  connected  to  Kathia- 
war by  this  shallow  sea  with  uniform 
culture,  similar  ethnological  background 
of  Amrian,  Kot-Dijian  and  Harappan. 
They  probably  spoke  the  same  language. 
Even  today  Cutch  is  totally  Sindhi  speak- 
ing population.  Kalat,  Las  Bela,  Sibi, 
Kachhi  too  are  Sindhi  speaking.  Sindhi 
receded  from  Southern  Punjab  in  the 
historical  times.  The  Culture  therefore 
is  truly  that  of  the  Indus  Valley  Civiliza- 
tion. 

Archaic  date  for  Shahi  Tump  and  Kulli 
is  given  an  earlier  date  due  to  affinities 
with  Bampur  (Iran)  which  is  being  dated 
2500  B.C.  Kulli  Culture  ware  also  appears 
at  Karchat,  Shahjo  Kotiro  and  Chanhu- 
Daro  in  the  Indus  Valley.  It  developed 
at  Sialk  III-5  and  Hisar  MIL  In  Iran 
it  is  conjured  to  have  travelled  from 
Mesopotamia  of  Jamdat  Nasr  period 
which  is  dated  3100-2900  B.C.  by  the 
archaeologists. 

Kusumgar,  p.  103. 


MATURE  CHALCOLITHIC  PERIOD  OR  COPPER  AND  BRONZE  AGE 

2300  B.C.  to  1800  B.C.  : 

The  earliest  proof  of  copper  and  bronze 
tools  in  Sind  gdes  back  to  2300  B.C. 
and     comes     from       Mohenjo-Daro,  • 

though  it  developed  in  the  Near  East 
around  3500  B.C.  and  later  on  travelled 
to  Europe  and  the  Middle  East.  Copper 
was  used  for  making  metal  tools  and 
ornaments.  Later  on  more  complex 
bronze  developed.  The  process  of  hard- 
ening copper  and  bronze  metal  tools  is  K 
now  lost.  The  lack  of  copper  from  pre- 
Harappan  sites  is  simply  due  to  lack  of 
adequate  excavations. 


40 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


2300  B.C.  -  1730  B.C.  : 

Most  probable  period  of  the  Indus  Civili- 
zation. 


- 


- 
In  1931  Marshall  had  estimated  it  as 
3250-2750  B.C.  The  proof  was  based  on 
contacts  with  Mesopotamia.  Gadd 
showed  trade  contacts  >between  the  Indus 
Culture  and  Mesopotamia,  between 
2350-1770  B.C. 

In  1966  Wheeler  examined  and  found 
trade  relations  to  exist  between  the  Indus 
Valley,  Iran  (Hissar  Giyan,  etc.)  in  2300- 
2000  B.C.  and  suggested  the  period  of 
Indus  Civilization  as  2500-1500  B.C. 

In  1956  Fairservis  basing  on  excavations 
in  the  Quetta  Valley  suggested  the  date 
of  the  Indus  Culture  between  2000-1500 
B.C.  This  was  based  on  Radio  Carbon 
dating  of  Quetta  Valley  excavations 
at  Damb  Sadaat. 

In  1964  Agarwal  basing  on  the  Radio 
Carbon  dates  of  the  whole  period  from 
Kot  Diji  to  the  end  of  Indus  cities  in- 
cluding Lothal  gave  it  a  date  of  2300-1750 
B.C. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  140  have  sug- 
gested Harappan  period  between  2250- 
1750  B.C. 

Further  Radio  Carbon  dating  carried  out 
at  the  Tata  Institute  and  published  in 
1974,  puts  the  date  as  2300  or  earlier,  to 
2000  B.C.  for  Nuclear  regions  and  2200- 
1700  B.C.  for  Peripheral  regions. 

These  dates  give  mature  Harappan  period 
as  2154-1864  B.C. 

Since  Radio^  Carbon  dates  err  by±  100 
years  or  more,  the  archaeologists  accept 
the  period  of  Harappan  culture  between 
2300-1750  B.C. 


■< 


! 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


41 


2300-1750  : 

Chanhu-Daro  in  the  early  Harappan 
Culture. 

There  is  a  possibility  of  pre-Harappan 
Culture  in  its  lowest  levels  going  back 
another  century  or  a  little  more. 

2300  B.C.— 1750  B.C.  : 

The  period  of  the  Indus  Civilization 
according  to  Radio  Carbon  dating. 
Even  this  is  approximation  because  the 
civilization  existed  before  the  earliest 
samples,  which  have  been  given  Radio 
Carbon  testing.  During  the  period  of 
its  maturity  the  population  of  Mohenjo- 
Daro  could  not  have  been  more  than 
35000  people  which  was  the  population 

of  Shikarpur  a  century  ago. 

■ 

2255—140  B.C.  : 

The  Pre-Harappan  Late  Period  II  of 
Kot  Diji  as  per  Radio  Carbon  dating  of 
Kot  Diji. 

2250  B.C.  : 

The  Indus  Valley  script  is  presumed  to 
be  transitional  and  imitation  of  the  Sum- 
erian,  though  it  has  not  been  deciphered. 
The  contact  between  the  two  cultures 
was  by  sea  via  Bahrein. 


MASCA  correction  factor  takes  Harap- 
pan or  Indus  Civilization  from  2782-1865 
B.C.  for  Kalibangan,  which  would  put 
Mohenjo-Daro  from  2900-1650  B.C. 

F.A.  Khan,  "Industry  And  Early  Iran", 
p.  68,  assigns  2400-1600  B.C.  to  it. 


Lambrick,  Geographical  Journal,  1967. 

- 


2250-2200  B.C.  : 

The  stone  mat  pots  carved  with  highly 
naturalistic  representation  of  the  mat- 


The  MASCA  correction  date  would  put 
it  to  2805  B.C.,  but  this  figure  is  not 
reconcilable  at  present,  as  the  earliest 
MASCA  date  for  Mohenjo-Daro  is  not 
available  due  to  lack  of  Radio  Carbon 
testing.  Kalibangan's  MASCA  date  is 
2782  B.C.  Mohenjo-Daro,  therefore,  may 
have  its  Harappan  beginning  around 
2900  B.C.  or  earlier. 

Colin  Mc  Evedy. 

The  Penguin  Atlas  of  Ancient  History, 
London,  1975,  p.  26.  This  is  disputed  by 
most  of  the  authorities. 


Gordon,  p.  48,  puts  the  date  as  2500-2450 
i.e.    100   years   after   the     founding    of 


42 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


ting  walls  and  reed  bundle  door  ways  of 
Mesopotamian  huts  imported  to  Mo- 
henjo-Daro,  found  from  its  lowest 
levels. 


2255±140  B.C.  : 

The  Middle  Kot-Dijian  (Layer  5)  ac- 
cording to  Radio  Carbon  dating  of  the 
Pennsylvania  University. 

2200  B.C.  : 

The  colonization  of  the  Sai  swat  i*  river 
by  Harappan  people  begins.  The  Gait 
rule  in  Iraq  cuts  contacts  with  the  Indus 
civilization. 


2200  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

The  founding  of  Chanhu-Daro,  contem- 
porary of  Periano  H.  At  Mohenjo- 
Daro,  structural  depth  of  28  feet  to  35 
feet  below  datum  with  rubble  filling 
accounting  for  rapid  accumulation  of 
debris,  called  Mackay's  Early  Phase  II. 

2200-2100  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

Building  of  citadel  and  granary  at  Mo 
henjo-Daro.  Mackay's  Intermediate 
Phase  III  at  depth  of  formation  20  ft.  and 
the  founding  of  Harappan  city,  classi- 
fied as  Harappan  period  If.  Throughout 
Mohenjo-Daro  period,  Harappans  used 
Rohri  flint  for  stone  tools  at  almost  all 
sites.  Granary  needed  transport  system. 
Camel  was  yet  not  domesticated.    Bull- 


Mohenjo-Daro  according  to  his    view: 
the  date  has  been  corrected. 

Bridget  and  Allchin  think  that  the 
Mesopotamian  contacts  could  have  been 
with  Amri— see  2371-2316  B.C.  The 
Mohenjo-Daro  contacts  may  be  of  later 
date. 

Its  MASCA  equivalent  is  2805  B.C. 

Gordon's  date  of  21C0  B.C.  has  been 
changed  in  view  of  the  Radio  Carbon 
Dating  of  Peripheral  sites  of  Harappa. 


The  earliest  Radio  Carbon  date  for 
Kalibanganis  2232±100B.C.  MASCA 
correction  factor  puts  it  to  2782  B.C. 

Gordon,  p.  63,  puts  the  year  as  2500-2400 
B.C.  about  100-200  years  after  Mohenjo- 
Daro  was  established,  but  reasonable  gap 
probably  would  be  a  maximum  of  100 
years.  Unless  lower  levels  of  the  two 
are  excavated,  this  question  cannot  be 
resolved. 

• 

Wheeler,  'Harappa',  Ancient  India,  No.  3, 
New  Delhi,  1946,  p.  85. 

Gordon's  date  is  2350-2250  B.C.  The 
above  tentative  date  requires  re-verifica- 
tion, v 

Toy  carts  too  were  found  from  Kot  Diji 
by  F.A.  Khan  in    1957-58   excavations. 


< 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


43 


carts  were  evolved.  Tracks  of  full  size 
carts  have  been  found  with  wheel  width 
of  3'-6"  and  the  same  is  the  wheel  width 
of  oxen-carts  of  the  Upper  Sind  of 
today. 

2200-2100  B.C.: 

Building  of  great  bath  at  Mohenjo-Daro 
and  enlargement  of  granary. 

Harappan  occupation  of  Dabarkot 
and  Harappan  period  at  climax.  At 
Mohenjo-Daro,  Mackay's  Intermediate 
Phase  II,  depth  possibly  about  18  feet. 


2200-2000  B.  C.  : 

Early  incised  mat  pots  at  Mohenjo- 
Daro.  Formative  period  of  the  Harap- 
pan Civilization  occupation. 

At  Mohenjo-Daro  depth  was  28  feet  and 
is  called  Mackay's  Early  Phase  I.  The 
incised  pots  flourished  at  the  early  Dy- 
nasty III,  contemporary  with  Royal 
graves  of  Ur  for  which  25th  century 
B.C.  has  boon  accepted. 

2200-1700  B.C.  : 

The  Harappan  Culture  in  Peripheral 
Regions.  (Hakra,  Rajistan,  Gujrat,  East 

Punjab,  etc.) 

• 

2255±140B.C.  : 

The  Pre-Harappan  late  period  III  of  Kot 
Diji  as  per  Radio-Carbon  dating  of 
University  of  Pe  nsylvania. 


It  shows  much  earlier  origin  of  cart  in 
pre-Harappan  period  of  Sind. 


Gordon's  (p.  73)  date  of  2350-2200  B.C. 
has  been  corrected. 

Bitumen  for  sealing  the  Great  Bath  was 
obtained  from  local  sources  in  Sind,  or  the 
Sind-Baluchistan  border  or  the  Punjab, 
as  chemically  it  is  different  from  Tel 
Asmar  and  Ur  asphalt,  but  knowledge 
of  asphalt  as  water  proofing  material 
may  have  come  from  Mesopotamia  bet- 
ween 2300-2250  B.C.  possibly  via  Amri 
with  whom  Mesopotamia  may  already 
have  contacts. 

Gordon  dates  it  at  2400-2300  B.C.  The 
date  has  been  corrected  and  requires 
further  verification. 


• 

Agarwal  arjd  Kusumgar,  p.  100. 

MASCA  correction  would  put  it  2750- 
1800  B.C. 

The  latest  period  as  per  Radio  Carbon 
dating  is  2255±140  B.C.  but  citadel's 
upper  levels  show  the  date  of  2030±140 
B.C. 

MASCA  corresponding  correct  years 
would  be  2805  and  2590  B.C. 


44 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


2150  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

The  vase  at  Periano  m  in  Zhob  shows 
parallel  with  that  at  Kulli  and  Pandhi 
Wahi  (Taluka  Johi  Sind). 


• 

2150  or  slightly  earlier  and  onwards: 

The  bulls  of  Kulli  Culture  pottery  and 
tethered  objects  which  later  on  became 
sacred  standard  of  the  Harappan  .Cul- 
ture and  are  in  themselves  akin  to  Wahi 
Pandhi  pottery.  These  are  earlier  con- 
tacts with  the  Kulli  Culture. 

2150  B.C.  and  before  : 

All  earlier  contacts  of  the  Middle  East 
were  not  with  the  Harappans  but  with 
the  pre-Harappan  Amrian  Culture  of 
the  Lower  Indus. 

If  this  is  accepted  as  true  then  it  was  not 
Aryans  but  pre-Aryans  who  destroyed 
Amri  and  Kot  Diji  and  introduced  the 
Harappan  Culture  there.  The  continu- 
ity with  older  shreds  and  a  long  period 
of  overlap  again  shows  the  merging  of 
two  cultures  and  possibly  the  peoples 
themselves. 


. 


Hargreaves,  "Explorations  in  Baluchistan," 
Plate  XXL  p.  15. 

Stein,  Archaeological  tour  in  Gedrosia, 
p.  XXI.  Deva  and  McGrown,  Further 
Explorations  in  Sind,  Plate  VII,  P.  74,  in 
Ancient  India  No.  5  New  Delhi  1949. 
The  date  has  been  corrected  from  2500 
B.C.  as  was  believed  by  earlier  explorers, 
but  lately  rejected. 

Gordon,  p.  52,  puts  the  date  as  2500  B.C. 
onwards,  which  has  been  corrected. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  114,  suggest  that 
such  evidence  of  movement  of  Indo- 
Europeans  in  Asia  Minor  associated  with 
Minyan  ware  happened  around  the  same 
date. 

The  long  awaited  analysis  of  human 
skeleton,  skulls  and  carnial  indices  of 
the  Harappan,  Hissar  and  Indus  Valley, 
which  now  has  been  published  by  Sarkir, 
concludes  that  the  Indus  Valley  Skulls  sho- 
wing carnial  index  of  71  are  extension  of 
Tape  Hissar,  (4b00  B.C.),  covering  Kot- 
Diji,  Amri,  Harappan  and  Junkar  periods. 
In  Phast  III  of  Hissar  i.e.  after  the 
fall  of  the  Indus  cities,  it  were  probably 
the  Ancient  Scythians  who  arrived  from 
Ukraine  and  Central  Russia.  They  may 
be  connected  with  the  Junkar  people. 
They  migrated  in  different  waves  as  is 
represented  at  Stratum  I  of  cemetery  at 
Harappa  and  the  other  at  G.  site.  He 
suggests    the    use    of   the   word     Indo- 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


45 


" 


Caspians  instead  of  Indo-Aryans,  for  tho 
last  phase  of  migration. 

He  rejects  Guha  and  Sewell's  opinion  that 
they  were  proto-Australoids  or  Dravi- 
dians.  The  proto-Australoidian  theory 
has  raised  serious  controversy  on  the 
origin  of  Sindhi  language. 

Identification  of  Tape  Hissar  people  with 
the  Indus  Valley  people  and  according  to 
Kappers,  the  former  people's  (Hissar) 
ethnic  relationship  with  Chuhra  and 
Sikh  (Eickstedt  1920-21)  of  the  Punjab 
open  a  new  chapter.  Sarkar,  Races  of 
Baluchistan,  Sind  and  Punjab,  pp.  72-94. 


There  are  further  studies  that  the  Sikhs 
belong  to  the  Jatt  population  of  Sind  and 
Punjab.  This  opens  a  new  question: 
when  did  Sanskrit  enter  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent,  and  is  the  Sindhi  language  derived 
from  it  ? 


2150-2050  : 

Patterns  found,  at  Gazi  Shah  and  Wahi 
Pandhi  in  Sind  indicate  strong  Kulli 
influence.  Tnese  consist  of  tethered 
bulls,  small  ib^x  figures,  comb  patterns, 
angular  sigmi  forms,  dotted  circles  zig- 
zag bands,  small  ibex.  The  Final  Phase 
of  the  K.u  li   Culture  showing  copper 


Chachnama  states  that  the  Jatts  included 
Lakhas,  Sammas  and  Lohanas. 

Hellpusch  and  West-phal's  study  of  the 
Jatts  of  Pakistan  shows  that  considerable 
portion  of  Sind  and  Punjab's  people 
descended  from  them.  As  late  as  712 
A.D.  the  Jatts  occupied  the  Sind  Coast, 
river  banks?  Kaikan  (Kalat)  and  the 
Bolan  Pass. 

Gordon,  pp.  44,  46  and  49,  assumes  the 
period  as  2500-2200  years  B.C.  The 
corrected  date  should  be  2150-2050  B.C. 
or  2200-2000  B.C.  at  the  extremes.  The 
mirror  found  from  the  upper  layers  may 
belong  to  2100  B.C. 


46 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


objects,  copper  mirrors  goes  to  later 
date  and  is  contemporary  of  Harappan. 

2150-1900  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

At  Gazi  Shah  in  Sind  existed  strong  Kulli 
influence.  Animals  with  resemblance  to 
that  of  Kulli,  conventional  arrowheads, 
shreds  decorated  this  way  appear  at 
Amri  32.3  feet  below  datum  to  25.7  feet. 
They  are  overlapped  by  the  Harappan 
pipal  trees  at  28.8  feet  and  more  normal 
types  at  27.2  feet. 

2100-2000  B.C.  : 

Mohenjo-Daro  still  in  early  stage.    The 
pre  Harappan  and  Harappan  overlap  at 
Kol-Diji.     Chanhu-Daro  in  Phase  I  A. 
At  Harappa,  the    mature  Phase  starts 
and  so  at  Kalibangan.    The  last  date  of 
pre-Harappan  Radio  Carbon  dating  of 
Kalibangan  is  2100  B.C.    But  there  are 
six  other  dates  between  2100-2000  B.C. 
showing  beginning   of  the   Harappan 
period.     Some  thing  similar  had  been 
taking   place   at    Kot-Diji.      At    Kot 
Diji     like    Amri     there    is    evidence 
of  destruction  of  towns  by  fire  coincid- 
ing with  the  emergence  of  the  Harappan 
culture.    This  could  be  considered  the 
violent  end.    But  continuity  from  the 
pre-Harappan  to  Harappan  at  Kot  Diji 
and  Amri  in  the  Harappan  civilization 
must  derive  from  the  pre-Harappan  cul- 
ture in  the  whole  Indus  Valley.    This 
could  as  well  apply  to  population  and 
language,    inspite  of  the  fact  that  this 
change  took  place  coinciding  with  an 
attack  from  outside.    This  should  also 
be  considered  as  second  migration  of 
people  to  Sind  via  Baluchistan  from 
South-East  Iran. 


c 


Mujamdar,  'Explorations',  pp.  95-101. 
Deva  and  Mc  Gown,  Further  Exploration 
in  Sind,  Plate  VI  and  Plate  VII,  also 
pp.  70  and  76. 

Gordon,  p.  47,  puts  the  date  as  2500-2300 
B.C.  The  exact  dates  of  Kulli  have  not 
been  determined,  though  reasonable 
period  of  Kulli  succeeding  Mehi  should 
fall  within  these  limits. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  118. 


v 
■    . 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


» 


In  latter  levels  of  Kot-Diji  many  charac- 
teristics of  the  Harappan  forms  occur. 
A  Radio  Carbon  date  of  2090±  140  B.C. 
for  Kot  Diji  shows  great  conflagration. 
This  is  just  before  Kot-Diji  turned 
Harappan.  It  may,  therefore,  be  con- 
sidered that  Kot-Diji  culture  came  to  an 
end  in  this  century.  A  coincidence  took 
place  at  Kalibangan  where  Radio  Car- 
bon dates  show  beginning  of  the  Harap- 
pan culture  between  2100-2070  B.C. 
Similar  date  of  Lothal  culture  is  2082 ± 
1 30B.C.  Lothal  came  to  an  end  by  1 810± 
140  B.C. 

2100-1900  B.C.  : 

The  second  wave  of  Mesopotamian 
trade  with  the  Indus  Valley^  began  with 
King  Ur  Nammu  and  continued  for 
200  years  until  the  Larsa  period.  The 
possible  route  of  trade  could  have  been 
from  Baluchistan  via  Mula  pass  follow- 
ing Johi  to  the  Manchhar  Lake  or  lake 
Garee  near  Karchat,  Lake  Phusi  and 
Lake  Ruhel  to  Wahi  Pandhi  and  Tando 
Rahim. 

2065±110B.C.  : 

Nindovari  Domb  near  Kalat  flourished 

as  shown  by  Radio  Carbon  dating. 

■ 


Equivalent  MASCA  corrected  dates  for 
Kot  Diji  would  be  2590  B.C. 

At    Kalibangan   similar    MASCA   date 
would  be  2600-2570  B.C. 

For  Lothal  MASCA  dating  would  be 
2582  B.C. 

Lothal  came  to  an  end  around  21 10  B.C. 
as  per  MASCA  correction. 


F.A.  Khan,  Indus  Valley  And  Early 
Iran:  p.  17  and  p.  XXII. 

These  dates  supersede  any  Radio  Carbon 
dating  as  historical  records  confirm  it. 

Textiles  and  spices  had  been  the  Sub- 
Continent's  chief  exports  since  the  Roman 
times  and  possibly  from  Sind  and  the 
Punjab  even  since  the  Harappan  times. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  45. 


Agrawal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  99. 

Its  equivalent  MASCA  correction  would 
be  2565  B.C. 


2030±140B.C.  : 

The  late  Kot  Dijian  according  to  Radio 
Carbon  Dating  of  Pennsylvania  Univer- 
sity. 

Kulli  settlement  evacuated  while  it  had 
developed    sophisticated    patterns    of 


This  with  MASCA  correction  would  be 
2590  B.C. 


Gordon,  pp.  47  and  49. 


48 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


wares  with  winged  lions,  monsters,  poly- 
chrome, use  of  red,  blue  and  green  paint, 
as  found  from  the  Nal  burials.  Around 
that  period,  Mehi  type  (another  name  for 
Kulli  according  to  some  authorities) 
incised  pots  were  common  in  the 
Harappan  culture. 

The  earliest  approach  of  tribes  that  fi- 
nally sacked  Mohenjo-Daro  comes  from 
the  axe  discovered  at  Khurab  in  the 
Persian  Makran.  These  tribes  moved 
to  Shahi  Tump  in  Kej  Valley  of  Makran. 

This  is  considered  as  the  third  migra- 
tion from  South-East  Iran  or  the  Persian 
Makran. 

•J 


. 


The  date  may  be  acceptable  within  a 
margin  of  50  years. 

In  absence  of  Radio  Carbon  dating  this 
could  vary  between  2050-1900  B.C. 

• 


i 


. 


Gordon,  pp.  78  and  94. 


These  tribes  (until  recently  termed  as 
Aryans)  came  via  Iranian  plateau  or 
Russian  Turkistan  and  South  Russian 
steppes.  No  matter  where  they  were 
from,  they  came  from  Iran  partly  from 
the  North  via  Herat  and  Kirman  via 
Qila  Bist  converging  on  Kandhar,  and 
partly  via  Shahi  Tump  from  the  Iranian 
Makran,  avoiding  mountain  ranges  and 
far  wide  regions  of  Kabul.  The  likely 
line  of  approach  would  have  been  Tochi, 
Gomal  and  the  Kurram  Valley  or  possibly 
from  the  Persian  Makran  to  Pakistanian 
Makran  and  then  to  Manchhar  region  of 
Sind  via  the  Mula  Pass  or  even  via 
Karachi  and  the  Lower  Sind. 

Gordon's  statement  is  only  partly 
true.  The  tribes  probably  preferred  the 
Makran  route.  He  accepts  Tochi,  Gc- 
mal  and  Kurram  route  as  the  last  two 
names  appear  in  Rig  Veda  and  it  became 
convenient  to  him  to  prove  that  the 
tribes  were  Aryans. 


2000  B.C.  : 

Advent  of  Bronze  Age  in  Iran. 


Ghirshman,  p.  71.  The  statement  shows 
that  bronze  which  was  used  in  Mohenjo- 
Daro  prior  to  2000  B.C.,  was  an  in- 
dependent development  in  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent  and  was  not  brought  by  pre- 
Harappans  or  Harappans   from  outside. 


v 


i 


s 


^ 


] 


- 


18.     2300-  1700  B.  C.  A  low  street  at  Mohenjo  Daro. 


> 


i 

- 


20.     2200-2000  B.C.  Kulli  ware  fror 
Baluchistan. 


: 


1 


21.     2200-2100  B.C.  The  Great  Bath,  Mohenjo  Daro,  Plan    reconstructed. 


: 


I 


8 


- 


- 


23.     2300-  I7C0  B.C.  Interior  of  a  typical  house  at  Mohenjo   Daro  (reconstructed 
floor,  wooden  beams  and   rafter  on  the  roof  (After  Marshall,   1931  ). 


the  brick   tiled 


a. 
9:   :» 


—   o 


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O.    «"  It 

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29.     2300-  1700   B.  C.  Stone  and  gold   bead   necklaces  from   Mohenjo  Daro. 


~ 


30.     2300-  1700   B.C.   Fayence   bracelet  from   Harappa. 


32.     Bullock  cart  of  modern  Sind,  still  a  common  site  on   many   roads   (  From   Wheeler  above  cited 


\ 


i 


33.     Seperate  horrowing  and   sowing    by    tubes    in    the    field    still    practiced    today,    as    was    in    Indus 
civilization  2300-  1700   B.  C.   (After  D.  D.   Kosambi  ) 


o 


1 


i 

i 


U 

d 


3 
5 


» 

1 


35.     2300-  1800  B.C.   Figurine  of  mother  godess  from   Mohenjo  Daro  (National   Museum. 
Karachi  ) 


< 


I 


% 


a  s  £- 

i  >-l 

IS     £     I 


< 


\ 


38.     2300-  1700   B.C.   Bronze  Statue  of  dancing   girl  from   Mohenjo   Daro. 


39.      2300  -  1700  B.  C.   Predecessor  of  the  game  '  Chess  ',  from  Mohenjo   Dj 


n|0    \Jiro. 


I 


40.     2300-  1700  B.C.  Steatile  seals  and  their  impressions  with  script  and  animal  designs  from 
Mohenjo  Daro. 


4 


41.  2300-  1700  B.  C.  Gods  and  their  motifs  carved  on  the  Indus  seals.  These  seals  prove 
that  the  religious  of  Upinshads.  Buddhism  and  Puranas  had  their  roots  in  the  Indus 
Culture.  (  From  D.  D.   Kosambi ). 


I 


I  ] 


42.  i)  2300-  1700  B  C.  Indus  Seal  showing  a 
boat  with  sail,  cars,  aitd  rudder  or 
steering  "car:  Such  a-  -boat  was  built 
by  -  and  he  travelled  from  mouth  of 
Euphrates  to  Karachi  in  1975,  proving 
that  such  communication  was  possible 
between  the  Indus  and  Mesopotamian 
Civilizations. 


ii  )  2300-  1700  B.C.  Indus  seal  showing  sacri- 
fice and  three  horned  god  in  a  pipal. 
Animal  at  the  back  is  Chimera  with  horns 
of  goat,  tail  of  a  fish,  body  of  ram  and 
clawed  feet  (  From  D.  D.  Kosambi  ). 

iii )     2300  -  1 700  B.C.  Indus  seal  showing  a  bullman 
killing  a  horned  tiger   (  D.  D.  Kosambi ). 


\ 


43.      Indus  Seals  and    Methology,  which    influenced    later  religions  (  D.  D.    Kosambi). 
i  )      Anamaic  hero    strangling  two   tigers  like   Gilgames  Mesopotamia. 
ii  )      Indus  Seal   representing  man   tiger  from  which  developed   man   lion   incarnation  of  Vishnu 

(  nasimha  ).  * 

iii )     Seal  from  Mesopotamia,  from  which  developed  fish  incarnation  of  Vishnu. 


-1 

1/1 

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, 

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1 


HARAPPAN  OR  INDUS  CULTURE 


49 


3 


2000  B.C.  : 

TJie  Mature  Harappan  culture  ended. 

2000  B.C.: 

The  domestication  of  horse. 


2000  1900  B.C.  : 

The  Kull«  Culture  at  Shahi  Tump  in 

Baluchistan. 

2000-1800  B.C.  : 

Mohenjo-Daro  in  Intermediate  Phase. 
Amri  in  Phase  III  B  and  IQ  C,  each  last- 
ing about  100  years.  At  Kot-Diji,  the 
Harappan  Culture  takes  over.  There 
was  overlapping  of  the  pre-Harappan 
and  Harappan  for  at  least  a  century  i.e. 
2100-2030  B.C.  The  Harappan  culture 
shows  at  Kalibangan  in  East  Punjab. 
Chanhu  Daro  was  in  Phase  B  and  C. 


Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.    100. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  144. 

The  theory  that  horse  was  domesticated 
in  Ukraine,  Kazakistan  and  Central  Asia 
around  the  fourth  and  fifth  millennium 
B.C.,  is  rejected  by  Zeuner  who  states  that 
this  animal  was  half  ass  (Hemoiones) 
and  not  a  true  horse. 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  104.  See 
also  2150-1900  B.C. 


' 


1900  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

The  shaft  hole  axe,  unknown  until 
1800  B.C.  in  the  Indian  Sub-Continent 
originated  in  Maikop  and  Tarakaya  in 
South  Russia. 

1800  B.C.  or  shortly  after  : 

Shahi  Tump  burial  with  compartment 
seals,  shaft  hole  axe  of  copper  and 
archaistic  pottery  of  Iranian  origin, 
tripod  bowl,  etc.,  show  that  the  tribes 
from  Khurab  in  the  Persian  Makran  had 
occupied  Shahi  Tump  in  Kej  Makran. 


Bridget  &  Allchin,  p.  145.  It  may  have 
been  brought  by  Junkar  people  and  may 
have  to  be  antidated  by  a  100  years  to 
1900  B.C.  for  Maikop. 


Gordon,  pp.  79  and  80. 
There  is  further  evidence  that  painted 
pottery  culture  of  Kulli,  Nal  and  Periano 
HI,  also  came  to  an  abrupt  end  possibly 
at  the  hands  of  this  new  tribe.  Probably 
th,e  same  tribes  later  on  moved  to  Sind 
and  the  Punjab.  These  people,  now 
called  Junkar,  drove  out  the  Harappans 


50 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


■ 

1850-1800  B.C.  : 

Contacts  with  Mohenjo-Daro  renewed 
by  the  first  Dynasty  of  Babylonia. 
Depth  at  Mohenjo-Daro  according  to 
Mackay  is  10  feet.  Adze-axe  and  dirks 
having  parallels  with  those  in  Syria  and 
Palestine  in  2000-1900  B.C.  were  bro- 
ught  by  the  traders  to  Mohenjo-Daro. 

2800-1750  B.C.  : 

Pre  and  post-Indus  Civilization  flour- 
ished in  Cutch  which  was  an  island  form- 
ing a  bridge  between  Sind  and  Kathia- 
war.  The  same  civilization  penetrated 
Kathiawar  via  the  island  of  Cutch. 


from  Junkar,  Lohamjo-Daro  and  Chan- 
hu  Daro.  Shaft  hole  axe  similar  to 
that  found  at  Shahi  Tump  was  found  at 
Chanhu-Daro.  In  addition,  there  are 
other  proofs. 

Piggot,  Ancient  India,  No.  4,  'Notes  on 
certain  metal  pins  and  maced  head.' 

Gordon,  p.  63. 

Gordon,  "Early  Use  of  Metal  in  India 
and  Pakistan".  J.R.A.  S.,Vol.  XXX,  p.57. 
Gordon's  date  of  1900-1800  B.C.,  may  be 
accepted  with  a  margin  of  about  50 
years,  say  1850-1800  B.C. 


V 


> 


■ 

FALL  OF  TNE  INDUS  CULTURE 


1800-1600  B.C.  (tentative)  : 

The  late  Phase  at  Mohenjo-Daro  and  at 
Amri  the  end  of  Phase  HI  B.  By  about 
1800  B.C.  Chanhu-Daro  Phase  C  ends. 
By  1750-1700  B.C.  Harappa  and  Kali- 
bangan  also  come  to  an  end. 

During  the  period,  bufallo  (Bos  bub- 
alois)  whose  bones  appear  in  upper 
layers  of  Mohenjo-Daro  may  probably 
have  been  domesticated.  The  elephant 
and  camel  bones  too  occur.  The  for- 
mer may  have  been  domesticated. 
Camel  was  domesticated  in  Arabia  by 
1300  B.C.  and  possibly  was  not  the 
beast  of  burden  at  Mohenio-Daro. 


• 

Since  the  Jat  tribes  are  associated  with 
raising    of  bufalloes   and   as  the    pro- 

Harappan  and  Harappan  skulls  represent 
these  races  as  Jats,  the  bufallo  may 
have  been  domesticated  earlier    by    the 

Harappans  or  Amrians. 


Bones  of  pig  (Sus  Cristaus)  are  also 
found,  but  it  is  not  sure  whether  it  was 
domesticated.  For  the  domestication  of 
pig,  evidence  comes  from  Ranpur  IIA 
site  in  Gujarat.  Pig  was  domesticated  in 
Middle  East  in  the  early  Neolithic  times. 

1760±115B.C.  : 

Radio  Carbon  date  for  the  last  phase  of* 
Mohenjo-Daro.  Still  it  does  not  prove 
that  Mohenjo-Daro  was  destroyed  latest 
by  1645  B.C.  as  the  sample  belongs  to 
the  period  when  it  had  yet  not  perished. 

Around  1750  B.C.  : 

Junkar  occupation  of  Lohamjo-Daro. 
calleJ  Late  Phase  III  by  Mackay,  exist- 
ing at  depth  of  7  feet.  It  is  also  named 
as  Phase  IV  of  the  Harappan  Culture. 


The  MASCA  re-adjusted  date  would  be 
2060  B.C. 


Gordon's  date  1800-1700  B.C.  has  boat 
corrected    but    needs    further    revision 


52 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S»NO 


1750  B.C. : 

The  possible  period  of  invasion  of  the 
Indus  cities  as  is  shown  by  Trihni  ware 
found  at  Lai  Chatto  mound  near  Trihni 
at  Shah  Hasan  and  Lohri  around  the 
Manchar  Lake  and  at  Chanhu-Daro. 
These  wares  show  similarity  or  affinities 
to  Ravi  ware,  developed  on  the  fall 
of  Harappan  city  at ;  the  hands  of  the 
invaders. 

Junkar  was  succeeded  by  Jhangar,  the 
pottery  of  which  is  incised  grey  ware  and 
also  bichrome  ware  with  simple  painted 
,  decorations  which  are  contemporary  of 
grey  ware.  Jhangar  pottery  was  ftfco 
found  high  upon  the  Chanhu-Daro  site, 
the  types  found  include  a  peculiar  form 
of  triple  jar  of  the  kind  found  at  Shahi 
Tump,  Sialk  VI  and  Shah  Tape  in  Iran 
associated  with  the  invasion. 

1750  B.C.  : 

The  Harappan  culture  broke  up— in 
Sind  due  to  (i)  flooding  as  felt  by  Mac- 
kay  and  Marshal!,  (ii)  the  change  of 
the  course  of  the  Indus  as  suggested  by 
Lambrick  and  M.H.  Panhwar,  and  (iii) 
the  Tetanic  movements  down  streams 
causing  lake  formation,  flooding  and 
silting  of  the  area  as  suggested  by 
Raikes. 

But  all  these  theories  do  not  answer  for 
'he  outside  invasion  proved  by  corpses 
lying  in  the  streets,  buried  treasures  and 
jewellery,  copper  shaft-axe-edge  whose 
Iranian  and  Russian  parallels  are  discus- 
sed under  1800  B.C. 

For    the    past    45    years,  the   popular 
theory  was  the  Aryan  invasion   of  the 


Mujumdar,  Explorations  in  Sind. 
Mackay,  Chanhu-Daro. 
Gordon,  pp.  88  and  82. 
Gordon's  statement  putting  the  whole 
period  as   1750-1300  B.C.   is  incorrect. 
Jhangar    is     now     considered     around 
900B.C. 

Agarwal  &n8  Kusumgar,  p.  104. 
Ghirshman  dated  the  Assyrian  seal 
found  with  triple  Jar  at  Sialk  Necropolis 
a»,  900  B.C.  A  compromise  date  of 
1100  B.C.  may  be  more  acceptable  for 
the  Jhangar  people. 


n 

This  theory  is  now  rejected.     Rig  Vedic 
Aryans    are    considered    to    have    risen 


_ 


FALL  OF  THE  INDUS  CULTURE 


33 


- 


Indus  cities.  It  stated  that  the  Harap- 
pans  (Dasas  or  slaves)  were  dark  snub- 
nosed,  worshippers  of  phallus,  rich  in 
cattle  and  lived  in  fortified  strongholds 
01?  Pufar.  Another  tribe  Pani,  which 
was  also  wealthy  in  cattle  and  treasures, 
though  fought  the  Aryans  but  also  joined 
against  Dasas  and  set  to  fire  tfhctr  cities. 
The  Aryans  first  settled  in  Sapta  Sindhu 
(Land  of  seven  Indus  Rivers),  where 
their  stay  was  not  entirely  peaceful. 

1 750-1500  B.C.  or  even  1450  B.C. 
The  end  of  Harappa  around  1750  B.C., 
and  subsequent  establishment  ef  cemetery 
H  Cultures  at  its  site.    The  pottery  has 
affinities  with  wares  from  Iran,  Meso- 
potamia, and  Djamshid  II,  which  are 
dated  1550-1400  B.C 

The  pottery  of  cemetery  H  at  Harappa 
shows  continuity-  with  preceding  cul- 
ture showing  that  the  same  population 
lived  together,  side  by  side  with  attac- 
kers. The  presence  of  motifs  with  pipal 
leaves  shows  influence  of  the  conquer- 
ors and  may  have  come  from  Giyan  or 
Djamshid  II  in  Iran. 

It  was  fusion  of  the  Harappan  traits 
with  new  traits  from  Iran  and  must  have 
taken  place  with  the  fusion  of  popula- 
tion too  and  may  be  considered  second 
post-Harappan  migration  after  Junkar 
people,  if  the  two  were  not  the  part  of 
the  same  migration. 

1750-1450  B.C.  (Approximate)  : 

Development  and  use  of  Linear-A 
Script  in  Crete  while  latter  was  at  the 
height  of  its  culture. 


around   1100-1000  B.C.  Keter  mat  entr>. 

- 


■ 
■ 


vLeonard  Cottrel,  Lost  Worlds,  Vol  I, 
p.  8.  In  this  script  each  sign  repre- 
sented the  syllable  of  a  word. 


54 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1750-1450  B.C.  : 

Junkar  Occupation  of  Phase  II  of 
Chanhu-Daro.  The  date  of  its  end  is 
yet  uncertain.  Limited  weapons  of  ■ 
foreign  origin  brought  by  traders  or 
mercenaries  called  late  IB  and  late  II  by 
Mackay.  The  depth  of  the  late  II 
period  is  about  5  feet 

The  previous  theory  that  city  life  came 
to  an  end  in  the  Sub-Continent  with  the 
fall  of  Harappa  and  Mohenjo-Daro,  is 
now  rejected.  A  great  deal  survived 
due  to  occupation  of  cemetery  H  at 
Harappa,  Junkar-jo-Daro  and  Chan- 
hu-Daro in  Sind.  Mohenjo-Daro  may 
have  not  been  re-occupied  due  to  change 
in  the  course  of  the  river  Indus  or  annual 
flooding  for  many  decades. 

The  Jhangar  occupation  after  Junkar 
further  shows  that  city  life  continued, 
though  in  a  very  much  deteriorated 
state. 

1650  B.C.  : 

Junkar  which  may  have  started  50  years 
earlier  in  small  settlement  of  Sind, 
continued  for  another  about  150  years. 


1650-1600  B.C.  : 

Sacking  of  Mohenjo-Daro  called  late 
I  Period  by  Mackay.  Harappa  was 
sacked  earlier  than  Mohenjo-Daro  pro- 


- 


F.A.   Khan,   Indus   Valley    and    Early 

Iran,  pp.  62-63. 

Agarwal  and  Kusumgar  date  it  1900  B.C., 

and  put    1800-1700    B.C.  for  Lohamjo- 

Daro. 


Mackay  considers  it  around  1750  B.C. 
for  Chanhu-Daro. 

Bridget  and  Allchin  put  the  date  at 
1750-1500  or  1450  B.C.  The  dates  are 
difficult  to  reconcile  in  absence  of  Radio 
Carbon  dating. 

Gordon,  p.  63. 

It  is  assumed  that   Junkar  people   took 


FALL  OF  THE  INDUS  CULTURE 


55 


y 


bablybyalOOyears. 

■ 


1600-1550  B.C.  : 

Phase  III  at  Amri.  Mohenjo-Daro  was 
already  burnt  and  non-existant.  At 
Chanhu-Daro,  Junkar  Phase  II  was 
established.  At  Harappa  cemetery  H 
was  established.  Harappan  culture 
continued  in  Gujarat  even  after  1600 
B.C.  and  ended  by  1500  B.C. 

Junkar  culture  at  Chanhu-Daro  conti- 
nued upto  about  1 350  B.C.  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Jhangar  culture  at  Chanhu- 
Daro. 

The  Junkar  invaders  used  chariot  as 
fighting  vehicle  vis-a-vis  foot  soldiers  of 
the  east,  and  the  present  Pakistan  area. 
Piggot  was  first  to  point  this  out. 

1550-1400  B.C.  : 

Double  headed  animal  pin,  found  at 
Kaban  cemeteries  in  the  style  of  the 
Harappan  pin. 

1400  B.C  : 

Knowledge  of  smelting  of  and  forging 
iron  invented  and  improved  but  was 
kept  a  secret  by  the  Hittians. 

1500-1100  B.C.  (tentative)  :. 

The  Second  post- Harappan  wave  of 
migration  from  Iran  to  Sind  and  the 


over  small  towns  of  Sind  and  Baluchistan 
first  and  possibly  allied  themselves  with 
citizens  of  Mohenjo-Daro,  against  the 
tribes  of  the  North  who  had  already 
sacked  Harappa  and  occupied  the  Ravi 
valley.  If  this  is  assumed  as  correct, 
the  Junkar  people  and  the  cemetery  H 
people  were  of  two  separate  migrations. 
Mohenjo-Daro,  when  it  fell  was  never 
occupied  again,  until  Kushans  built  stupa 
there  in  2nd  century  A.D. 

Gordon  thinks  it  continued  upto  1350 
B.C.  The  latest  thinking  is  that  Jhangar 
established  itself  around  900  B.C. 

Bridget  and  Allchin  date  Jhangar  around 
1000  B.C.  pp.  146-147. 


■ 


C.F.  A.  Schaveffer.  Stratigraphic  Com- 
paree,  etc.,  p.  533  quoted  by  F.A.  Khan 
in  the  Indus  Valley  And  Early  Iran,  p.  38. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,    p.  314. 

The  first  wave  is  associated  with  cemetery 


56 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND. 


Punjab  associated  with  copper  hoards, 
Ochre  coloured  hoards  and  Ochre 
coloured  pottery. 

. 

1380  B.C  : 

A  treaty  of  the  Hittian  king  Subiluliuma 
and  Mitannian  king  Mattiwaza,  men- 
tions the  names  of  Mitra,  Varuna,  Indra 
and  Nasatya,  the  gods  of  the  Rig- Vedic 
Aryans.  The  migration  of  people  of 
such  religion  to  the  Sub-Continent  took 
another  300  years.  There  were'  no 
Aryans  in  the  Sub-Continent  before 
1050  B.C.,  if  we  consider^he  Rig- Vedic 
people  as  the  first  Aryans. 

13  00  B.C. 

The  Indus-Valley  turned  illiterate.  Such 
was  not  the  case  in  Western  Iran,  Baby- 
lon, Egypt,  Syria,  Palestine,  Hittie, 
Greece  etc.,  Crete.  Cyprus  and  Sinai, 
where  the  scripts  used  were  Hittian, 
Mitannian,  Elamite,  Amorite,  Assyrian, 
Akkadian,  Cypro-Minnoan,  Cretan, 
Linear,  Byblos,  Sinai,  Egyptian  Hiero- 
glyphs, Egyptian  Hieratic,  and  Ugritic. 

1450-1200  B.C.  : 

Development  of  linear-B  script  in  Crete. 
just  at  the  time  of  Myceneans  rule 
there.  Its  use  continued  upto  1200 
B.C. 


1300  B.C.  : 

Camel  domesticated  in  Arabia.  The 
exact  date  of  its  domestication  in  Sind 
has  not  been  ascertained. 


H  at  Harappa,  and  the  Junkar  people, 
if  the  Junkar  and  the  cemetery  H  people 
came  in  the  wave  of  migration  between 
1500-1100  B.C. 

Ghirshman,  Iran,  p.  62, 


McEvedy,  pp.  36,  37.  The  Indus 
Valley  may  actually  have  become  illiterate 
with  the  fall  of  Mohenjo-Daro  by  about 
1650-1600  B.C. 

Leonard  Cottrel,  Lo9t  Worlds.  Vol.  I, 
pp.  8  and  226. 

The  linear  A  and  B  scripts  were  further 
developed  and  finally  into  present  al- 
phabet. Hebrew  alphabets  developed 
by  about  1000  B.C.  from  which  Greek 
alphabets  were  adopted  and  subsequently 
the  alphabetic  system  spread  to  the  Old 
World. 


McEvedy,  pp.  44-45. 


Also  see  entry  825  B.C.  and  700  B.C. 


FALL  Qf  THF  INDUS  CULTURE 


57 


> 


\ 


■ 


1300-1000  B.C.  : 

A  now  wave  of  irrigation  from  the  west 
to  the  Peninsular  India,  bringing  foreign 
bronze  and  eventually  iron.  This  is 
termed  as  the  fourth  wave.  The  earliest 
one  was  with,  intrusive  objects  intro- 
duced during  the  Harappan  Period  and 
the  second  one  was  in  the  post  Harap- 
pan Phase,  called  the  Junkar.  Then  the 
Third  wave  was  from  Iran  to  Sind 
and  the  Punab  in  1500-1 100  B.C. 


- 


■ 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  323. 

m 


— 

■ 

V 


' 


PROTO-HISTORICAL  PERIOD 


1300-519  B.C.  : 

Proto-histoiy  perihd  of  Sind,  based  on 
classical  literature  of  Rig  Veda. 

If  Rig-Vedic  people  migrated  around 
1050  B.C.  and  afterwards,  the  date 
has  to  be  adjusted  after  further  evidence. 

• 

1200  BC  : 

With  the  breaking  up  of  the  Hittian  Em- 
pire, the  iron  working  technique  spread 
to  the  Western  Asia,  Caucasus.  Eastern 
and  Qentral  Europe  but  not  to  the 
Indian  Sub-Continent. 

1200-1000  B.C.  : 

A  new  movement  (Number  5)  of  the 
people  of  Iran  or  the  Caucasian  origin 
into  the  Sub-Cqntinent  took  place,  as  is 
proved  from  Gian  I,  Sialk  bowl,  copper 
hoard  at  Fatehgarh  and  Bithur  in  U.P.,. 
swords  of  copper,  etc.,  and  hilt  from 
Chandoli  in  Maharashtra. 

1100  B.C.  : 

The  Jhangar  culture  which  probably 
started  100  years  earlier,  became  well- 
established  around  Manchhar.    It  gets 
its    name  from  .neighbouring  village 
called  Jhangara. 

1100  B.C.  : 

Iron  starts  superseding  bronze  on  the 
Iranian  plateau  as  shown  at  the  Sialk 
graves. 


Ghirshman,  p.  62.  Also  see  entry  1 380  B.C. 
Since  Rig-Vedic  Aryans  are  assigned 
1050-700  B.C.  This  date  would  need 
reviewing. 


• 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  153.    Ghirshman. 
p.  67. 


• 
F.A.  Khan,  Indus  Valley  and  Early 
Iran,  pp.  62-63,  assigns  1500  B.C.  to  it. 
Jhangar  may  be  considered  as  the  6th 
wave  of  migration  from  the  West. 
Agarwal  and  Kusumgar  assign  the  date 
of  900  to  it.  See  entry  1 100-900  B.C. 
v 


*> 


i 


s 


PROTO — HISTORICAL  PERIOD 


59 


f 


1100-1000  B.C.  : 

Rann  of  Cutch  navigable  to  small  craft 
allowing  Lothal  and  Rangpur  to  be  in 
touch  with  the  Indus  valley. 

■ 

1100-900  B.C.  : 

The  pottery  of  Rangpur  II  and  III,  re- 
sembling the  Ravi  (successor  of  Harappa) 
designs      particularly  in  the  figures  of 
antelopes  and  may  be  contemporary  of 

Trihni  and  Jhangar. 

* 

1100-900  B.C.  : 

The  probable  date  of  Trihni.  The  Jhan- 
gar culture  in  the  Manchar  Region,  sub- 
sequent to  that  of  lake  dwellers  of  Trihni 
and  Shah  Hasan. 

1100-750  B.C.  : 

Smelting  of  iron  reaches  NWFP,  Balu- 
chistan and  Sind.  The  date  for  Pirak 
in  Kachhi  District  near  Sind  border 
as  shown  by  Radio  Carbon  dating  is 
800  B.C.  In  Swat  graves  it  goes  back 
to  1000  B.C.,  and  in  Cairn  graves  of 
Baluchistan  to  900-800  B.C. 

Independent  smelting  reached- South  em 
India  around  1000  B.C. 


Gord  on,  p.  31. 

The  Rann  of  Cutch  completely  dried  up 
between  1025  and  1350  A.D.  Mahmud 
of  Ghazni  found  it  as  a  shallow  creek  but 
not  as  a  desert.  Feroze  Tughlaq's  army 
perished  in  it  as  it  had  turned  into  a 
desert. 

Dikshit,  M.G.,  1950. 

Excavation  at  Rangpur,  1947,  in  the 
Bulletin  of  the  Deccan  College  Research 
Institute.  Gordon,  p.  91,  puts  the  date 
as  1250  B.C. 

Mujumdar,  Explorations  in  Sind,  dated  it 
as  1400-1200  B.C.  Jhangar  is  now  con- 
sidered the  earliest  at  1050  B.C. 


Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.   1 53.    Smelting 
of  iron  developed  in  the    Asia     Minor, 
(Turkey)  between   1800-1200  B.C.  Hitties 
kept  it  a  secret,  but  due  to  the    break  up 
of  the  Hittian   power  it  spread    to  Iran 
by  about  1200  B.C.  to  1000  B.C.,  as  shown 
by  Necropolis  A  &  B  at  Sialk,  and  studied 
by   Schaeffer.    Cairn   pottery     of  Balu- 
chistan has  designs  with  Caucasian  c'etails 
and  it    is    presumed    that    the      process 
reached    Baluchistan  from    Caucacus  via 
Iran,  between  1000-750  B.C.     At     Swat 
it  may  have  come  via  Central  Asia. 

The  date  of  800  B.C.  for  Sind  would  be 
the  latest  in  the  absence  of  exploration, 
as  nearly   all  principal  Chalcolithic  sites 
in  Sind  and  the  Punjab  were  abandoned 
Excavations  in    Rajistan  and  dry    sites 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


' 
! 

1075±80  toT75±105  : 

Iron  Age  Pirak  in  the  Sibi  District  on 

Sind  border. 

• 
1050  B.C.  : 

Jhangar  occupation  of  Chanhu-Daro .* 

(As  noted  above,  the  word    Jhangar 

was  coined  by  Mujamdar  from  location 

of  the  site  near  Jhangara  village  20 
miles  west  of  Sehwan  on  the  Manchhar 
lake). 


along  Sarswati-Ghaggar  or  Hakra  sy-s 
tem,  show  the  Grey  Ware  connected  with 
Iron  Age.  It  seems  to  have  reached 
there  by  about  535  B.C.  as  per  Radio 
Carbon  evidence  of  the  Tata  Institute. 

Radio  Carbon  Dating  of  Pirak  excava- 
tions under  •  Casal,  puts  the  date  as 
785±105  B.C.  i.e  900— 700  B.C.,  as  re- 
ported in  Pakistan  Archaeology,  No. 
7,  p.  96. 

- 
Agarwal    and  Kusumgar's  800  B.C.  on 
p-  122,  would   bd    more    acceptable    as 
suggested  by  Casal. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  pp.  146-147. 

Agarwal    and  Kusumgar  put  the    date 

of  the  Jhangar  Culture  at  900  B.C. 

F.A.  Khan  assigns  a  much  earlier  date 
to  it.  It  was  migration  of  the  7th  wave 
of  people  from  Iran. 


" 


■ 


•  l 


v 


COMING  OF  RiG-VEDIC  ARYANS 


1050-700  B.C.  (tentative): 

Painted  Grey  Ware  pottery  and  intro- 
duction of  iron  showing  the  eighth 
post-Harappan  wave  of  migration. 

Radio  Carbon  Dating  reported  by  Agar- 
wal  shows  presence  of  iron  in  Balu- 
chistan Cairn  graves  and  Pirak  and  Iron 
Age  on  Sind  border  from  900-800  B.C. 
In  Swat  it  goes  back  to  1000  B.C. 


■ 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  324,  report  tha 
the  Vedic  Aryans  should  be  associated 
with  this  wave  of  migration  called 
Painted  Grey  Ware. 

Ghirshman,  p.  73,  records  immigration 
of  Indo-Europeans  in  Iran  in  the  begin- 
ning of  the  first  millennium  B.C.;  asso- 
ciated with  the  use  of  iron. 


000  B.C.  : 
Composition  of  Earlier  Hymns  of  Rig- 
Veda.    This  work  gives  namss  of  geo- 
graphical places,  the  River  Indus  and 
its  tributaries  and  other  information  on 
Sind.     The  Sanskrit  language  used  in  it 
differs  from  the  classical  language  as 
much  as  16th  century    Sindhi    differs 
from  its    20th  century   version.    The 
hymns   were    composed     by     priestly 
bards. 

1000  B.C   : 

The  Iranians  of  the  Trarisoxian  region 
of  Asia  found  that  a  skilful  rider  could 
manage  his  horse  on  the  battlefield. 
The  discovery  ultimately  put  an  end  to 
the  Chariot  as  useful  war  weapon.  It 
was  soon  introduced  in  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent. 

1000  B.C.  : 

The  Hindu  caste  system  first  described 
in  Purusha  Sukta  of  Rig- Veda,  dividing 


(VEDIC  AGE) 


CHI.. Vol.  I,  p.  100,  puts  it  12-1000  B.C. 
Basham,  p.  XIX,  puts  early  and  later 
hymns   of  Rig- Veda    between     1500-900 


B.C. 


.. 


McEvedy,  p.  40. 

The  discovery  led  to  the  rise  of  Parthians 
in  Eastern  Persia,  which  they  held  for 
many  centuries. 


V 

1 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.    48.  / 

Also    see    1050-700    B.C.    for  migration 


62 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SINO 


society  into  four  major  groups:  Braha- 
man,  Khatriya,  Vaisha  and  Sudra.  It 
was  never  so  harsh  in  the  beginning  as 
after  the  challenge  to  it  by  the  Buddhists 
and  later  on  by  the  Muslims  in  the  12th 
century. 


1000-800  B.C. 


of  Aryans.  It  appears  that  Rig-Vedic 
Aryans  came  around  1000  B.C.  and 
Rig- Veda  cannot  be  considered  to  have 
been  composed  earlier  or  at  least  to  the 
antiquity  assigned  to  it. 


Composition  of  later  hymns  of  Rig- 
Veda  and  trn  other  3  Vedas  i.e.  Sama 
Veda,  Yajur  Veda  and  Athar  Veda. 

• 

From  the  Rig-Veda's  description,  it 
appears  that  the  Vedic  people  had 
reached  the  Lower  Sind  and  knew  the 
sea  and  its  tides  and  possibly  hac^trade 
relations  with  the  outside  World. 

900  B.C.  : 

Mahabharata  War,  in  which  Jaydrath 
the  ruler  of  Sind  was  an  ally  of  Kaurus. 

By  this  time  Aryans  had  expanded  to 
whole  of  Northern  Sub-Continent  in- 
cluding Sind,  Qandhar,  Gujarat  and 
Kathiawar. 


CHI.  Vol.  I,  pp.  100  and  225.  Puranas 
place  the  war  between  Kaurus  and 
Pandvas  around  1000  B.C..  but  Maha- 
bharata puts  it  at  much  later  date. 
Basham,  p.  XIX,  puts  this  war  around 
900  B.C. 

Pusalkar,  'Aryan  Settlements  in   India,' 
HCIP,  Vol.  I.  pp.  247-48. 

Basham.  p.  XIX. 

According  to  Aihole  inscription  of  Pula- 
kesin  II  (7th  century  A.D.),  the  Bharata 
War  took  place  in  3102  B.C.  Another 
School  of  Hindu  astronomy  puts  it  653 
years  after  the  Kalyug  (Iron  age  or 
machine  age)  i.e.  2449  B.C.  But  these 
statements  have  to  be  discounted  in  the 
presence  of  archaeological  information. 
Fleet,  JRAS,  1911  pp.  479ffand  675ff. 
Brihat  Samhidta  XIII,  p.  3. 
Stein  Rajatarangini,  Vol.  I.  pp.  48-56. 
HCIP,  Vol.  I,  p.  273  puts  it  between 
1400-1000  B.C*.  Since  Rig-Vedic  Aryan 
came  after  1050  B.C.,  this  too  is  to  be 
discounted. 


825  B.C.  : 

With  the  domestication  of  camel  around 
1300  B.C.  in  Arabia,  a  contact  was 
established  with  the  Tndian  Sub-Conti- 
nent in  the  next  centuries.  By  825  B.C. 
Urban  life  was  revived  in  the  Gangetic 
plains,  but  we  know  nothing  of  it  as  of 


McEvedy,  pp.  44-45. 

For  the  first  200  years  of  its  domestica- 
tion, cornel  was  used  only  for  purpose  of 
War,  but  after  1100  B.C.,  it  became  the 
beast  of  burden,  replacing  ass  which  had 
to  move  from  water  hole  to  water  hole. 


v* 


*1 


COMING  OF  RIG-VEDIC  ARYANS 


63 


the  Indus  Valley,  due  to  lack  of  archaeo- 
logical explorations.  The  Indus  mouth 
and  Sind  must  have  played  an  import- 
ant part  in  trade  transfers  from  Ninevah 
(Nimrud),  Susa,  Ur,  Babylon  and  even 
Tyre,  Spain  and  Memphis. 

810-805  B.C  : 

Semiramis  is  reported  to  have  invaded 
Sind,  but  Satauro-bates,  the  king  of 
Sind,  repelled  the  invaders. 
Here  Sind  means  Makran. 


800  B.C.  : 

The  knowledge  of  iron  spread  to  the 
whole  of  the  Eastern  Europe  and  the 
Western  Asia  and  also  reached  the  Sub- 
continent, replacing  bronze  and  copper, 

which  no  longer  were  economic  pro- 
positions. 

800-700  B.  C.  : 

The  Assyrians  undertook  gigantic  irri- 
gation works  for  the  purpose  of  agri- 
culture in  the  whole  of  their  empire 
which  included  most  of  Iran. 


800-^00  B.C.  : 

Period  of  Brahmmas. 


• 
800-600  B.C.  : 

Marine  trade  between  India  and  Baby- 
lon flourished  and  it  was  in  the  hands 
of  Dravadians,  who  may  have  been  the 
ancestors    of    the   present     Mohanas, 
Machhi  and  other  Dravadian  tribes  of 
Sind. 


South  Arabians  found  land  routes  to 
Egypt  and  the  Mediterranean  coast,  ex- 
porting by  land  goods  of  Sind  to  the  West 
until  the  end  of  1 5th  century,  when  Port- 
ugese dis-covered  the  sea  route  to  the 
Sub-Continent. 

In  Dr.  Nabi  Bakhsh  Qazi's  opinion  name 
of  Sindhi  King  was  Veersen  and  Sthavar- 
pati  was  his  title— MEHRAN,  Vol.  17, 
No.  4, 1968,  p.  99.  This  statement  is  how- 
ever doubted  by  most  authorr  ties. 


Ghirshman,  Iran,  p.  93.  During  the 
next  few  centuries,  the  system  reached 
Sind.  At  the  time  of  the  Mauryans 
(321-184  B.C.),  the  water  supply  to  farmers 
was  controlled  through  orifices  and 
sluices  and  every  farmer's  quota  of  water 
was  fixed,  as  is  reported  by  Smith  in 
CHI. 

Rapson,  Ancient  India,  p-  102,  puts  it 
800-600  B.C.  This  would  include  later 
Brahmana  period  too. 


Mookerji,  Indian  Shipping,  p.  62. 


64 


800-350  B.C.  : 

The  beginning  of  Painted  Grey  Ware 
at  Lakhiyopir  in  Sind  around  800  B.C. 

750  B.C.  : 

Iron  swords  found  in  excavation  at 
Damba  Koh  Gatt,  Jiwanri,  Zangian, 
Khuzdar,  Wadh  and  etc.  in  Baluchistan. 
Iron  must  have  been  well  established  in 
Sind  then,  as  these  sites  are  well  connect- 
ed with  Sind  through  a  number  of  small 
passes. 

725—150  B.C.  : 

Iron  Age  in  Rajistan. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF' SIND 


713-440  B.C.  : 

A  new  and  9th  post-Harappan  wa>e  of 
the  Indo-Europeans  as  proved  by  Dr. 
Dani's  exploration  at  Thana  in  Swat  and 
Timurgara  in  Bajaur. 

700  B.C.  : 

One -humped  camel  of  Arabia  appeared 
for  the  first  time  in  the  arid  districts 
(Thar),  to  the  east  of  Indus,  and  made 
Sind  famous  for  camel  breeding. 

700    B.C.  : 

Later  Br  ah  man  a  period.  Introduction 
of  cotton  plant  from  Indus  Valley  into 
Assyria  by  Se  inacherib. 


Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  pp.  127,  131 
and  153. 

Grey  Ware  is  associated  with  the  Iron 
Age  as  well  as  with  the  Aryans  by  some 
authorities.  The  Grey  Ware  associated 
with  it  covers  most  of  the  area  associated 
with  the  early  settlements  of  the  Aryans. 


Steins,  Gedrosia. 


• 


Agarwal  and  Kusumgar,  p.  122. 

Iron  Age  in  Sind  could  be  computed 
from  Pirak  (107±580  to  775±105)  and 
Rajistan,  as  about  800  B.C.,  though  it 
became  more  significant  in  the  Sub- 
Contine.it  between  600-500  B.C. 


Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  1 52. 

* 

Hellbush  and  Westphal,  'Jats  of  Pakistan*, 
p.  43.  This  statement  may  not  be  correct, 
as  camel  was  domesticated  in  Arabia  in 
1300  B.C.  and  won't  take  600  years  to 
reach  Sind. 

CHM,  p.  100. 

W.    King,    Proceedings    of   Society  for 

Biblical  Archaeology- 1909,  pp.  339-43. 


k 


■  ■  ;■>*»  i.yi 


VALLt*  MAUKS 


* 


* 


•ffl 


P 


LLLU 


Jl 


J4 


2» 

at 
at 


i»ONC.  M 

MAMI 


¥ 


D-  ■> 


*V 


^Nv 


aa 


inr: 


0 
0  c 

0 

# 


1 1 1 1 

1 1  I 
I  I 


u 


42 


A 


A 

■i 


45.      Comparative  table  of  symbol  on  Indus  valley  seals  and    punch    marked  coins    (Marshall-  1931  ). 


HAH  MP* 

CZ.AMTr.RYW 


46.      1750-  1700  B.  C.  Cemetry-H    Cultural 
ware  of  declining    Indus  Culture. 


s 


47.  1650-  1300  B.  C.  Jhukar  ware  produced 
during  early  period  of  declining  Indus 
Culture* 


1 


48.      I  100  -  900  B.  C.  Jhangar  Ware  produced 
during  the  late  declining  Indus  Culture. 


r 

- 


; 


Q 


(V 

o 

z 


c 


U 


i 


50,      Present   day   potter  and   his    wheel,   identical   to  as  it   was   in    3000   B.  C. 


I 


51.      Head   of  Darius-I   from   relief  art  Bistun  (.From   Art  of  Ancient  Iran  by  Edith   Porada  ). 


r 


r 


52.     Darius-I,  giving  audience.   Bas  relief  from  treasury  at  Persepolis. 


53.     The  hall   of  audience  at  Persepolis,   which   could  accommodate    10,000  people. 


1 


v 


. 


• 


54.      Winged    bull,  from  the  gate    way  of  tomb  of  Xexzes  at   Bistun. 


55.     Naqsh-i-Ruttam  :    Rock   Tombs   of  Achaemenian    Kings  and   fire  alter. 


-I 


r 


1 


r 


56.     333  -  323  B.  C.  Alexander  from  a  coin.  (Vincent,  Voyage  of  Nearchus  London   1797). 


f 


s 


60 


1? 


U  .  S    S.R 


J 


AFGHANISTAN 


■-\..<*..' 


f* 


'KAM 


1000-500   B.C. 

EXPANSION    OF   IRON   IN  THE   SUB  CNTINEN 


AND 

600-500  B.C. 

16  PRINCIPALITES    OR    MAHAJANPADAS 


ffrRAJAPURA 

)HARA 

►taksasila 


THE    16    MAHAJANPADAS 

1  KAMBOJA  9.  VATSA 

2  GANOHARA  10.CHEO 
3.KURU  11  ASMAKA 
4MATSYA  12  MALLAS 

5  SURASENA  13-  KASI 

6  AVANTI  \U  VAJJI 

7  PANCHALA  15.ANGA 
8.KOSALA  16  MAGAOHA. 

SINO    WAS    KNOWN   AS    SINDHU,  BUT   IT   WAS    NOT    ONE    OF 
16    STATES     OF   ARYANS. 


8Q0  b:c. 


^ 


Cost   line  In  COO- 500  B 


^ 


*, 


' 


VITASA 

ASIKNIOR     CHANDRA    BHAGA 

MARUDVRIOA      THE    URUNGIRA     OR    ARIAVATI 

PRUSHNI     OR     VIPASA _. 

SATAOURA 

SARASVATI 

PANCHANOA _ 

LAND    BETWEEN    SARSVATI    AND    DRISHADVMTL 

SAPTA  SINDHU  

SINDHU 

GANGA _ 

GUMT 

PAYOSHNI.. _. 


BAY     OF 
BENGAL 


NOTE- 
NORTHERN  PUNJAB  AND  GANOHARA  HAD  REPUBLICS  ANO  THE 
REST  OF  THE  SUB-CONTINENT  HAD  KINGDOMS.  THE  INTRODUCTION  OF 
IRON  IN  THE  SUB-CONTINENT  IS  CONNECTED  WITH  THE  MOVEMENT 
OF  RIG- VE DIC  ARYANS  WHO  ENTERED  IN  BALUCHISTAN  BY  DIFFRENT 
ROUTES  AROUND  900  B.C.  AND  MAY  HAVE  REACHED  SINO  AROUND 
800    BC.AND     THE     PUNJAB    BY   ABOUT   800-700    B.C. 

THE     DEVELOPMENT   OF     IRON     IN    SOUTH    INDIA    SEEMS  TO   BE 
INDEPENDENT    PROCESS    UN-CONNECTED   WITH   THE  MOVEMENT  OF  ARYAN5j] 

ARYANS    DID   NOT    ENTER     THE    SOUTH    INDIA    AND   HAD   NO    NAMES 
FOR    ITS    PROVINCES. 

SINO     IS    NOT   MENTIONED  AMONG    THE    MAHAJANPADAS    AND     IT 
IS     CONCLUOEO      THAT     ARYANS     DID   NOT     OCCUPY    IT. 


MODERN    EQUIVALENTS    OF    6TH    CENTURY  B.C 
GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES 


JEHLEM 

CHENAB 

RAVI 

SEAS 

SUTLEJ 

HAKRA 

PUNJAB 

BRAHMAVARTA 

PROBABLY    BAHAWALPUR 

INDUS 

GANGES 

GOMATI 

TAPI 


INDEX 

1.  PRESENT    PROVINCIAL    BOUNDARIES 

2.16  MAHJANPAOAS   OR    PRINCmftLfTIES 

3- TOWNS    IN    EXISTANCE   1000-550  B.C 

V  DATE    OF   INTRODUCTION  OF  IRON  _. 
5-DISPUTEO     BOUNDARY 


KAMBOJA 


_  800     B.C. 


600    KILOMETRES 


MARE 


P  R    A  S   0 


U   M 


^3= 


ttT 


640-325  B.C. 


SIND    PRINCIPALITIES    AND    CONTEMPORARY    ACHAEMENIANS 

YEAR 
B.C 

SIND 

CUTCH 

PERSIA'S 
ACHAEMENIAN      RULERS 

MA6ADMA 

GANDHARA 
PUNJAB    AND   NWFP 

? 

INDEPENDENT 
REPUBLICS 
1(0  —   519 

• 

HO     

t20     

110      

-  too     

-  s»o    

SIO     

-    57  0     

sto    

--     550     

.._  sto    

--     510     

--     520     

510     

500     

-  tto    

(10     

(7i    

INDEPENDENT 

PRINCIPALITIES 

OP 

SINO 

MO-SIS 

SAME      AS 
SIND 

• 

CYRUS  -  1 
t(0-iOOBC 

ACHAEMENIAN 

STARAPES 

GANDHARA 

SI  9  "(50/(00 

B-C 

CAMBVSES     -    1 
•00-SS9   B£. 

9       -      I4<     B.C. 

BIMBISARA 
55(-(93  B.C. 

CYRUS-II      THE     GREAT 

TOMB   AT     PASAR6A0AC 

550-510  BC 

CAMBYSES-II    530-S22   BC. 

BARDITA         5  22     B.C. 

OARIUS-I  THE   GREAT 

S22-m  ac. 

ACHAEMENIAN 

SATRAPES 

S1t-(50/(00   B.C 

PART 

OF 

SIND 

SATRAPES 

OF 

ACHAEMENIANS 

AJAT ASATRU 
(91-(»2    B.C 

XERXES 
(•«-(»S/G(  BC 

—    *to    

ARTAXERXES-I 
(S5-  (25   B.C. 

• 

ANURDDHA 

AND      NEXT     3    KIN6S 

INCLUDING 

MUNDA 

(62-A30  B.C 

-  (to   

(30     

(20     

(10    

(00     

-  390      

310     

-  170     

-  1(0     

350     

—     3(0 

-  -     330        — 
-     310 

INDEPENDENT 

PRINCIBUITES 

OF 

SIND 

(50/(00-125  B.C 

POSblBILY  (   FAMILIES 

IAI   OXYCANUS 

IMAHOTA) 

IBI  MUSICANUS 

IALORE)      . 

(C 1 SAMBUS 

(S  EH  WAN) 

ID)    MOERIS 

(PATALA) 

IE  )   MOERIS    11                 . 

(BARBARCAN) 
(F)    ARABITAI 

(KOHISTAN) 
<G)   OREITAI 

(LASBELA) 

SAME 
AS 

SIND 

BUT    NAME5 
OF  LOCAL 

RULEPS 

NOT 
KNOWN 

(50/(00-2*0  BjC 

WHEN  ASOKA 

ANNEXED         IT 

INDEPENDENT 
PRINCIPALITIES   AND  TRIBES 
POSSIBLY    OF. 

1.  ASPASIANS. 

2-  NYSAEANS 

1-  ASSAKENOI 

(-   MASSA6A 

AND     ACCSTORS    OF 
(a)  AMBHI    (Ta.ilo) 
(b)ABHISARA 
(c)  POROS     (Jihkml 
M)  SAUBHUT   (Salt  Ronge) 
(c)  SlBOi    {Tnb    of  Jhana) 
(f)MALLOI   (Multan.) 
(f)OXYORAKAI   (Lahore) 

450/«0O- 127/325  B.C. 

SISSUNAGA. 

K  ALAS  OKA 

AND 

SUCCESSORS 

(30  -  }t(  B.C  . 

DARIUS -11 
(2(-(0(   B.C. 

ARTAXERXES-II 
t0(-]S9/SI  B.C. 

1 

1. 
2. 
1 
( 
S. 
1 

-7. 

i 

NANDA     KIN6S 
NAMELY- 
U6RASENA. 
PANOUKA 
PANOU6AT1. 
BHU  TAPALA 
RA5HTRAPALA 
60VISHANKA. 
OASASIOAKA 
KAIRARTA. 
DHANA 

ALL   NINE  191 
3t(-221      B.C. 

ARTAXERXES  -III 
153-Sl/lllBC 

ARSES -HI           ll«-33*av. 

DARIUS- 111      33S-330BC 
ALEXANDER       CONQUERED 
IRAN   IN   110  B.C 

ALExANQE*     CONGUEPED 
IN    I2f    B.C. 

COMING  OF  RIC.-VTDIC  ARYANS 


65 


700-600  B.C.  : 

Housing    Peshdadia    (Also    Peshalad) 
invaded  Sind  but  was  repelled. 

668-626  B.C.  : 

Word  'Sindhu'  appearing  in  the  tablets 
of  library  of  Assurbanipal  means  'Indian 
cotton.  This  may  have  been  exported 
from  Sind,  though  contact  of  Sind  with 
outside   world  was  lost  after  1400  B.C. 

660-585  B.C.  : 

Zoroaster  lived  then.    He  founded  the 
religion  of  Zoroastrianism. 

Early  Upanishads  written. 

■ 
600  B.C.  : 

Zoroaster  who  is  thought  to  have  been 

born  in   Media,  lived  in  Ox  us  region 

towards  the  end  of  the  same  century. 

Here  he  was  killed  and  buried  on  the 

top  of  a  hill.    Cyrus  is  reported  to 

..... 
have  visited  his  grave. 


( 00- SO  B.C.  : 


The  later  stages  of  the  Tron  Age  in  the 
Sub-Continent  and  the  early  Historic 
Period.  Plain  unpainted  pottery  be- 
came more  in  fashion  in  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent, except  the  Harappan  areas  of 
Sind  and  the  Punjab  and  also  in  Rajis- 
tan,  where  it  is  found  to  this  day. 


Middle  of  1st  Millennium  B.C.  or  600- 
500  B.C.  : 

The  start  of  the  Historical  Times.  The 
leaders  or  early  historians  were  the 
Greeks 


MEHRAN,  Vol.  17,  No.  4,  p.  99. 

dod 

■ 

Gordon,  p.  164. 

The  author  is  mistaken.  Shipping  from 
Sind  coastal  area,  probably  continued  in 
the  hands  of  the  Dravadians  before  his- 
torical times. 


CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  100  and  131. 

Mc  Evedy,  p.  48. 

Mazdian  religion  reformed  by    Zoroaster 

was  spread  by  Achaemenians   throughout 

the    Empire.    The    Zoroastrian    temples 

survived  in  Sind  upto  the    11th  century. 

Ghirshman,  p.  161. 

Dr.  Daudpota  basing  on  Arab  travellers' 

writings    reports    the    existence     of   the 

Zoroastrian  temples  in  Sind. 

Bridget  and  Allchin,  p.  302. 

Considerable  drop  in  the  prices  of  crude 
ores  occurred  in  this  century,  partly  due 
to  more  economical  methods  of  smelting 
iron,  better,  communication  and  more 
security  after  coming  up  of  the  Achae- 
menian  Empire.  Ships  upto  200  tons 
were  built  to  navigate  the  rivers  like 
Nile,  Tigirs  and  Euphrates  (Possibly  the 
Indus  too).  Ghirshman,  pp.  87-88. 

■  ■ 


66 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  RIND 


600-550  B.C. 

Early  Upanishads. 

600-400  B.C.  : 

The  volume  of  the  Eastern  trade  reached 
un-precedented  proportions  due  to  land 
routes  built  and  maintained  by  Darius, 
and  use  of  money  as  medium  of  ex- 
change. The  trade  was  in  the  hands  of 
Phoenecians  or  Arabs. 


! 

■ 
0 

|        • 

600-232  B  C.  : 

Pali  used  as  official  Buddhist  language, 
but  there  is  lack  of  evidence  of  its  influ- 
ence on  Sindhi  and  even  there  is  lack  of 
evidence  that  Buddhism  had  spread  to 
Sind.    The  pillar  inscriptions  at  Shahbaz 
Garhi    and  Mansahra  (Asoka's    pillars 
nearest  to  Sind  border)  show  that  the 
Pali  itself  had  come  under  th;  influence 
of  local   languages  and  had  absorbed 
large  number  of  local  words. 
600-200  B.C.  : 

Sutra  period  of  Indian  literature. 
600-550  B.C.  : 

Earliest  Upanishads  written.  Upanishads 
represent  intellectual  phase  of  religion 


CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  100  and  131. 


Toussant,  pp.  26  ana  27. 


4N* 


The 


land    routes    were    developed    by 


Darius  I  connecting  Egypt,  Mesopota- 
mia, Iran,  Afghanistan  and  present  Pak- 
istan. Skylax  under  him  connected 
present  Pakistan  (Peshawar  to  the  mouth 
of  Indus)  to  the  Red  Sea,  via  the  Indus 
and  the  Arabian  sea. 

Aramaic  and  not  Pahlavi  (Persian)  was 
introduced  as  official  state  language  by 
the  Achaemenians. 

All  this  resulted  in  commercial  develop- 
ments.    Ghirshman,  pp.  14-46  and  163. 

At  this  time  trade  to  Iran  included  ivory 
from  Sind  and  timber  from  Gandhara, 
transported  via  Indus  to  the  Persian  Gulf 
for  building  Persepolis.  Ghirshman, 
p.  166. 

Sind  and  the  rest  of  Pakistan  must  have 
had  thick  forests,  in  which  eephants 
roamed. 

■ 
u  u.H    j 


CHI, Vol.  I,  pp.  97  and  100. 

CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  100,  131.  Basham  tninics 
later  Vedas    Brahmanas  and  early  Upam- 


1 


- 


coming  or  Ric.-vnnic  Aryans 


67 


and  were  outcome  of  the  influence  of 
Indus  religion  on  Rig-Vedic  Aryans. 

599-527  B.C.: 

Vardhamana  Jnatapura,  the  founder  of 
Jainism   lived  during  this  period. 

566  B.C.  : 

Probable  date  of  Buddha's  birth.  His 
name  was  Sidharta,  and  belonged  to  the 
ruling  tribe  of  Khatris  of  Sakaya,  who 
ruled  over  a  district  now  known  as 
Western  Tarai  of  Nepal. 

566-486  B.C.  : 

Buddha  who  lived  then  gave  his  preach- 
ings not  in  Sanskrit  but  in  Pali,  an  an- 
cient language  spoken  by  common  man. 
Sanskrit  was  known  only  to  the  Braha- 
mans.  Pali  was  the  language  of  the 
Western  Bengal.  Bihar  and  Orissa  area. 
In  due  course  of  time  it  became  Prakrit. 

558-530  B.C.   : 

Cyrus  the  Great  annexed  Seistan,  Ghazni 
and  Gandhara  but    he  never  invaded 

Sind. 

■ 


shads  were  written  between  900-500  B.C. 
which  is  more  acceptable  view.  P.  XIX. 
Campbell,  the  Masks  of  Gods,  pp.  172-179. 


• 
Munshi,  CHI,  Vol.  II,  p.  700. 
Rapson,  pp.  152,  153,  278  assigns  563-481 
B.C.,  as  the  period  of  his  life. 

■  *.- 
Bhirumal,  p.  57. 

Mujumdar  ,HCIP,  Vol.  II,  pp.  39-40. 
His  conquests  of  Erythrean  Sea    would 
mean  part  of  Makran  coast  only.  CHI. 
Vol.  I  p.  162. 


• 

■ 

— 

■ 

■ 

■ 


- 

ACHAEMENIAN  COHQUEST  OF  SIND 

(519-325  B.C.) 


550-476  B.C.  : 


552-486  B.C.  : 

Darius  lived  then.  Greek  geographer 
Hecateus  lived  during  his  reign. 

Hecateus,  a  Greek  historian  and  geo- 
grapher lived. 

540-468  B.C.  : 

Varhamana,  the  Mahavira  (the  great 
hero)  and  Jino  (the  victor),  the  Prophet 
of  Jain  religion  lived. 

Jainism  could  not  compete  with  Buddh- 
ism in  Sind,  though  there  are  a  few  tem- 
ples in  Thar  area  and  a  few  in  the  rest 
of  Sind. 

522-486  B.C.  : 

Darius-I  ruled  Iran.  For  the  first  time  in 
the  World  History,  Darius  constructed 
roads  at  the  Government  cost  and  even 
connected  various  countries  conquered 
by  him. 

519  B.C.  and  afterwards  : 

The  Karazes  (Water  galleries  or  sub- 
terranean canals)  introduced  in  Persia 
on  a  large  scale  and  brought  to  Balu- 
chistan by  Darius  I. 

In  Sind,  no  Karazes  exist  today  but  the 
Kachho  along  the  foot  of  hills  specially 
Wahi  Pandi  to  Naing  appears  to  have 
great  potential  and  Karezes  may  have 
been  put  in  there. 


Rapson,  CHI,  pp.  301,  354. 

Darius  is  Greek  version  of  Darayous,  as 

he  was  known  in  Persia. 

■ 

■ 

Mujumdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  p.  40. 
Plough  with  the  seed    drill   attachment, 
developed  by  Babylonians,  was  brought  to 

Iran  by  Elamites  during  the  rule  of  Cyrus. 

It    must  have   come  to  Sind.  after  the 

conquests  of  Darius. 


•  Mazh^ar-i-Shah  Jehani"  confirms  the 
existence  of  Karezes  in  Kachho  in  the 
17th  century. 


ACFIAFMFNIAN  CONQUEST  OF  RIND 


69 


519  B.C.  Onwards  : 

Under  Darius  I,  the  use  of  money  as  a 
means  of  exchange  became  general  and 
it  made  commercial  operations  easier. 
Its  use  was  introduced  by  the  Sumerians, 
but  due  to  incessant  wars  that  raged  in 
Mesopotamia  it  did  not  spread  till  the 
arrival  of  Achaemenians. 

Since  ths  rule  of  Cyrus,  the  Achaemen- 
ians gave  great  autonomy  to  the  con- 
quered peoples.  This  helped  in  pre- 
serving of  ancient  cultures.  Though 
this  was  admired  by  the  Egyptians, 
Summerians  and  Indians  (present 
Pakistan),  it  brought  quick  fall  of  the 
Empire. 

* 

519  B.C.  onwards  : 

The  Achaemenians  introduced  Aramaic 
as  a  state  language,  and  adopted  its  al- 
phabets against  their  own  language,  the 
ancient  Pahlavi.  Under  its  influence 
in  the  Sub-Continent,  the  oldest  known 
Indian  alphabet  Kharoshthi  was  deve- 
loped. 

The  people  of  Punjab  and  Sind  then 
were  using  a  Devnagri  type  alphabet, 
which  the  Iranians  called  Khar-Washti 
i.e.  the  lips  of  the  donkey.  The  Aramaic 
script  disappeared  from  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent  by  about  the  3rd  century  A.D. 


Toussant,    p.  26. 

Ghirshman,  p..  128. 

Darius  I  (522-486  B.C.)  also  linked  the 
whole  of  the  Empire  by  means  of  roads 
from  Egypt  and  Babylon  to  India  via 
Susa  to  Kabul  and  the  Indus.  After 
Skylax's  30  months  survey  of  Indus  to  its 
mouth,  he  planned  to  connect  the  Red 
Sea  with  the  Nile,  a  forerunner  of  the 
Suez  Canal,  to  connect  Egypt,  Sind  and 
the  Punjab. 

Ghirshman,  pp.  145  and  146. 

Ghirshman,  p.  240. 

Bherumal  thinks  that  the  word  'Kharoshthi' 
is  Khar-Ashthi  i.e.  donkey's  lips,  a  name 
given   to    the   Indian   alphabets  by  the 

Persians,  due  to   its  complicated  script 

looking  like  lips  of  a  donkey. 

Rapson,  Ancient  India. 

Achaemenians'  custom  of  loyalty  was  to 
offer  one's  daughter  to  a  noble-man,  a 
ruler,  or  other  king.  This  custom  was 
introduced  in  the  Sub-Continent  by  the 
Delhi  Sultans  and  the  Moghals.  Same  way 
the  Moghal  custom  of  bestowing  the 
ruje  of  a  Suba,  District  or  Province  to  a 
noble,  yet  keeping  him  in  the  court  as 
security  for  good  conduct,  or  retain  his 
whole  family    in    the    capital  was    an 

Achaemenian  custom. 


70 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S|N» 


519-518  B.C  : 

Skylax  of  Caryanda  in  Caria  took  voy- 
age down  the  Kabul  and  the  Indus  rivers 
by  a  flotilla,  to  open  water  route  with 
the  Persian  Empire,  along  the  Arabian 
coasts  to  the  Red  Sea.  Skylax  returned 
in  514  B.C.  The  flotilla  was  probably 
built  near  Peshawar.  The  exploration 
was  sponsored  by  Darius-I. 


519-518  B.C 


Herodotus,  Book  IV,  p.  44,  puts  voyage 
prior  to  annexation  of  Sind,  which  is 
unlikely. 

Woodcock,  pp.  17-19  puts  it  as  51 7  B.C. 
Toussant  thinks  it  was  around  510  B.C. 
Sykes  puts  it  as  512  B.C.  and  Jairoz- 
bhoy  509  B.C. 

Munshi,  HCIP,  Vol.  If  J  p.  700  puts  it  517 
B.C.  and  Rapson,  CHI-I,  p.  300  agrees. 

Inscriptions  at  Persepolis  and  Nakhsh 
Rustom  dated  518  and  515  B.C.  respect- 


.- 
Darius  Hystaspes  annexed    Sind    and 
Cutch  to  the  Persian  Empire.  • 

ively  and    engraved    in  Cuneiform,  put 


He  introduced  Daric  currency  in  silver 
and  gold  throughout  his  empire  which  ex- 
tended from  the  Upper  Nile  to  the  Indus 
rivers  and  from  Oxus  to  both  the  Ara- 
bian and  the  Mediterranean  seas.  The 
Empire  was  divided  into  satrapies,  each 
headed  by  a  Governor  and  its  defence 
under  a  separate  General,  both  being 
independent  and  directly  responsible  to 
Darius.  Sind,  the  Southern  Panjab  and 
Baluchistan  formed  the  20th  satrapy, 
the  income  from  which  was  360  talents 
of  gold  —  25  percent  of  the  Empire's 
total  revenue,  though  area-wise  it 
was  5%. 

514  B  C.  S^on  after  : 

Skylax,  a  Greek  (and  not  a  Persian)  was 
the  first  European  to  have  sailed  down 
•  the  Indus  and  the  Arabian  Sea.  He 
entered  the  Indus  near  Kaspapyrus 
(Kasyapura  or  Peshawar)  and  completed 
the  journey  in  2£  years  arriving  at 
Arsinoe  in  the  Gulf  of  Suez.  The  result 
of  this  voyage  was  that  Darius  was  per- 
suaded to  restore  Necho  FI's  plan  to 
connect  the  Nile  with  the  Red  Sea. 


Gandhara,  Punjab  and  Sind  as  part  of 
Darius'  dominion.  Memoirs  Archaeo 
logical  Survey  of  India  1925;  also  Journal 
Royal  Asiatic  Society.  Vol.  x.  p.  294:  Bili- 
moria,  JSHS,  Vol.  VII  p.  132.  The  Behistan 
inscription  of  520  B.C.  mentioned  Gand- 
hara as  province  ot  Dara's  Kingdom, 
showing  that  Sind  was  annexed  in  late 
520  or  519  B.C.  Munshi  HCFP-II,  p.  41, 
EHI,  pp.  40-41,  in.  1. 
Without  annexing  Cutch.  tho  Ind  is  delta 
of  that  period  could  not  have  been  effect- 
ively controlled  by  the  Persian  fleet 
under  Skyiax. 

I 


ACHAFMFNIAN  CONQUEST  OF  SIND 


71 


■ 


512  B.C.  : 

Pari  Nagar,  a  port  established  on  the 
coast  of  Rann  of  Cutch,  while  the  latter 
was  a  sea  creek. 

500-400  B.C.  : 

Ctesias  of  Cindas,  the  personal  physi- 
cian of  Artaxerxes  of  Persia,  lived.  He 
wrote  a  history  of  Persia  in  23  books, 
which  were  utilized  by  Plutarch,  Dio- 
dorus  and  Siculus.  He  also  described 
India  in  a  separate  book.  These  were 
abridged  by  Photius. 

500  B.C  : 

Hecateus,  of  Miletus  the  first  Greek 
geographer  wrote  his  geography  Peri  e- 
gesis  around  that  year.  Hecateus  col- 
lected information  through  Skylax  and 
states  that  a  tribe  called  Opiai  lived  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  river  Indus.  They 
had  a  strong  fortress,  where  Darius-I 
had  stationed  his  troops.  May  be 
it  was  Bahmanabad.  On  its  east  was 
the  great  (Indian)  desert. 

Herodotus  seems  to  have  collected  in- 
formation from  Skyiax  and   Hecateus. 

500  B.C.  : 

First  book  in  strictly  classical  Sanskrit, 
Yaska's  Ninukta  or  Vedic  difficulties, 
appeared. 


500  B.C.  : 

Maritime  relations  re-established  bet- 
ween India  and  Mesopotamia  via  Sind 
ports.  The  maritime  relations  between 
the  Indus  and  Mesopotamia  were  much 
older,  but  were  cut-off  for  many  cen- 
turies. 


I 

Fragments  of  Ctesias,  Gilmore,  London, 
1883. 

I 

Hecateus,     'Fragments'    edited    by    C. 

Muller,  Paris,  1841. 

Sykes,  Persia. 

L.    Pearson,    Early    Ionian  Historians, 

London,   1939.    He  is  regarded  as  the 

earliest  composer  of  prose  stylo. 

■ 
gta> 


Rapson,  Ancient  India,  p.  6.  At  that 
time  three  well  defined  types  of  Sanskrit 
existed,  first  old  Vedic,  second  language 
of  bards,  and  third  newly  developed 
classical,  vhich  has  remained  un-altered 
in  2500  years.  Mujamdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II, 
pp.  40-43. 

Brian  Doe,  Southern  Arabia,  pp.  51-55. 
v 


• 


72 

500-400  B.C.  : 

Like  Skylax  (originally  a  Greek  of  Car- 
yanda),  the  Persian  Captain  Sataspes, 
sailed  beyond  Gibralter  (Pillars  of 
Hercules).  This  resulted  into  Greek, 
Phoenician  and  Arab  mariners,  main- 
taining connections  between  the  Indian 
Sub-continent,  Persian  Gulf,  Babylonia, 
Egypt  and  the  Mediterranean  ports. 

500-400  B.C.  : 

The  blacksmiths  of  the  Sub-Continent 
invented  Wootz  process  of  making  steel. 
The  process  consisted  of  lightly  packing 
pieces  of  iron,  rice  husks,  leaves  of  as- 
clepias  gigantea  or  convolvulus  lauri 
folia,  and  wood  of  cassia  auriculata  as 
carbunizing  materials.  Crucibles  were 
heated  at  high  temperature  of  charcoal 
fire  for  24  hours  with  the  help  of  bellows 
and  at  the  end,  these  were  broken  and 
cakes  of  steel  extracted. 

486-465  B.C.  : 

Xerxes  ruled  Persia. 

486-468  B.C.  : 

Xerxes'  war  with  the  Greeks.  His  army 
included  soldiers  from  46  nations  in- 
cluding Sind  and  Punjab  and  was  com- 
manded by  29  Generals  all  of  whom 
were  Persians.  The  other  nations  includ- 
ing Meds  (of  Persia  Sind,  and  Punjab) 

held  only  sub-ordinate  positions. 

'" 

486  B.C.  : 

Probable  date  of  Lord  Buddha's  death. 

486-485  B.C.  : 

Tomb  of  Darius-I  son  of  Hystaspes 
at  Naqsh-i-Rustam  completed  with  ins- 
criptions stating  that  Sind  was  a  part 
of  Achaemenians   even  then. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Ghirshman,  p.  185. 
Also  see  entry  519.  A.D. 


1 


The  Indus  played  an  important  part  in 
transport  of  goods  from  the  whole  of  the 
North  Western  parts  of  undivided  India 
since  Harappan  Period. 


Forbes    R.J.    Metallurgy 
pp.  437-8,  Leiden,  1950. 


in  Antiquit 


M 


Also  Hunt,  EH.  Jour.  Hyderabad  Arch. 
Society,  p.  211,  July  1961. 

•     • 
Since  Ktesia's  swords  came  from  North- 
ern  parts    of  the    Sub-Continent,    this 
process  must  have  been  in  vogue  in  Sind. 

■  '  i 

I 
' 
i 

.1 

Ghirshman,  p.  191. 


Munshi  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  p.  700.  Rapson, 
CHI,  Vol.  I  puts  it  at  483  B.C.  and 
Charpentier  at  477  or  478  B.C. 


Archaeological 


Inscription 
India,  1928. 
Rawlinson,  'Herodotus', 
and  Vol.  IV,  p.  207. 


Survey    of 
Vol.  II,  p.  403 


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ACHAEMENIAN  CONQUEST  OF  SIND 


484-431  : 

Herodotus,  the  early  Historian  lived. 
He  describes  Darius'  conquest  of  Sind, 
Skylax  vovage,  sugarcane  cultivation  in 
Sind  and  Sind-Persian  relations. 

486-468: 

Xerxes  in  war  against  Greece  used 
cotton  clad  Indians  from  Indus  Valley 
and  Gandhara.  They  used  bows  and 
arrows  with  steel  point,  and  made  use 
of  elephants  which  were  used  for  the  first 
time  on  the  European  soil.  This  was 
also  for  the  first  time  that  Sindhis 
fought  on  the  European  soil.  Xe/xes 
suffered  defeat  in  469  B.C.  at  Plataea. 

483  B.C.  : 

Writing  in  Brahmi  alphabet  appeared 
for  the  first  time  in  Indo-Pak.  Sub-Con- 
tinent.  Prior  to  this  there  was  no 
regular  writing  of  books. 

476  B.C.  : 

Hecataeus  the  geographer  died. 

425-400  B.C.  : 

Peacocks  exported  from  Sind  were  do- 
mesticated in  Iran  and  Greece. 

400-300  B.C.  : 

Period  of  Mahabharata  which  describes 
Sind  ruler  Jayrath's  kidnapping  of 
Drupadi  etc. 

400  B.C.  : 

The  earliest  example  of  punch  marked 
coins  from  Bhir  Mound  (Taxila)  in  the 
Sub-Continent.    In    Europe    they    go 
back  to  700  B.C.    They  have   similarity 
with  the  script  of  Indus  Culture. 

400-200  B.C.  : 

Period  of  Ramayana,  an  early  Sindhi 
translation  of  which  was  done  in  11th 
century  A.D. 


73 


Selincourt  thinks  that  he  was  born 
between  490  and  480  B.C.  Book  m  of  his 
Histories,  describes  the  eonquests  of 
Darius. 


. 


Josaphus,  Jewish  Antiquities,  p.  340. 
Mujumdar  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  p.  42.  Wood- 
cock Greeks  in  India  p.  20,  Herodotus, 
VII,  p.  65  and  P.  Neogi,  Iron  in  Ancient 
India,  Calcutta,  1914. 

8  £Vfc 

Hiranandani  Popti,  Bharati  Bhasha,  pp. 

170-173. 

■ 

nee-' 
Jairozbhpy,  p.  81. 


Cunningham,  p.  43  has  assigned  1000  B.C. 
to  the  coins  of  Ancient  India. 


74 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


398  B.C.  : 

Ktesia  wrote  'Indica'.  He  resided'  at 
the  Persian  court  for  17  years  as  physi- 
cian to  Darius  II  and  Artaxerxes  Mine- 
mon,  probably  from  41 5-398  B.C.  The 
work  is  lost  but  fragments  are  preserved 
and  also  the  abridgement  by  Photius 
in  9th  century  A.D. 

387  B.C.  : 

Second   Buddhist  Council   met.    Some 
Sindhi  Bikshus  also  participated. 

375  B.C.  : 

Brahmi  and  Kharoshthi  scripts  evolved 
from  Aramaic  and  Phoenician  scripts. 
The  Greek,  Itallic,    Etrusean    Illyrian, 
Garian  and  Lycian  alphabets  were  also 
evolved  from  the  same  source.    The 
evolution  of  the  Kharoshthi  scripts  was 
the  result  of  the  Persian  conquests  of 
present  Pakistan.    Brahmi    had    been 
evolved  earlier  due  to  spice  trade.    The 
vowe's  were  added  later   on.   This  was 
an    Anatolian   achievement- 

350  B.C.  : 

Sind  had  already  become  independent 
after  Xerxes  death  and  was  ruled  by 
locaji  chiefs. 


367/6—283/2  B.C.  : 

Greek  historian  and  General  Ptolemy 
son  of  Lagus,  a  close  friend  of  Alexan- 
der, whom  he  accompanied  in  the  cam- 
paigns and  wrote  a  most  reliable  history, 
lived.  On  Alexarder's  death  he  be- 
came the  Governor  of  Egypt  and  later 
on  declared  himself  the  King,  laying 
foundation  of  Ptolemaic  dynasty,  which 
ended  with  Cleopatra.  He  was  in  Sind 
too. 


■ 

Mujumdar,  HCIP-Age  of  Imperial  Unity, 
pp.  378-379. 

McEvedy,  p.  ,56. 


McEvedy,  pp.  52  and  53. 

Xerxes  diei  in  465  B.C.  Sind  miy  have 
become  independent  by  about  450  B.C. 
rather  than  375  B.C.  as  stated  by 
McEvedy. 


His  history  now  extinct,  was  used  by 


Arrians. 


n 


ACHAEMENIAN  CONQUEST  OF  SIND 


75 


■ 


( 


« 


356  B.C.  : 

Alexander  III,  later  on  named  the  Great,        McCrindle.  Alexander,  p.  15. 
son  of  Phillip  II  and  Olumpias,  was  born 

at  Polla. 


336  B.C.  : 

Alexander  ascended  the  throne  after  the 
death  of  his  father  Phillip. 

334  B.C.  : 

Alexander  crossed  Hellenspont  on  his 
great  expedition  against  Persians. 

331  B.C.  : 

Sindhi  troops  along  with  Persian.forces 
fought  Alexander  in  the  battle  of 
Arbella  but  Persians  fell  to  Macedonian 
King.  Sindhis  used  light  bows,  and 
arrows  with  steel  points,  chariots  and 
elephants. 

330  B.C.  : 

Darius  III,  collected  troops  and  ele- 
phants from  his  Indian  domain  in- 
cluding Sind  to  fight  Alexander.  Same 
year  Alexander  defeated  him  and  burnt 
his  capital  Persepolis. 

Alexander  pursued  Darius  after  the  latter 
lost  the  final  battle.  Darius  was  murde- 
red by  his  own  officers  during  this 
persuit.  Here  he  decided  to  conquer 
and  annex  all  Persian  satrapies.  In  329 
B.C.  he  occupied    Bactria. 


• 


. 


McCrindle,  Alexander,  p.  1 7. 

McCrindle,  Alexander,  p.  19. 

■. 
Arrian,  Anabasis,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  8. 

- 

.   ■ 


Arrian,    Anabasis,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  6,  8-1  3. 
McCrindle,  p.  4. 

A.  T.  Olmsted,  in  The  History  of  the 
Persian  Empire  (Achaemenid  Period), 
Chicago  1948,  discusses  the  highlights 
of  their  rule  of  the  provinces  stating  that: 
The  Achaemenian  Kings  were  not 
despots,  but  like  the  Western  'King  in 
Colincil'.  They  celebrated  birth-days,  and 
were  hospitable  to  the  strangers.  They 
were  the  firs't  to  evolve  Provincial  Gov- 
ernment, with  its  autonomy  and  the 
first  to  provide  net  work  of  roads  con- 
necting the  remote  provincial  cities,  a 
predecessor  of  Roman  roads.  They 
also  established  the  first  world  currency 
against  the  local  coinage  of  Anatolians, 
having  figure  of  the  king  with  a  boy*. 
They  introduced  Aramaic  as  cff.cial 
language,  though  use  of  Avasi,  the 
ancient  Persian,  became  widespread. 


■ 
GREEK  CONQUEST  OF  SIND  AND  THE  REST  OF  'PAKISTAN' 


(329-324  B.C.) 


329  B.C.  : 

Alexander  conquered  Qandhar.  For 
the  first  time  he  encountered  Indian 
tribes. 

327  B.C.  : 

Alexander  crossed  Hindukush  Moun- 
tains enroute  for  India.  In  June  he 
was  at  Nikaia  (Jalalabad).  Hephaistion 
his  General  captured  Astes  (Hasti) 
Fort  in  August.  In  September  he  mas- 
sacred 7000  Indians  at  Massaga  of 
Assakenians.  Sieged  Aornos  in  Novem- 
ber and  captured  it  in  December. 

327-26  B.C.  : 

Alexander    nominated    O.iici  Kratius 
to  collect  information  on  the  Indus 
people  of  his  times.  The  latter  reported 
that  Buddhist  monks  or  Bikshus  were 
very  powerful  in  Sind.  Multan  and  Alore 
(in  upper  Sind?)  had  Sun-god  temples 
and  Sehwan  and  Patala  were  Buddhist 
centres.    The  Brahmans  attempted  to 
set  rulers  aid  populace  against  Greeks 
as  well  as  the  Buddhists.    The  rebellion 
of  Sambife  was  the  result.    At  Hingloj 
human  sacrifice  w as  in  vogue. 
■ 

32*  B.C.  July  : 

Mallians  collapsed  to  Alexandar. 

■ 


326  B.C.  May  : 

Defeat  of  Poros. 


Arrian,  Anabasis,  Vol.  in,  p.  27. 
Smith.  EHI.  p.  119. 

Bunbury,    History  of  Ancient  Geography, 
p.  351. 

EHI,  p.  104. 

■  ! 
Keith,  JRAS,  1909,  p.  567. 


HO,  p.  Vol.  H,  p.  700. 

Diodoms  Siculus,  Bibliotheca  Historica, 
Vol.  XVII,  pp.  98-100.  Arrian,  Vol.  HI, 
p.  14.  Strabo  XVI,  p.  6,  Smith,  J.R.AS. 
Oct.  1903. 


* 


GREEK  CONQUEST  OF  SIND  AND  THE  REST  OF  'PAKISTAN'  (329-324  B.C.) 


77 


J 


326  B.C.  October  : 

Alexander  marched  to  southern  Punjab 
and  defeated  two  principalities  of  Mai  li 
and  Oxydraki  and  by  November  at  day 
break  King  standing  in  the  sight  of  allon- 
prow  of  his  vessel  poured  from  golden 
bowl  liberation  of  river  Hydaspes,  Ace- 
sines  and  Indus.  His  Naval  fleet  con- 
sisted of  2000  war  ships. 

12fi  R  C   end  • 

Musicanus  chief  of  upper  Sind  includ- 
ing Bahawalpur  paid  homage  to  Alexan- 
der and  to  avoid  onslaught  from  the 
conqueror  presented  the  gifts  of  highest 
value  and  elephants.  Alexander  desig- 
nated Peithon  as  the  Governor  of  Sind 
below  Panjunad.  It  must  have  been 
from  Upper  Sind  that  he  dispatched 
Krateros  with  army  via  Bolan  Pass; 
after  fortifying  the  capital  of  Musicanus. 

326  B.C.  end  : 

Sambus  the  ruler  of  Mountain  tract  of 
Western  Sind  submitted  to  Alexander 
and  was  appointed  Viceroy.  His  capital 
Sindimitu  is  recognized  as  Sainduwan 
or  Sehwan. 


Justin,  Historica  Phillipica,  Vol.  XV,  p.  4. 

■ 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  89. 

McCrindle,  Alexander,  pp.  144-155, 
basing  on  Arrian,  and  pp.  322-251, 
translation  of  Curtius. 

Mc  Crindle,  Alexander  by  Curtius,  p.  253 ; 

andDiodorus,p.293. 

Arrian,  tr.  Selincourt,  p.  207. 


326  BC.  end-early  325 (Winter  season): 

Sa  nbus  seeing  that  Musicanus  his  ene- 
my had  won  favour  of  Alexander,  re- 
belled against  the  conqueror.  Oxykanus 
(Porticanus)  another  subordinate  ruler 
of  Upper  Sind  whose  country  formed 
an  Island  between  branches  of  River 
Indus,  took  stand  against  Alexander, 
but  was  defeated,  captured  and  killed 
after  3  days  siege  of  his  strong  fortress; 
booty  distributed  among  the  soldiers, 
elephants  retained  for  future  wars  and 
Porticanus'  men  sold  as  slaves. 


Whether  the  capital  of  the  Upper  Sind  was 
Alore  or  Mahota  is  un-settled  in  absence 
of  archaeological  explorations.  Mahota 
may  have  been  the  capital  of  Oxykanus. 
Diodorus'  Sogdoi  is  considered  as  Alore. 

:  ■*■::■■ 

Arrian,  tr.  Selincourt*  p.  201.  Curtius, 
tr.  McCrindle,  pp.  254-55, 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  199. 

McCrindle,    Alexander,   p.  159,    basing 
on  Arrian.  Cunningham,  pp.  263-266. 


Arrian,  tr.  Selincourt,  p.  211. 
Smith,  EHI, *p.  119. 

McCrindle,  Alexander,  pp.  158-61,  basing 
on  Arrian.  Alexander  had  interview  with 
ten  Indian  gymnosophists  or  yogis  in  the 
country  of  Sambus  according  to  Plutarch. 
Curtius,  tr.  McCrindle,  pp.  253-55. 

v 


78 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Alexander  moved,  occupied  Sambus' 
territories  city  by  city  including  his 
capital  Sindimana  (Sehwan?)  and  an- 
other city  whose  Brahmins  were  res- 
ponsible for  rebellion,  and  put  all  of 
them  to  death. 

Simultaneously  Musicanus  like  Sam- 
bus,  possibly  at  the  instigation  of 
Brahmans  rebelled .  He  was  defeated, 
captured  by  Peithon,  and  put  to  death; 
his  cities  razed  to  ground  and  inhabi- 
tants reduced  to  slavery.  The  Brah- 
mans here  too  were  executed. 

• 


Smith,  EHI,  P.  119. 

McCrindle,  Alexander,  p.  159,  basing 
on  Arrian  and  p.  255  basing  oncurtius. 
Diodorus  (McCrindle,  p.  292  states  that 
Sambastai  (Sambus)  collected  60000  foot 
soldiers,  6000  horses  and  500  chariots  from 

his  cities  which  had  democratic  form  of 
Government.  This  figure  of  soldiery 
from  present  Dadu  and  Larkana  districts 
seems  gross  exaggeration.  Alexander  put 
80,000  of  Sambus'  men  to  the  sword. 
According  to  Plutarch  (McCrindle, 
pp.  313-14),  it  was  at  Sehwan,  that  he 
interviewed  logymnosophists  (yogis  or 
Brahmans),  who  had  made  Sambus  to 
rebel. 

Narain,  Indo-Greeks,  pp.  39-42  and  67-68. 
McCrindle,  Alexander,  p.  160,   basing  on 


Arrian  and  Diodorus,  p.  293. 


325  B.C.  second  quarter  : 

While  still  in  Musicanus'  country,  Al- 
exander broke  his  army  in  3  units,  the 
first  was  to  proceed  back  via  Karachi, 
Sarwan  and  Seistan,  under  Krateros. 
The  others  accompanied  him  to  Patala. 

■ 

325  B.C  June,  July  /  August  : 

Alexander  proceeded  from  Musicanus* 
country  to  Patala  by  the  river  and  the 
main  body  of  troops  under  Aephaestion 
and  Peithon  was  to  march  along  left 
and  right  banks  of  the  river  respectively. 
Patala*s  ruler  had  paid  submission  to 
him,  while  he  was  busy  in  reducing 
Sambus.  But  as  soon  as  Alexander 
moved  south,  Moeris  the  ruler  and  the 
inhabitants  of  Patala  abandoned  the 
capita!  en  masse.  On  reaching  Patala 
in  August,  Alexander  found  the  city  and 


. 


EHI,  p.  119. 
McCrindle,  Alexander,  p.  100.  It  seems 
that  after  departure  of  Krateros  from  the 
Upper  Sind  towards  Bolan  pass,  he  was 
recalled  due  to  rebellions  in  Sind.  This 
became  the  second  departure  of  Kra'eros 
unit. 

• 

EHI,  119.         • 

McCrindle,  Alexander,  pp.   160-61,   bas- 
ing  on  Arrian  and  p.    256  basing    on 
Curtius.  According  to  Aristobolus,  quoted 
by  Strabo,  the  voyage  from  Nikalia    on 
Hydaspes   to  Patala    took   10     months. 
Diodorus     (McCrindle,   p.    293),     calls 
Patala  ^area  as    the    country   of    Brah- 
mans   (Bahamanabad)      and     its     capi- 
tal city   as  Harmatelia.    He    states    that 
the  fort  was  surrendered   after  a  fight  in 
which  many  of    Alexander's  men    lost 


K 


i 


GREEK  CONQUEST  OF  SIND  AND  THE  REST  OF  'PAKIST  AN'  (329-324  B.C.) 


79 


the  country  side  equally  deserted.  The 
native  guerillas  attacked  Alexander's 
working  parties  busy  in  digging  wells, 
but  were  repulsed  with  heavy  losses  to 
themselves.  Alexander  took  great 
booty  of  sheep  and  cattle  and  grains. 

- 

325  B.C.  August,  September  : 
Alexander  constructed  harbpur  and 
dockyard  at  Patala  and  proceeded  to 
explore  the  most  suitable  river  branch 
to  the  sea.  Greeks  were  unfamiliar 
with  sea  tides  of  the  Lower  Sind,  which 
first  pushed  back  the  ships  and  in 
receding  process  dumped  them  on  the 
dry  banks  of  river  causing  heavy  losses. 

325  B.C.  September  : 

Alexander  dispatched  his  naval  fleet  un- 
der Nearchus  via  Western  branch  of  the 
Indus  to  the  sea,  and  on  1st  September 
started  his  back  home  journey  from 
Patala    via    Arabiti    (possibly    present 
Karachi  and  Thatta  talukas)  halting  at 
Hab  river.  Nearchus  entered  the  sea  from 
Killuta  (Aban  Shah)  near  the  mouth  of 
Indus  on  October  2,  325  B.C.,  after 
having  spent  24  days  at  the  Island.    Al- 
exander   then    surveyed    the    Eastern 
branch  of  the  river  Indus,  which  then 
discharged  into  Gulf  of  Cutch  or  the 
Rann  of  Cutch.    He  found  this  branch 
better  suited  for  navigation. 

325  B.C.— 1200  A.D.  : 

The  Eastern  Branch  of  the  river  Indus 
dischanged    into   the   Sea    via    Koree 


their  lives  due  to  poisonous  arrows  anoint- 
ed with  deadly  tincture  made  from  body 
juices  of  certain    snakes.    Among  those 
wounded  was  Ptolemy,   but  was  cured  by 
an  antidote   revealed   to  Alexander  in  a 
dream.    When  the  city  fell  and  inhabi- 
tants submitted,   they  were  left  without 
exacting  any  penalty. 
Strabo,  XT,  chapter,  II.  p.  1 
Narain,  pp.  122,  181,  178. 
It  is  doubtful  if  wells  could  be  constructed 
around  Patala  where  water  is  brackish.  To 
the  north  and  west  of  it  water  is  potable. 

Narain,  Indo-Greeks,  pp.  123,  181. 

Diodorus      (McCrindle,    p.    296)    calls 
Patala  as  Tauaia. 

McCrindle,  Alexander,    pp.  163-165  and 
256. 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  119. 

Lambrick  has  recognized  Aban  Shah 
for  Killuta,  as  it  is  the-  "mly  rocky 
island  inside  the  then  sea.  The  only 
other  guesse^  are  Keamari  and  Manora 
as  islands,  out  they  do  not  fit  into  the  res- 
pective distances  from  Patala  as  well  as 
from  the  mouth  of  the  river  Indus.  Plutarch 
(McCrindle,  p.  316)  calls  this  island  as 
Skilloustis,  and  others  Psiltoukis.  Justin 
(McCrindle,  p.  326)  states  that  as  monu- 
ment   of  his  achievements,     Nearchus 

built  the  city  of  Barce  (Barbariken)  in 

these  parts. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

. 
Strabo,  XV,  p.  25. 

Woodcock,  p.  41,  thinks  that  guerilla 
activities  in  Sind  wore  started  by  Chand- 
ragupta's  followers.  This  is  doubtful  as 
latter  had  no  influence  in  Sind  until  SOS- 
SIM  B.C.  Nearchus,  a  Greek  from 
Crete  was  a  close frie.id  of  Alexander, 
and  Successfully  completed  his  voyage 
from  the  Indus  delta  to  the  head  of 
the  Persian  Gulf. 


Creek,  forming  a  Sweet  water  lake  near 
Lakhpat.  During  this  period  the  rela- 
tions be'ween  Sind  and  Cutch  were 
most  intimate. 

325  B.C     September  (end)  : 

Immediately  after  Alexander's  departure 
revolt  manifested  in  Patala.  Nearchus 
avoided  conflict  so  as  not  to  delay  his 
departure.  Shortly  before  this,  the  river 
had  changed  its  course  for  Greeks  saw 
more  than  1000  deserted  villages  in 
South  East  Sind,  as  reported  by  Aristo- 
bolus  to  Alexander. 

I 
325  B.C.  October  : 


Alexander  marched  to  Orietai  (Las  B;la 
district)  to  subdue  a  long  independent 
tribe  and  found  a  city  at  Rhambakia 
(possibly  Las  Be!a).  The  tribal  chiefs 
submitted  and  were  treated  with  con- 
sideration. Hephaistion  was  left  be- 
hind to  colonize  and  govern  Las  Bela 
and  Alexander  marched  back  via  Gad- 
rosian  desert,  where  he  lost  considerable 
part  of  his  army. 

325  B.C.  October  3  : 

Nearchus  fleet  anchored  at  Stura,  a 
creek  on  the  sea,  only  6  miles  from 
Killuta(Aban  Shah)  and  halted  there 
until  October. 

325  B.C.  October  6  : 

Nearchus  reached  1  mile  from  Koreatis, 
but  further  movement  of  fleet  was 
checked  by  sea  tide. 


325  B.C.  October  8  : 

Nearchus  fle^t  reached  Krokala  after 
ha  ing  travelled  9  miles  from  Koreatis. 
The  floit  ha  teJ  there  until  the  next  day. 


Arrian,  Anabasis,  tr.  Selincourt,  p.  214. 
McCrindle,  Alexander,  pp.  168-169 
basing  on  Arrian.  Diodorus  (McCrindle 
pp.  296-97)  states  that  at  Oritis,  Alexan- 
der divided  his  army  in  3  units,  one  under 
Leonnatos,  other  under  Ptolemy  and 
third  under  himself  for  home-ward 
march. 

Nearchus,  p.  170. 

Nearchus'  work     no    longer  exists,  but 

is     quoted     frequently     by     Arrian   in 

Anabasis  of  Alexander. 

• 

Nearchus,  p.  171. 

bsaol  *H 

Nearchus,  pp.  171-172. 
i 


^ 


1 


S 


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58.     326  B.  C.  Medal  struck  by  Alexander  to  celebrate  the  defeat  of  Poros. 


59.     Ptolemy-I   ( d.  280   B.C.).  Alexander's    brother,    his    trusted    general    and    founder    of    his    own 
dynasty  323-30   B.C.  In  Egypt   10  1/4  Inch  statue  In  NY  Earlsberg  alyptolek  Copenhagen). 


60.  Coin  of  Selukus,  general  of  Alexander.  He 
ceceeded  Baluchistan,  NVW.  F.  P.  and  parts  of 
Afghanistan  to  Chundragupta  Maurya  in  303  B.  C. 


61.  323  -  184  B.  C.  Punch  marked 
Coin  of  Mauryan  or  early 
Sungan  dynasties. 


3&    A 


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62.     323-231   A.  D.  Punch   marked  Coins  of  first  three  Mauryan  Emperors,  Chandragupta, 
Birdusar.i  and  Asoka. 


63.     3rd  century  B.  C.  Mauryan  column  found  at  Patalipatra  shows    heavy  Achaemenian  influence  In 
its  side  volutes  and  central    palmOlers. 


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64.    ( iii )     Kharoshthi  Script  on  Silver  Scroll.   Kharoshthi  was  derived  from  Aramaic  and  written  from 
right  to  left.   If  may  have  been   introduced  by  Achaemenians. 


' 


* 


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v  Ji U  >  6 1  ix  l  1 1  >  c 1 1 .  * jj^p; + s  |, 

fax*  <>^  *a*U^"i  £  a  I  a<u  uxjTCCAfd 


64.  (iv)     Brahmi  Scriptjrom  Girnar  Rock. 


65.      180-  160  B.  C.  Coin  of 

Menander,   King  of  Sialkot, 
who  ruled   Sind  too. 


66.     Coin  of  Demitrius 


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67.     Parthian   horseman. 


4. 

r 


68.     End    1st  Century  A.  D.  Beginning  2nd  Century.  Coin  of  Kujula-Kara-Kadphises-I  a 
member  of  great  Yuch-Chi  Tribe   later  on  called   Kushans. 


69 


Second  century  A.  D.  Coin  of  Kanishka  with  helmet  and  spear,  sacrifying  at  an    alter. 


70.  (i)      144-  150  A.  D  Another 
Coin  of  Kanishka-I,   Kushan. 


70.  (ii)      150-  162  A.  D.  Coin  of 
Huvishka  Kushan. 


71.     Kushan   plough  with  vertical  and  curved   yole  pole.  Gandhara  relief,  (Lahore  Museum). 


W.W" 


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OARUNTA 

KASYAPAPURA — V 
( ALEXANDER     ARCHOTAN)    ..  -J 
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^*  /    ii : 


I 


r 


1 


323-187  B.C. 

MAURYAN  EMPIRE 
TO  ITS  LARGEST  EXTENT 

IN  250   B.C. 


r 


A* 


* 


/      KALSI- 
QTOPRI 


KURUKESTRA. 


I? 


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if 

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\QpatalaV»*. 

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V 


IAN 


n.&lva75?  =--..  ynm 

KAP.LAVASTUO  •naNwI^RH. 


J 


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RUMMINDElI 


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INDEX 


^- •rupuath 

JOSANCHI. 


fSOPARA)       ^^       ^t' 


'•- 1 


I    MAGAOHA    CONQUERED    BV  CHANORAGUPTA 

(323-298  B.CJ     W   323   B.C 

2.  INDUS  VALLV    EAST  OF   RIVER  INOUS,  SINO 
•   I    LASBELA,  RECOVERED  FROM    POROS   BY 

BY    CHANORAGUPTA  IN    322   B.C 

3.  AREAS    WEST   OF    RIVER    INDUS   RECOVERED 
FROM    PETHON   IN   317  B.C 

4.  AFGHANISTAN     BALUCHISTAN  &  N.WF    PROVINCE 
CECEOED  BY   SELEUCUS    NICATOR    TO  CHANDRA- 
GUPTA   IN  302  B.C =      ♦     r     ♦ 

5.  WESTERN     DECCAN     CONQUERED    BY    BINDUSARA 

(298-272    B  C.) x     K     *     * 

6.  KALINGAR    CONQUERED    BY  ASOKA  (272-232  B.C ) 

IN     260     B.C •      •      •     » 

7.  PILLAR  INSCRIPTIONS • 

8.  ROCK    INSCRIPTIONS • 

9.  TOWNS    OF     4TH    &    3RD    CENTURY    B.C Q 

K>   CAPITAL    TOWN  .        |PATLIPUTRA  I 

11  INTERNATINAL     BOUNDARY      

12  PRESENT  PROVINCIAL    BOUNDARIES. 

T3    PRESENT    COURSE     OF    RIVER     INOUS m 

M    COURSE    OF    RIVER    INOUS    IN    3R0    CNTURV 'B.C. •*C*."...J 


M 


>"f* 


#j KALINGAR 


)  HAUL  I 

jr.        SINUS 
GANGETICUS 


* 


•SUVARNAGIRI  £ 

•few    \  V*Jr** 

I^erraguoi 


•kopbal 

#5io0haplire 


.:;^ 


NOTSi- 

CUTCH      MAY    HAVE    BEEN   RECOVERED 
M   322    B-C.  FROM    ITS  LOCAL  RULERS. 


&/ 


MARE 


PRASODUM 


. 


GREEK  CONQUEST  OF  SIND  AND  THE  REST  OF  'PAKISTAN'  (329-324  B.O.)  8 


325  B.C.  October  9  : 

Nearchus  left  Krokala  and  proceeded 
west,  towards  Cape  Monze. 

325  B.C.  October  10  : 

Nearchus  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Hab 
river  and  due  to  monsoon  camped  there, 
for  next  24  days. 

325  B.C.  November  3  : 

Nearchus  left  Cape  Monze  for  west- 
ward journey  covering.  4  miles  and 
halting  at  an  island  called  Domac. 

325  B.C.  November  4th  &  5th  : 

Neirchus  left  Domic  and  after  cr>\'er;iv 
19  miles  reached  Saranp-i  on  fl»a  '°-rc 
evening  5th  N  number. 

325  B.C.  November  6  : 

Leaving  Sarangrt  on  6th  November 
Nearchus'  fleet  reached  Sakala  on  the 
same  day  after  covering  19  miles. 

■ 
325  B.C.  November  7  : 

Neirchus  reached  the  Harbour  of  Moron- 
tobara  and  stayed  there  until  November 
8th.  Morontobara  was  at  the  mouth  of 
the  river  Arabis  (Hab). 

325  B.C.  November  9  : 

Nearchus  fleet  left  Morontobara  and 
proceeded  12-1/2  miles  to  Pagal  along 
the  coast,  stopping  only  to  collect  water 

325  B.C.  November  10  : 

Sailing  another  19  miles  Nearchus  fleet 
reached  Kabana,  a  desolate  place  in  the 
desert. 

325  B.C.  November  11  : 

Leaving  Kabana,  Nearchus  reached 
Kokala  12  miles  from  the  former  and 
came  to  the  shore  for  rest.  Here  he  met 


;C*J 

Nearchus,  p.  174. 

i 
Nearchus,  p.  773. 


Nearchus.  p.  1 78. 


Nearchus.  p.  179. 


a9)  .->.«  WK 

Nearchus,  p.  17S. 

Nearohui,  p.  183. 

Nearchus,  p.  185. 

Nearchus.  p.  185. 

Nearchus,  p.  186. 

bfiiE 


82 


.i-Qii 


Leonnatus  who  had.  been  left  by  Alexan- 
der to  fight  Oritae  (Las  Bela)  tribes.  In  a 
battle,  the  latter  lost  6p00  men,  against 
1 5  of  Leonnatus. 

325  B.C.    November  21  : 

Having  stayed  at  Kokala  another  10 
days,  Nearchus'  fleet  left,  covering  31 
miles  to  the  river  Tomerus,  where  he 
spent  5  days. 


225  B.C.  November  27  : 

Nearchus  fleet  after  leaving  the  mouth  of 
Tomerus  and  covering  19  miles  reached 
Malana. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

■ 

-- 


Nearohus,  p.  193. 


Nearchus,  p.  193. 


3C5  B.C.  (end)  : 

Assassination  of  Philippus,  Satrapa  in 
the  Upper  Sindhu  Valley  due  to  jealousy 
between  Greeks  and  Macedonians. 
Alexander  came  to  know  of  this  incident 
at  the  capital  of  Gedrosia  in  January 
324  B.C. 

324  B.C.  January  : 

Alexander  arrived  at  Poura  (Bampur), 
the  capita!  of  Gedrosia  (Makran),  and 
after  spending  a  month  there  marched 
to  Karmania,  reaching  Susa  in  Persia 
at  the  end  of  April  or  early  May. 
In  his  journey  through  Gedrosia,  in  60 
days,  he  lost  many  of  his  horses  and 
soldiers. 

323  B.C.  February  : 

Nearchus  reached  Dindotis  on  the  Per- 
sian Gulf. 

323  B.C.  June  : 

A.exander  died  at  Babylon.  The  Empire 
was  divided  between  his  generals,  but 
Sind  continued  to  be  governed  by  Pei- 
thon.     News  of  his  death  was  received 


Mookerjee,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  pp.  57-58. 
Jairozbhoy  thinks,  it  was  in  324  B.C.,  and 
on  his  death  Eudamas  and  Taxiles  were 
made  incharge  of  Taxi  la  region  and 
Poros  incharge  of  Sind,  p.  61 . 
McCrindle,  Alexander,  p.  177,  basing 
on  Arrian. 

Smith  EHI,  p.  120. 
Plutarch  (McCrindle),  p.  316. 

* 

Smith  EHI,  pp.  120-22. 
Hitti,  History  of  Syria,  p.  235. 
Holditch   Gates  of  India,  p.  122 


■ 

< 


1 


GREEK  CONQUEST  OF  SIND  AND  THE  REST  OF  'PAKISTAN'  (329-324  B.C.) 


83 


> 


- 


in  India  in  August,  but  rebellions  did 
not  start  till  end  of  monsoons  and  be- 
ginning of  cold  climate  in  October. 

The  main  reason  for  his  success  was, 
that  his  army  came  from  many  nations 
specializing  in  the  tactics  of  war.  For 
example,  Macedonians  were  the  best 
arrow  shots,  Greeks  excellent  swords 
men,  Persians  good  at  lance,  Turanians 
fastest  riders  and  Phoenicians  and 
Egyptians  were  master  sailors  and 
builders.  His  Greek  army  also  was 
scaling  the  fort  walls. 

323  B.C.  to  30  A.D.  : 

Ptolemy's  rule  of  Egypt. 

During  the  three  centuries  Greco-Egypt- 
ians systematically  explored  the  Eryth- 
raean Sea,  which  included  the  Red 
Sea  and  the  Arabian  Sea. 

324-80  B.  C.  : 

Accsieratei  penetration  of  various  ele- 
ments of  Greek  civilization  in  Sind, 
under  various  forms  including  religious 
arts  which  were  not  due  to  Alexander's 
conquest,  but  due  to  the  Bactrian 
Greeks,  Scythians  and  Parthians 
conquests.  The  latter  two  had  also  been 
influenced  by  the  Bactrian  Greeks. 

323-322  B.C.  : 

Revolt  of  the  Punjab  against  Greeks 
under  Chandragupta  Maurya.  By  the 
beginning  of  322  A.D.  Macedonian 
Authority  was  almost  at  the  end,  except 
small  remnants    outside  Sind. 


Alexander  was  sporting  with  his  doctrine 
of  East  and  West  assimilation.  Almost 
all  Greek  soldiers  were  married  to  Persian 
and  Indian  brides  of  noble  families,  but 
on  his  death  nearly  all  Greeks  put  them 
away. 

.      t      B     • 

moi* 


Toussant,  pp.  32  and  33. 


:  .3.8  Itt 

Smith,  EHI,  pp.  206,  122-123. 

i 


MAURYANS  AND  INTRODUCTION  OF  BUDDHISM  IN  SIND 


324-297  B.C.  : 

Reign  of  Chandragupta  Maurya.  He 
appointed  Viceroys  for  different  pro- 
vinces. In  his  regime  he  maintained  spe- 
cial Irrigation  Department  to  measure 
lands,  regulate  sluices  and  levy  water 
rates.  The  name  Maurya  is  derived 
from  ruler's  mother  Mura. 

321-184  B.C.  I 
Maurya  Dynasty. 

321  B.C.  : 

Two  years  after  Alexander's  death,  a 
revised  division  of  Empire  was  made  at 
Triparadisus.  Peithon  was  made  in- 
charge  of  the  Western  Frontier  of  India 
i.e.  area  west  of  the  Indus  and  Poros 
got  the  most  of  it  down  to  the  sea.  In 
this  partition,  the  provinces  east  of  the 
Indus  were  ignored. 

321  B.C.  : 

Eudamus  killed  Poros  after  Eudamus, 
Poros  and  Chandragupta's  joint  expedi- 
tion against  Magadha  and  its  fall. 
Chandragupta  annexed  Sind  as  far  as 
Eastern  Geirosia  (almost  the  boundary 
of  Las  Bela  with  Mekran)  to  his  empire. 
Peithon  finally  abandoned  India  and 
withdrew  to  Arachosia,  one  year  after 
Eudamus  departure  from  the  Lower 
Punjab  in  317  B.C.,  to  aid  Eumenes  in 
his  struggle  against  Anligonus. 

321-299  B.C.  : 

Chandragupta     Maurya  having  learnt 
from  the  Greeks  the  advantages  of  navy, 


Uft  Vol.  I,  pp.  424-425. 
Jain  authorities  give  the  year  of  his  acces- 
sion as   314-313  A.D.  CHI,   Vol.  5,  p. 
435. 

Smith,  EHI,  pp.  136,  139. 
HCIP,  Vol.  II,  p.  700  assigns  his  rule  in 
324-300  B.C. 

Rapson,  CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  424-462. 

Tarn,  W.W.,  Alexander  the  Great,   Vol. 
H,  pp.  310,  312-13. 

Diodorus,  ch,  XVIII,  p.  39  and  ch.  XIX, 
p.  14.8.  HaP,  Vol.  II,  p.  58. 

■ 

Smith,  pp.  160-161 

Mookerjee,     HCIP,     Vol. 

thinks  that  Chandragupta  started  the  war 

of  independence  probably  in  323  B.C.  or 

even  earlier. 

Woodcock,  p.  41. 
Mookerjee,  HCIP,  II.  p.  59,  thinks  that 
Eudamus  left  India  without  challenging 
Chandragupta,  who  had  ruthlessly  put  to 
sword  every  Macedonian. 


Toussant,  p.  72. 


- 
II,    p.    58, 


. 


MAURYANS  AND  INTRODUCTION  OF  BUDDHISM  IN  SIND 


85 


built  battle  fleets  under  the  Board  of 
Admiralty,  with  a  Superintendent  of 
ships  as  its  head. 

320  B.C.  : 

Death  of  Aristobolus,  a  Greek 
historian,  who  accompanied  Alexander 
in  his  campaign  and  wrote  a  history  that 
was  used  by  Arrian  and  Strabo. 

320-298  B.C.  : 

Chandragputa  Maurya  introduced  Pali 
as  the  official  language  in  the  Empire. 
Asoka's  pillar  inscriptions  are  also  in 
Pali.  # 

The  inscriptions  in  the  Gandhara 
(Qandhar)  Province  are  in  the  local  Pali 
having  some  similarities  with  Kashmiri, 
Sindhi  and  Siraiki. 

Pali  had  3  different  forms  known  in  the 
North- West  India;  first  in  Sind  and 
Rajputana;  other  in  Gujarat  and  Maha- 
rashtra and  the  third  in  Central  India. 

312  B.C.  : 

Death  of  Nearchus. 

312-260  B.C.  : 

Patracles,  an  officer  of  Seleucus  and  An- 
tichus  sailed  to  India  and  passed  in- 
formation to  Eratoshenes,  who  wrote 
a  geography  describing  correctly  the 
Indus  as  well  as  rhomboid  shape  of  the 
Indo-Pak  Sub-Continent,  its  climate, 
rains  etc. 

305  or  304  B.C.  : 

Invasion  of  India  by  Seleucus  of  Syria, 
his  compromise  with  Chandragupta  and 
sesossion  of  large  part  of  Ariana  by 
Seleucus,  passing  Las  Bela,  Gandhara 
and  the  western  parts  of  Arachosia  and 
Geirosia  (area    bounded  between  the 


Mookerjee  gives  detailed  account.  Indian 
Shipping. 

■ 

■ 
Bhirumal,  pp.  44-45. 

Refer  entries  325  B.C. 

Strabo,  Vol.  I,  ch.  I,  p.  22  and  ch.  XV, 
pp.  11  aid  14. 

. 

Plutarch:  Lives,  Ch.  LXII. 
Smjth,  pp.  45,  206.  Tarn  Greeks  in  Bac- 
tria  and  India,  p.  100  and  note  4.  Wood- 
cock puts  it  as  306  B.C.  which  is  incorrect. 
P.  47.  Smith  puts  the  invasion  in  305  or 
304  and  the  defeat  in  303  B.C. 


86 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Indus  and  north-south  line  from  Jalal- 
abad, Quotta,  Kelat  to  Porali),  to  Chan- 
dragupta  in  return  for  500  elephants. 
This  put  Chandragupta  in  possession 
of  the  whole  of  Sind  (which  at  that  time 
included  parts  of  Lasbela)  within  18 
years  of  its  conquest  by  Alexander.  With 
these  elephants  Seleucus  was  able  to 
defeat  Antigonus  at  Ipsus  in  301  B.C. 

302  B.C.  or  after  : 

Seleucus—  Nicator  concluded  a  treaty 
with  Chandragupta  Maurya,  and  his 
subjects  made  voyages  to  Indian  Sub- 
Continent  to  procure  spices.  Such  at- 
tempts were  discouraged  by  the  attacks 
of  un-subjugated  people,  the  inhabitants 
of  Kuwait  and  adjoining  territories. 
Seleucus  kept  fleets  in  the  Gulf  to 
protect  the  navigation. 

302-288  B.C.  : 

Megasthenes,  the  Seleucus"  ambassador, 
lived  in  India  in  Chandragiipta's  court 
and  wrote  about  Indian  administration, 
caste  system,  commerce,  customs,  re- 
ligion etc.  The  work  as  comes  down 
to  us,  was  written  by  Arrian  and  called 
Indica.  Numerous  fragments  of  it  have 
beei  quoted  by  other  writers. 

300-200  B.C.  : 

During  the  Mauryan  rule,  Lakhshan 
wrote  the  grammar  of  Prakrit.  It  has 
been  translated  into  English  by  Dr. 
Hcernle. 

300-65  A.D. 

Greak  regained  lingua  franca  of  diplo- 
macy and  commerce  from  the  Bactrian 
Greeks  to  the  Kushans.  All  these 
rulers  adopted  Gresk  script  which  was 
in  use  in  parts    of    Iran    upto    8th 


His  hold  on  Sind  must  have  been  nominal. 
It  was  his  grandson  Asoka  who  annexed 
Sind.  Chandragupta  is  called  Sand- 
rokottos  by  the  Greek  writers  and  is 
recognized  from  the  Sanskrit  historical 
play ,  the  Mudra-Raksbasa. 

Toussant,  p.  32. 

Ghirshman  p.  320 

Pliny   reports   two    expeditions   against 

Gerrha  (in  Kuwait),  one  by  Antiochus  III 

in  205  and  the  other  by  Antiochus  IV  in 

165  B.C. 


i 


The  Sind  ports  were  used  for  the  export 
of  products  of  the  whole  of  the  North- 
western Sub-Continent. 

• 
CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  389,  425. 
McCrindle,      'Megasthenes,'    Calcutta, 
1877,  EHI,  p.  211. 

Bhirumal.  p.  36. 

Ghirshman,  p.  267. 

This  applies  more  to  Iran  than  to  Pak- 
istan. Greek  language  does  not  seem  to 
have  influenced  Sindhi  and  Punjabi. 
However,  coins  of  the  kings  of  the  above 


MAURYANS  AND  INTRODUCTION  OF  BUDDHISM  IN  SIND 


87 


century  A.D.  In  the  present  Pakistan 
area,  Kharoshthi  script  was  used  along 
with  the  Greek,  on  the  coins  after 
Bactrian  Greeks. 

298  B.C.  : 

Chandragupta  probably  abdicated  after 
12  years  famine,  lived  as  Jain  ascetic 
and  ultimately  committed  suicide  by 
starvation.  His  son  Bindusara  became 
the  Mauryan  King.  Antiochus  Sorter 
(280-261  B.C.),  successor  of  Seleucus 
sent  Daimachus  as  an  ambassador  to 
Pataliputrain296  B.C. 


period    have   Greek      script.      Bactrian 
Greeks  conquered  Sind  in  187  B.C. 


275-195  B.C.  : 

Greek  geographer  Eratosthenes  of 
Cyrene  lived.  Educated  at  Athens,  he 
joined  Alexandrian  Museum  under 
Ptolemy-III,  and  in  225  B.C.  became  the 
librarian.  He  was  the  first  scientist 
to  hold  that  post.  His  writings  are  lost 
but  mudh  of  his  geographical  material 
was  used  by  Ptolemy  and  Strabo.  His 
geography  mentioned  Sind  in  greater 
details. 

273  „r  272  B.C.  : 

Accession  of  Asoka  Vardhana  as  em- 
peror of  India  after  the  death  of  his 
father  Bindusara.  He  had  a  governor  at 
Taxila  for  the  present  East  and  West 
Punjab,  NWFP,  Kashmir,  parts  of 
Baluchistan  and  possibly  Sind. 

269  B  C    • 

Asoka  coronated.  Sind  was  a  part   of 
his  domain. 

259  B.C.  : 

Hunting  abolished  by  Asoka. 


Smith,  pp.  154,  147. 
E.  B.  Havel,  p.  91. 

He  was  called  Amitrochates  (Sanskrit 
Amitraghata  or  the  killer  of  foes)  by  the 
Greek  sources.  Daimchus  wrote  an 
account  of  the  Sub-Continent,  'Indica', 
now  lost,  but  reported  by  Strabo 
as  the  best  account.*  Ptolemy  Philadel- 
phus,  the  king  of  Egypt  (185-247  B.C.), 
also  sent  Dionysius  as  his  ambassador  to 
India. 

Sorton,  H.S.  George,  A  History  of 
Science,  Cambridge  (Mass.),  1953-1959,  2 
Vols.  Toussant,  p.  34  puts  him  between 
240-195  B.C. 


CHl,  Vol.  I,  p.  453. 


Smith,  EHI,  pp.  206,  164    &  172. 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  206. 

Cftl,  Vol.  I,  p.  453,  puts  it  as  270  B.C. 

HCIP,  Vol.  II,  puts  it  as  273  B.C. 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  206. 


\ 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S1ND 


257  B.C.  : 

Publication  of  Minor  Rock  Edicts  I,  III 
and  IV  of  Asoka. 

256  B.C.  : 

Publication  of  complete  series  of  14 
Rock  Edicts  by  Asoka.  These  are 
written  in  Kharoshthi  in  the  North 
Western  parts  of  his  Empire  and  in 
Brahmi  in  the  rest  of  his  Empire.  Kharo- 
shthi was  written  from  right  to  left  and 
Brahmi  from  left  to  right.  Both  scripts 
were  of  Semitic  origin.  Brahmi  was 
probably  derived  from  Phoenician  wri- 
ting represented  by  Moabite  stone  in- 
scription (890  B.C)  and  may  have  been 
brought  to  the  Sub-Continent  by  Meso- 
potamian  merchants  via  Sind. 

253  BC   • 

Buddhist  Council  met  at  Pataliputra. 

251  B.C  : 

As  per  Ceylonese  chronology  the  2nd 
Buddhist  Assembly  met.  Smith  is  of  the 
opinion  that  it  was  during  last  10  years 
of  Asoka's  rule  i.e.  242—232  B.C. 

232  B.C.  : 

Asoka  died  and  was  succeeded  by 
Dasartha.  The  break  of  Mauryan  em- 
pire started.  His  death  proved  a  deci- 
sive blow  to  the  United  Indian  hege- 
mony and  brought  ultimate  fall  of 
the  Mauryan  Empire. 

224  B.C.  (approx)  : 

Sangata  became  the  Mauryan  King. 

216  B.C.  (approx)  : 

Salisuka  became  the  Mauryan  King. 

206  B.C.  : 

Somisarman  became  the  Mauryan  King. 


Smith,  EHI,  p.  206 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  207. 

Rapson,  'Ancient  India',  p.  9. 

Brahmi  is  the  parent  stock  from  which 

all  Indian  alphabets  have  been  derived. 

Kharoshthi    is    a    variety    of   Aramaic 

script  brought  to  the  Punjab  and  Sind 

by  Darius-I. 


' 


Rapson,  CHI.  Vol.  I,  p.  453. 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  169  and  206. 
Uiv 

Smith.  EHI.  207. 

Mookerjee,  HCIP,  Vol.  II.  p.  92  puts  it 

as  236  B.C. 

I    - 


Smith,  EHI,  p.  207. 
Smith,  EHI,  p.  207. 


S 


Smith.  EHI.  p.  207. 


324  -187  B.C. 
MAURYANS   AND    THEIR    CONTEMPORARIES 


SI  no's       RULE  ft 


RETMON  J2S  -122 


rOPOS   322-  32 1 


CHANDRAGURTA 


GOVERNORS 


230        BC 

OR 
SOON   AFTER 
RROBABIV 
INDEPENDENT 

LOCAL 

PRWCIPAUTlES 

2  30-114 


BACTRIAN 
GREEKS 


CHANORAtUPTA 
MAURXA 
M»-  M  BC 


BINDU5ARA 

MAURW 
201  -272/72 


A  SOU 
MAURYA 
271/72-232 


OAtARTHA 
212-  22* 


SIIISUKA  200   -  119 

STAOHANWAN 
Ill-Ill 


BRIMADRAIHA       111-117 


SUN*A      RULE 
l«7  _    US 


III  DEPENDENT 
ROROS  ?  -    III 


SCLEUKOS-I 
NIKATOft 
JI2-JT 


AN  TIO  CHOS  -  1 

SORTOR 


ANriOCHOS-ll 

TMEOS 

211  -  l*t 


SELEUKOS-11 
KALLINKOS 
2t«  -  22S 


ANTIOCMES    HIERAX 
SELEUKOS-lll    SORTER 


ANTIOCHOS 
ME  GAS 
221-  II) 


SELEUKOS-II 
117   -    I7S   BC 

K 


HAUIVAN 
GOVERNORS 
Ml-? 


MAURY  ANS 
12I-M0    BC 


MOST    PROBABLY 
LOCAL 

principal  rres 


BACTRIM         GREEKS 
H7-ISI6C 


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SUPPARA 
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(Bombay) 


INDEX 

1.  ROUTE  OF  MENANDERS 
EXPEDITIONS 


2.  ROUTE  OF  DEMRETIUS* 
EXPEDITIONS  

3.  MODERN     TOWNS I 

4. TOWNS    OF    2nd     CENTURY   « 

barborican    is  the    same 
as   Alexander's  heaven. 

?100        200        300         400        500         60 
r  r  i   i  i    i 

MILES 


187-184  B.C 


ROUTE  OF  CONQUEST  OF  SIND 
BY  BACTRIAN  GREEKS 
(DEMETRIUS  AND  MENA^DER) 


ELANCON 


MARE 


MOOUTON 

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AGRAHHON 


PRASODUM 


DRAWN     UNDER     GUIDANCE      OF     M.  H.  PANHWAR 


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1 


M AURYANS  AND  INTRODUCTION  OF  BUDDHISM  IN  SIND 

200  B.C.  : 

Silisuka  became  the  Mauryan  King. 


89 


200-58  B.C.  : 

Yavana  princes  of  the  house  of  Euthy- 
damus  ruled. 

200-25  B.C.  : 

Bilingual  coins  struck  by  the  Bactrian 
Greek  princes  which  give  clue  to  deci- 
pherment of  Brahmi   and  Kharoshthi 
scripts. 

199  B.C.  : 

Satadhanwan  became  the  Mauryan  King. 

197  B.C.  : 

Antiochus  III  the  Greek  ruler  of  Bactria 
was  hopelessly  involved  in  struggle  with 
the  West.  Euthydemus  extended  sway 
over  the  southern  Afghanistan  and  North 
West  India  but  his  rule  in  India  was 
not  established  in  his  life  time  . 

191  B.C.  : 

Brihadratha  became  the  Muaryan  King. 

190-160  B.C.  : 

Demetrius  the  Indo-Greek  King  ruled 
after  the  death  of  his  father  Euthy- 
demus. Appollodotus  and  Menander 
were  his  contemporaries. 

187  B.C.  : 

Army  General  Pushyamitra  Sunga, 
killed  his  master,  the  last  Mauryan  King 
Brihadratha  and  thus  ended  the  Maur- 
yan Dynasty,  giving  place  to  Sunga 
rule. 


Mookerjee,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  pp.  103-105. 
Rapson,  CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  488-516. 


Rapson,  Ancient  India,  p.  10. 


Smith,  EHI,  p.  207. 
Munshi,  HCI,  Vol.  II,  P.  105. 


. 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  207. 


CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  399-402. 

HCIP,  Vol.  II  puts  it  as  190-165  B.C. 


Mookerjee,  HCIP,  Vol.  II.  p.  90. 
Smith,  EHI,  p.  207  puts  it  as  185  B.C. 
and  Rapson,  'Ancient  India',  p.  58,  as 
184  B.C.  He  bases  Mauryan  rule  of 
1 37  years,  on  five  of  Puranas. 




■ 


• 


BACTRIAN  GREEKS  I 


187-184  B.C.  : 

Demetrius  I  son  of  Euthydemus  con- 
quered Eastern  Gedrosia  and    Patalene 
(Sind  Delta)  and  his  Lieutenant  Apollo- 
dotus  conquered   Surashtra  (Kathiawar) 
and  Sagardiva  (Cutch),  after  the  collapse 
of  Magadha.  He  established  a  city  Deme- 
trias,  probably  at  the  site  of  Patala.  They 
returned  to  Taxi  la  leaving  Sind  to  be 
ru  led  by  a  military  Viceroy .    Demetri  u  s 
entered.  India  at    Qandhar  and  Bolan 
pass,  and  after  conquest  of  Baluchistan, 
marching  along  Makran  coast  reached 
Patala.    Though    he    acquired     large 
areas  in  the  Sub-Continent,  he  lost  his 
own  kingdom  of  Bactria  to  his  rival 
Eucratides. 


■ 

CULTURAL  EXCHANGE 

Strabo,  ch.  XII 1,  p.  1. 

Tarn,  pp.  152,  175-77,  174,  141-42-92. 

Woodcock,  pp.  74,78. 

Narain,  Indo-Greeks,  pp.  35-42,  68,  92, 

122-125,    181,  rejects  the  above  theory 

that  Demetrius  or  Menander  conquered 

Sind. 

■ 


I{  is  possible  that  for  the  conquest  of 
Gujarat  and  Kathiawar,  they  may  have 
explored  the  sea-coast  and  even  ma'de  use 
of  the  Indus,  like  Skylax.  Since  the 
Rann  of  Cutch  was  not  dry,  the  Cutch 
district  acted,  as  a  bridge  between  Sir.d  on 
one  side  and  Kathiawar  on  the  other  side. 


165  B.C.  : 

Death  of  Demetrius,  who  was  succeeded 
by  his  son   Agathocles.    During   the 
lattoi's  rule  of  5  years  he  conquered 
Gujarat,  Khambat  and  Kashmir. 


165  B.C.  to  160  B.C.  : 

Agathocles  conquered  Gujarat,  Khambat 
and  Kashmir.    Sind  was  already  in  his 
possession. 

160  B.C.  : 

Agathocles  died  leaving  his  daughter 
Agathocleia  as  the  only  heir  to  tho 
throne.  She  married  Menander.  the 
Governor  of  Kabul,  who  thus  became 
the  ruler  of  Sind,  the  Punjab,  Kashmir 
and  Gujarat. 


. 
Woodcock.  Greeks  in  India,  pp.  78-86. 
Basham,  p.  58,  states  that  after  Demetrius, 
another  usurper,  Eucracticles  established 
himself  at  Bactria,  but  Sind  and  other 
territories  were  being  controlled  by 
Demetrius'  family. 

See  above. 


BACTR1AN  GREEKS  AND  CULTURAL  EXCHANGE 


91 


f 


Menander  appointed  Appollodotus,  his 
son  from  a  former  wife,  as  the  Gover- 
nor of  Patala  to  control  Sind,  Cutch, 
Gujarat,  Kathiawar,  Khambat  etc. 

150-145  B.C.  : 

Menander,  a  general  of  Demetrius,  who 
after  the  conquest  of  Sind  by  the  latter 
was  responsible  for  the  conquest  of 
North  India,  died  at  an  advanced  age. 
His  Kingdom  included  Sind.  The  Em- 
pire extended  from  Mathura  to  Broach 
and  the  whole  Northern  India  and 
Afghanistan.  He  was  succeeded 
by  his  minor  .  son  Strato-I  and 
his  mother  Agathocleia  became  care- 
taker. Sind  was  however  governed  by 
Appollodotus. 

145  B.C.  (latest)  : 

On  Menander's  death  Queen  Agatho- 
cleia ruled  his  Kingdom  on  behalf  of  h«.r 
minor  Son  Strato-I.  Appollodotus,  son 
of  Menander  from  1st  wife,  kept  ruling 
Sind,  Makran,  Cutch  and  Gujarat. 

140  B.C.  : 

The  process  of  Indianization  of  the 
Indo-Greeks  began,  soon  after  the  death 
of  Menander. 

140  B  C.  and  after  : 

Bactrian  Coins  go  over  to  square 
shape,  with  motifs  of  the  Sub-Continent 
on  the  reverse  and  also  introduction  of 
Indian  scripts  and  titles  on    the  coins. 

137  B.C.  : 

A  deputation  of  Sindhi  Bikshus  went 
from  Patala  to  Ceylon,  at  the  order 
of  Menander— a  Sindhi  Bikshu  Sangh 
left  Patala  with  the  deputation. 


Woodcock,  Greeks  in   India,  pp.  78-H7. 

98-100. 

Mookerjee,    HCIP,    Vol.    II,    Imperial 

Unity,  pp.  85-100. 

I 

Tarn  pp.  141-42,226. 

Woodcock  p.  113,  puts  the  date  of  his 

death  as  130  B.C. 

! 
■ 

« 
Tarn.  pp.  141,  142  &  266. 

Woodcock,  pp.   113-114.  thinks  he  died 

in   130  B.C. 

■ 

■ 

Woodcock,  pp.  94,  104,  113-114. 
He  thinks  Menander  was  alive  then,  and 
lived  upto  130  B.C.     The  deputation  in 
fact  may  have  been  sent  by  his  successors, 
if  he  died  in  145  B.C. 


y2 

128  B.C.  : 

Yueh-chi  defeated  Scythian  tribes  of 
Bactria  with  a  force  of  700,000  horse 
archers,  uprooting  all  Greeks. 

123-88  BC.  : 

Mithradates  IT  Gre it. King, ruled  Parthia. 

120fc.C.  t»  100  B.C.  : 

Scythian  tribes  of  Seistan  after  their 
defeat  during  the  reign  of  Mithiridates 
the  Great,  at  hands  of  Yueh-chi,  moved 
via  Qandhar,  Bolan  and  Mulla  Pass  into 
Sind,  taking  possession  of  Abiria,  or  the 
Upper  Sind,  thereafter  Patalene  and 
eventually  Cutch  and  Kathiawar.  The 
first  invasion  of  the  northern"  Sind 
started  in  120  B.C.  and  there  was  a  halt 
before  their  movement  to  the  south. 

120  B.C.  : 

Eudoxus   began  his   1st   voyage  from 
Alexandria  to  India. 

119  B.C  : 

During  the  rule  of  Ptolemy  VIII,  Eure- 
getes  U's  (146-117  B.C.),  coast  guards 
brought  a  man  from  a  wrecked  ship,  half 
dead  from  thirst  and  hunger  to  the 
King's  Court,  where  geographer 
Eudoxus  of  Cyzicus  was  also  present. 
The  man  told  them  that  he  was  from 
India  and  offered  to  guide  Eudoxus 
there.  The  latter  made  his  first  trip  to 
the  Indian  Sub-Continent  in  119  B.C. 
and  the  second  in  114  B.C.  Eudoxus 
became  the  second  Greek  to  have  travel- 
led between  Egypt  and  the  Sub-Conti- 
neit.  The  first  wis  Skylix  who  also 
was  a  Cretean  Greek  and  was  patronized 
by  Darius-T. 

1 17    81  B.C.  : 

Ag.it Karchides,  tutor  of  Ptolemy  VIII 
Sorter  IT  King  of  Egypt,  wrote  descrip- 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Tarn,  pp.  300-301. 


CHI,  Vol.  I,  p.  512. 


CHI,  Vol,  I,  pp. 

563,  567; 

Narain,  pp.  140, 

141. 

Tarn,  pp.  232-501. 

Woodcock,  p.  140. 


Toussant,  p.  34. 


: 


• 

' 

v 

Toussant,  p. 34. 

■^ 


1 


BACTRIAN  GREEKS  AND  CULTURAL  EXCHANGE 


93 


tion  of  the  Erythraean  Sea.  It  has  re- 
ferences on  Sind's  trade  with  the  Sub- 
Continent  and  Egypt. 


115-110  B.C.  : 

Eudoxus  returned  from  his  second 
voyage  of  India  to  Alexandria,  convinc- 
ing Greek  mariners  that  direct  trade 
with  India  was  possible  and  as  a  result  of 
this  in  the  early  part  of  1st  century  B.C., 
Greeks  crossed  mouth  of  Persian  Gulf 
and  sailed  down  shores  of  Makran, 
Indus  delta  and  Gujarat. 

110-80  B.C.  : 

• 

'Saca  Kingdom'  or  'Ptolemy's  King- 
dom' of  "Indo-Scythia"  established 
from  Abiria  to  Patala,  Cutch  and 
Kathiawar,  extended  to  Gujarat. 


100  B.C.  : 

King  Strabo-I  handed  over  the  Kingdom 
to  Appollodotus,  his  step  brother,  the 
Governor  of  Sind  and  became  Bikshu, 
like  his  father  Menander.  Appollodotus 
ha  /ing  taken  over  the  charge,  movod  to 
D.I.  Khan  to  repel  Anticalcidas  a  rebel 
chief  who  had  occupied  Khyber  and 
Taxila  since  110  B.C.  and  re-conquered 
the  lost  territories  from  Anticalcidas. 


■ 

Woodcock,  p.  140-141. 


Tarn,  pp.  23,,320.  Ptolemy  calls  these 
provinces  as  Patalene  (Deltaic  region), 
Abiria  (to  the  north  of  it)  and  Surastrene 
(roughly  corresponding  Cutch  and 
Kathiawar).  McCrindle's  Ptolemy,  pp. 
136-139. 


Woodcock,  pp.  120-122. 

Percy    Gardner    puts    this    incident    in 

95  B.C. 


-• 


90  B.C.  : 

Appollodotus  died.  By  the  time  of  his 
death  he  had  conquered  all  territories 
of  his  step  brother  and  his  ancestors. 
His  Kingdom  extended  in  north  from 
Afghanistan  to  the  Ganges  valley  and  in 
south  to  Gujarat.  Soon  after  his  death 
Scythians  started  their  movement  towards 
Sind.     He     was     succeeded  by  his  son. 


Woodcock,  pp.  122-127. 

Percy  Gardner  puts  his  rule  as   115-95 

B.C. 


94 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


90  to  80  B.C. 

On  hearing  of  Appollodotus'  death, 
Scythians  invaded  Sind.  Three  sons  of 
Appoliodotus  namely  Zoilus.  Dionysius 
and  AppoIJophanes,  and  their  cousin 
perished  fighting  the  invaders  in 
Makran. 


■ 


I 


Woodcock,  pp.  123-124. 
Scythians    came    to    Sind  from  Seistan 
through  Qandhar    over  the  Boian  Pass. 
Percy  Gardner  pp.  122-127.  puts  the  rule 
of  the  three  brothers  in  95-80  B.C. 

■ 


1  jni-M 


> 


■ 


- 


r 


ir 


i 


SCYTHIANS  OF  SIND  OR  SAKAS  RULE 


80  to  58  B.C.  : 

Maues  moved  from  the  Upper  Sind  and 
advanced  to  the  valley  of  Indus.  Scy- 
thians were  already  settled  in  Cutch  and 
Kathiawar.  Sind  was  then  named  as 
Sakadripa  by  the  Indians. 
Scythians'  or  the  Sakas'  strength  lay  in 
armoured  cavalry,  whose  main  weapon 
of  war  was  a  long  lance  used  with  a 
tremendous  dash. 

Sakas  retained  the  form  of  Greek  coin- 
age with  Greek  legend  on  the  obverse 
and  Prakrit  translation  in  Kharoshthi 
script  on  the  reverse. 

80  B.C.  : 

Sakas  (Scythians)  advanced  from  Abiria 
(Hilly  tract  of  Sind)  northwards  first 
to  Taxi  la  and  then  to  Punjab. 

Strato-II  still  a  minor,  grandson  of 
Strato-I  on  the  death  of  his  uncles  be- 
came the  ruler  of  Sind  and  the  Greek 
Empire  in  India.  Old  Strato-I  who  had 
ruled  until  100  B.C.  and  had  become 
Bikshu,  was  brought  down  and  made  the 
care-taker  of  Strato-II. 

77  B.C.  : 

Maues  occupied  Taxi  la. 

70  B.C.  : 

Strato-II  was  killed  in  fight  with  Scy- 
thians, who  seem  to  have  Sind  under 
their  control  by  then.  Hippostratus 
grandson  of  Menander  with  the  help  of 


HO* 

From  a  chart  in  Percy  Gardner's,  Greeks 
and  Bactnan  Kings,  p.  XXXIII. 
Narain.  pp.  45.  48,  to  57  CHI.  I,  p.  564. 
W.  Tarn.  pp.  322,  400. 
J.I.H  ,  1933,  p.  19.  puts  date  of  Maues"  or 

Moga's  rule  from  20    B.C.    to  20  A.D. 

HCIP.    Vol.  II.  p.  127. 

■ 

•  ■  . 
Tarn,  p.  233. 


Woodcock,  pp.  123-125. 
Percy  Gardner,  p.  I. 


y 

Tarn,  p.  501. 

Munshi  puts  date  of  his  rule  as  20  B.C. 

to  22  A.D. 

Woodcock,  pp.    124-127. 

Percy     Gardner,    p.  a.    puts     Strato-I  Is 
rule  along  with  Strato-I  aS  80-75  B.C. 


96 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


I 


Hazara  tribes  and  Hermaues  head  of 
Kabul  tribes  jointly  controlled  Khyber 
Pass  until  30  B.C.  when  they  too  were 
over-powered  by  the  Scythians. 

70  B.C.-50  A.D.  : 

The  oldest  Dravidian  language  literature 
'Sangam  Poems'  in  Tamil.  No  attempt 
has  yet  been  made  to  assess  Sindhi  and 
Brauhi  words  from  this  literature. 

60  B.  C.  : 

Soon  after  this  year   Maues  conquered 
Gandhara. 

60-30  B.C.  : 

Sicilian  born  Diodorus  Siculus  a  Greek 
historian  wrote:  "Library  of  the  history 
of  the  World"  in  46  volumes.  Though  a 
person  of  little  critical  ability,  his 
sources  on  the  wars  that  followed 
Alexanders  death  are  reliable. 

60  B.C.  to  19  A.D.  : 

Strabo  the  historian,  who  wrote  about 
Alexander,  lived  during  this  period. 

58  B.C.  : 

Maues  died  and  Vonones  a  Parthian,  kin 
of  King,  and  the  ruler  of  the  Eastern 
Tran  assumed  power  over  latter's  king- 
dom. He  continued  to  accept  suzerainty 
of  Spalyris,  the  ruler  of  Arachosia  and 
Kabul  for  some  time,  but  Sind  was 
governed  by  Azes-I. 

58  B.C. 

Initial  year  of  Vikrama  Era.  which  also 
marks    the     establishment     of     Saka 


The  date 
known. 


of    Strato-I's   death     is     not 


■ 


.• 


Tarn,  pp.  403-501. 
Loeb,  CH.  Old  father,  2  vols.  1933. 


Munshi.    CHIP,  Vol.  II,  assigns  his  life 
between  54  B.C.  to  24  A.D. 

■ 

Tarn,  pp.  349,  345. 

Rapson  assigns  reign  of  Azes-I  to  this 
period  and  founding  of  Vikrama  Bra, 
which  also  began  in  58  B.C. 
CHI,  Vol.  Il,#pp.  515,  516  and  520. 
Munshi  assigns  date  of  Maues  death  as  22 
A.D.  HCIP.  Vol.  IV  Rapson  is  also  of 
the  view  that  Azilises  reigned  first  in 
association  with  Azes-I,  then  alone  and 
finally  in  association  with  Azes-11.  He 
further  thinks  that  Gonodophares  was 
successsar  of  Azes-II. 


Rapson.  CHI,  Vol.  I,  p.  516. 
Mujamdar  thinks  the  Vikrama  Era  marks 


70  B.C-46  A.D. 

SCYTHIAN    RULERS  AND  THEIR    CONTEMPORARIES 


YEAR 
B.C. 


70 

6  S 
60 
55 
5  0 
45 
40 
3  5 
30 
2  5 
20 
1  5 
1  0 
5 
0 
5 

1  0 
1.5 
20 

2  5 

3  0 
3  5 
40 
45 


SINO 


BACTRIANS 


MAUES 
70  -  58 


AZES   —    I 
AS     GOVERNOR   OF   HIS 
FATHER,  SPALYRIS 
AND    JOINT 
RULER   WITH 

HIM 
58-15     B.C. 


AZILISES 
15-10/5  B.C. 


SPALYRISE5 
10/5  B.C.-  10    A  0 


AZES -  II 

MAY   HAVE 

RULED    SINO 

UP    TO    46  AD- 

WHEN 

GONOOPHARES 

CONQURED      IT 

10-  46   AD 


PUNJAB      N.W.F.R 


SPALYRIS 

AND 
AZES  -  I 
58-15  ac. 


AZILISES 
15-10/5   B.C. 


PARTHIANS 


SPALYRISES 
10/5  B.C-10AD. 


AZES  -II 

MAY     HAVE     LOST 

KABUL   AND 

GANDHARA    IN 

20/21  AD.  TO 

GONOOPHARES 

10—43   A.D. 

% 


CUTCH 

AND      KATHIAWAR 


BACTRIANS 


AZES-1 

AND      HIS     FATHER 

SPALYRIS 

AS      JOINT 

RULER 


AZILISES 
15-10/5  B.C 


SPALYRISES 
10/5  B.C.- 10  A.D. 


PARTHIANS 


AZES   -   I 
10-  46  AD 


MA GAD HA 


PARTHIANS 


KANVAS    DYNASTY 
VASUDEVA 
75  —  66  B.C. 


BHUMIMITRA 
(KANVAS) 
66  -  52    BC 


NARA Y A  N  A 
(KANVAS) 
52  -  40  B.C. 


SUSAR  MAN 
(KANVAS) 
40  -32  B.C. 


46-78  A.D 

PARTHIANS    AND   THEIR    CONTEMPORARIES 


INDEX 


Parththians.. 
Kushans 


Scythians.. 


- 


■ 


YEAR 
A.O. 

SIND 

PANJAB         N.W.F.P. 

SEISTAN 

20      

25     

30     

35    

40     

IS    — - 

K 

SCYTHIANS 
70aC.-«AQ 

SCYTHIANS 

PARTHIANS 

• 
60ND0PHAPES 
20/11-50 

ftONDOPHARES 
19  -  50 

ftONDOPHARES        46-50 

55     

—    to  

PAC  0  RE  S 

(PARTHIAN! 
50-65 

PA  C  0  RE  S 

(PARTHIAN) 

10 -»5 

PACORES 
? 

70      

7S     

10      

PARTHIAN 

RULERS 

NAMES    NOT     KNOWN 

SS  -It    A.D. 

KUSHAN 
DYNASTY 

KUSHAN 
DYNASTY 

s 


SCYTHIANS  OR  SAKAS  RULE  OF  SIND 


97 


(Scythian)  Suzerainty  of  Azes-I. 


the  enthronement  of   Vonones  as  King 
of  Iran.    HCIP,  Vol.  II,  pp.  128, 154. 


There  is  another  version  by  Rapson 
(Ancient  India,  p.  104)  that  the  Era 
marks  the  defeat  of  Sakas  in  Malva 
by  a  king  who  is  known  as 
Vikramaditya. 


53-52  B.C.  (Winter)  : 

Vonones  (Parthian)  gained  independence 
from  Spalyris  the  Governor  of  Aracho- 
sia  and  Kabul.  Sind    continued  to  be 
governed  by  Azes. 

50  B.C.  : 

Buddhist  Sculpture  of  the  Sub-Conti- 
nent under  heavy  Greek  influence. 

40  B.C.  : 

Vonones  still  ruled  and  peace  existed 
since  his  taking  over  power  13  years 
earlier. 

31-30  B.C.  : 

Spalyrises  seized  the  eastern  Empire  of 
Vonones'  successors;  took  title  as  Great 
King,  conferring  the  same  on  his 
son  Azes. 

31  or  30-15  B.C.  : 

Azes  a  Scythian  King  ruled  Sind,  Kathia- 
war  etc.  His  father-was  joint  ruler  with 
him. 


■ 
During    the    struggle,    Cutch    suffered 
badly  from  the  Saka  raiders,  who  carried 
off  women,  children,  cows  and  grain. 

Rapson,  GHI,  Vol.  I,  p.  517. 

• 

The  relations  of  Parthian  (family  of 
Vonones)  to  Scythians  (family  of  Maues) 
is  uncertain  but  the  two  people  had  been 
associated  for  centuries  in  Seistan  and 
Qandhar,  and  therefore  they  are  con- 
sidered as  closely  related. 

• 

Tarn,  pp.  3,  6;  HCPI,  Vol.  II,  p.  702. 
Munshi.  thinks  that  Vonones's  career 
ended  in  1 8  B.C.  having  been  succeeded 
by  his  brother  or  step  brother  Spalyrises. 


Tarn,  pp.  346,  347. 

j  01 

. 
Percy  Gardner,  Greek  &  Scythian  Kings, 
p.  XXXIII.  Mujamdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II, 
Age  of  Imperial  Unity,  p:  127,  puts  the 
rule  of  Azes  (Aya)  15  B.C.  to  30  A.D 
He  probably  was  son  of  Spalyrises  and 
son-in-law  of  Maues  (Moga),  according  to 
the  same  source.  Munshi,  HCIP,  Vol.  H, 
gives  the  date  of  Aze's  rule  as  5  A.D.  to 
30  A.D. 


98 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


24B.C.  : 

Strabo  during  his  visit  to  Egypt  found 
120  ships  sails  each  year  from  Myos 
Horms  to  India. 

20  B.C.  : 

Utilization  of  Monsoon  for  sailing 
ships  between  Arabian  Peninsula  and 
the  Sub-Continent. 

The  phenonmenon  of  Monsoon  was 
known  to  the  Easterners  much  earlier. 
The  Greek  sailors  knew  it  for  the  first 
time  in  20  B.C 


Woodcock,  p.  141 


• 


• 


15  B.C.  to  later  part  of  the  century  : 

Azilises  ruled  Sind,  Kathiawar  and  other 
parts  of  North  Western  India  (present 
Pakistan),  possibly  jointly  with  his  father 
as  his  father  had  shared  the  crown  with 
his  father. 


Later  part  of  century  to  10  A.D.  : 

Spalyrises  ruled  Sind  and  Kathiawar. 


10  B.C.  : 

Death  of  Trogus.  Pompelus,  a  Gaul 
and  son  of  Caesar's  secretary.  He  wrote 
a  work  on  history  of  non-Roman  world, 
which  was  epitomised  by  Justinus. 

Approx.   10    A.D.-19     A.D.  : 

Azes-II  ruled  Sind,  Kathiawar  and  other 
territories  of  Parthians  upto  NWFP. 


' 


Toussaut,  p.  9. 

■ 

Percy    Gardner,    Greek  and    Scythian 
Kings,  p.  XXXIII.  Tarn,  p.  348. 

According  to  Mujamdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II, 

p.  127,  Azilises  was  son  of  Azes-T  and 

ruled  from  28  to  40  A.D. 

i 
Percy     Gardaner,     Scythian  Kings,    p. 

XXXin.  Tarn.  p.  305. 
Mujamdar,  HCIP.  Vol.  II,  Age  of  Impe- 
rial Unity,  does  not  think  that  Spalyrises 
ruled.  According  to  him  Azes-T  was  his 
son. 

He  is  main  source  of  Justinus'  history  of 
Alexander  tin  Great. 

• 

Tarn,  p.  498. 

Mujamdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  p.  127, 
puts  date  of  his  rule  as  35-79  A.D.  Munshi 
puts  date  of  Azes-II's  rule  from  35  A.D. 
to  79  AD.  and  Azilises  from  28  A.D. 
to  40  A.D. 


* 


? 


• 


1 


PARTHIANS  DISPLACE  SCYTHIANS 


i 


17  A.D.  : 

Strabo  started  final  revision  of  "The 
Geography".  He  was  contemporary  of 
Togus  who  compiled  history  of  Macedo- 
nians which  was  abridged  by  Justi- 
nus,  a  Latin  writer,  in  the  4th  or  5th 
century  A.D. 


19  A.D.  : 

Thi  Parthian  king,  Gondophares  ascend- 
ed the  throne  after  his  predecessor  Azes- 
II.  Gondophares  brought  Saka  (Scythian) 
dominions  in  India  directly  under  his 
own  rule,  which  hitherto  were  indirectly 
ruled  from  Seistan  at  least  in  name. 
Parthians  are  known  as  Pahlvas  in 
Sanskrit  literature. 

19  A.D.  to  50  A.D.  : 

The  Parthian  king  Gondophares  ruled 
Sind  and  Kathiawar  with  his  capital  at 
Minagara.  His  fame  in  the  West  is  said 
to  have  brought  St.  Thomas  to  the 
people  of  the  Indus  Country  as  apostle. 
• 

■ 


23-79  A.D.  : 

Pliny  the  elder  (Gains  PliniuS  Secundus) 
lived  and  wrote  his  Natural  History 
in  37  volumes.  It  describes  animals, 
plants,  minerals  etc.  of  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent.   The  work  lacks  scientific  spirit. 


Woodcock,  142. 

Strabo  describes  Sind  and  Cutch.     He 
describes    Bactrian  temples,  altars   and 
fortifications    of     Tejarashtra   (Cutch), 
with  Tejor  Tahij  (Bhuj)  as  capital. 

Tarn,  344. 

Woodcock,  p.  1 30,  thinks  that  Gondo- 
phares took  over  Sind  from  Scythians 
in  46  A.D. 

Parthians  had  heavy  cavalry    like  Scyth- 
ians and  in  addition,  light  cavalry,  whose 
riders  could  shoot  arrows  at  gallop  in 
any  direction  and  even  backwards. 
• 

Percy  Gardner,  Greek  and  Scythian 
Kings,  p.  XXXIII. 
Tarn,  pp.  498  and  235. 
Rapson,  CHI,  I,  p.  5I9.  thinks  he  ruled 
at  least  upto  45  A.D.  Smith,  EHT,  puts 
the  start  of  his  rule  at  20  A.D.  Munshi, 
HCIP,  Vol.,  II,  p.  702,  puts  date  of 
Gondophares' •  rule  from  21  A.D.  to 
50  A.D.,  p.  I8l. 

Jairozbhoy,  p.  I8l,  agrees  with  Munshi. 
Rapson.  Ancient  India,  p.  76.  mentions 
St.  Thomas'  visit. 

Munshi,  HCIP.  Vol.  II,  p.  702,  puts  date 
of  Natural  History  as  71  A.D.  The 
Greek  text  entitled  Historicorum  roman- 
orum  reliqt-iac,  ed.  Peter  H.R.  first  two 
volumes,   1906  and  other   11    vols.  ed. 


100 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SINT> 


24  A.D  : 

Strabo  died. 

41-45  A.D  : 


1Ai 


Reign  of  Claudius,  during  which  Curtius 
Rufus  wrote  on  the  exploits  of  Alexan- 
der, the  Great.  The  Work  is  praised 
more  for  its  literary  merit  than  historical 
accuracy. 

42  A.D.  : 

AppolloniusofTyana,aGreek  philoso- 
pher visited  the  sub-continent  to  learn 
the  Indian  philosophy  and  to  see  the  cjties 
and  altars  left  by  Alexander.  He  spoke 
to  Gondophares  in  Greek.  He  seems 
to  have  access  to  certain  points,  which 
are  confirmed  by  modern  researches. 

He  was  a  neo-Phythagorian  sage,  who 
wandered  in  India,  Persia  and  Egypt,  to 
learn  of  mystics  and  their  meditations. 

45  A.  D.  : 

Having  observed  pattern  of  the  monsoon 
winds,  Greek  mariner  Hippalus,  shortly 
before  destruction  of  Ptolemaic  King- 
dom by  Augustus,  sailed  from  Aden  to 
Indus  delta  and  back,  without  touching 
any  port.    This  produced  great  revolu- 
tion in  trade  with  India  and  Sind. 
Even  prior  to  this  there  was  interchange 
of  goods  of  Sind  and  the  rest  of  Sub- 
continent with  Alexandrian  Ptolemians, 
by  land  route  via  Tadmir. 

46  A.D.  : 

Tne  Parthian  King  Gondophares  who 
started  from  Khurasan  (Parthia)  in  21 
A.D.,  conquered  Kabul  and  Gandhara 
in   43-44   A.D.  and  later   on   Sind   in 
46  A.D. 


Rackrman,  H;  Jones,  W.H.S;  and  Eich- 
holz,  are  in  progress  since  1938. 

Woodcock,  p.  142. 

• 

Charpentier,  Travels  of  Appollonius  of 

Tyana,  p.  58. 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  13.  doubts  if  he  visited 

the  Sub-Continent. 

Marshal,  Guide  10  Taxila,  Calcutta,  1918, 

pp.  15  and  91. 

Loeb's  Philostratus  ed.  F.C.  Conbearc, 
2  vols.,  1912,  contains  lite  and  letters  of 
this  visitor. 

Woodcock,  p.  141.  Tarn,  p.  368,  thinks 
that  voyage  between  Patala  and  Syagros 
was  as  early  as  90-80  B.C.  Jairozbhoy,  p. 
114.  thinks  that  it  could  be  between  40 
B.C.  and  1  A.D. 
Also  refer  entry  20  B.C. 

• 
Strabo,  Geographia,  Ed.  by  A.  Meincke, 
Leipzig,  1866-67  A.D.,  p.  118. 


Woodcock,  pp.  129-132. 
Smith,  EHI,  puts  it  as  48  A.D. 
Also  see  entry  19  A.D. 


± 


w 


PARTHlANS  DISPLACE  SCYTHIANS 


101 


46— 127  A.D.  : 

Plutarch  who  wrote  Lives  of  Famous 
Men  of  Greece  and  Rome,  lived  then. 
He  was  born  at  Chaeronea  in  Bocotia 
and  died  in  Re  me. 


70  or  71  A.D.  : 

The  Periplus  of  Erythraean  Sea,  a  Roman 
treatise,  was  written  as  a  guide  book  for 
trade  and  sea  travel  from  the  Red  Sea  to 
the  Eastern  Indies  with  names  of  Barabi- 
can,  port  at  the  mouth  of  Smithus  (In- 
dus) and  main  town  Minnagara  possibly 
Bahmanabad,  held  by  Parthians,  and 
Sind's  imports  of  figured  linen,  topaz, 
coral  storax,  frank  incense,  glass  vessels, 
silver,  gold  etc.  and  exports  indigo, 
cotton,  silk,  furs,  nard,  gum.  perfumes 
etc.  The  book  states  that  the  country 
of  Sind  was  called  Scythia  or  the  land 
of  Scythians. 


. 


! 


English  translation  of  his  works,  ed. 
Perrian,  B.  in  11  volumes,  London,  1914- 
1926.  Penguin  Classics  have  published 
3  volumes.  Lord jn  1958,  1960 and  1964. 
He  describes  Alexander  in  Sind. 

Kennedy,  JRAS,  1918,  p.  112.  Scoff, 
p.  15  puts  it  as  60  A.D.  McCrindle  Ind. 
Ant,  Vol.  vm,  1879,  pp.  108-151  puts  it 
as  80  to  89  A.D.  If  this  is  accepted  then 
the  chronology  of  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  is  more 
correct  for  the  rule  of  Azes-I,  Azilises 
and  Azes-II.  Sircar  puts  it  as  70-80  A.D. 
HCIP,  Vol.  II,  Age  of  Imperial  Unity, 
pp.  136-138.  Jairozbhoy,  pp.  115,  140. 
puts  it  as  110-115  A.D. 
CHI,  Vol.  I,  pp.  563-64  states  that  the 
Lower  Sind  was  called  Sicadipa. 



■ 

I 


J» 


■ 


KUSHAN  RULE  1  DEVELOPMENT  OF  BUDDHIST  ARCHITECTURE 


65  A.D. 


Kushans  drove  out  the  Parthian  King 
Pacores,  the  successor  of  Gondophares 
from  Gandhara,  and  thus  ended  the  real 
Hellenic  intrusions  upon  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent.  These  had  started  with  the 
Bactrians  and  continued  during  the 
Scythians  and  Parthian  rule. 

i 
50  A.D  : 

Death  of  Curtis  Rufus  Quintus,  a 
Roman  historian,  who  wrote  history  of 
Alexander  in  10  volumes  of  which  the 
first  two  and  parts  of   others  are    lost. 

65—78  A.D.  : 

Kadphises-II,  the  Kushan,  who  ruled 
during  this  period  conquered  the 
whole  of  the  Indus  valley. 

70  or  71  A.D.  : 

Periplus  of  the  Erythraean  Sea,  a  work 
of  Greco-Egyptian  and  not  Roman, 
describes  Barbaricum  (Bhanbore?)  and 
the  products  sold  and  purchased  by  the 
Roman  shippers  at  this  port  of  Sind. 
The  same  port  exported  products  of  the 
whole  Nor  ►Western  parts  of  the  Sub- 
continent, and  these  reached  Barbari- 
can  on  the  Indus  delta,  via  the  Punjab 
rivers. 

78  A.D.  : 

Kanishka  became  the  king  of  Kushan 
Empire,  which  included  Sind. 

78  A.D.-123  A.D. 

Kanishka-f  annexed  Sind. 


Sircar,  HCIP,  II,  Age  of  Imperial  Unity, 
pp.  130-131. 

T.A.  Dorey,  ed.  H.  McQueen's  Latin 
Biography,  London,  1967.  Extracts 
pertaining  to  Sind  are  in  McCrindle's 
Alexander. 

■. 

Sircar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II.  Age  of  Imperial 
Unity,  p.  143. 


Scoff,  p.  68. 

The  lower  levels   of    Bhanbore  go  back 
to  the  1st  century  A.D. 


Sircar.    HCTP.    vol.     II.    pp.    141,    143. 
Rapson,  Ancient  India,  p.  77. 

Smith,  EHI.  p.  259. 


KUSHAN  RULE  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  BtjDDHlST  ARCHITECTURE 


103 


70  A.D.  : 

Parthian  rule  continued  in  Sind. 


■ 


- 
90  A.D.  : 

Birth  of  Arrian.  the  famous  historian        Also  refer  150  AD. 
of  Alexander.  He  died  during  the  reign 


Sircar,  HCTP.  vol.  TT.  basing  on  Periplus 
dated  70-80  A.D.,  states  that  ruler  of 
Sind  was  a  Parthian.  Scoff  puts  the  date 
of  writing  of  Periplus  as  50  A.D.  He  fur- 
ther states  that  Kadphises-II  son  of 
Kadphises-I  conquered  the  whole  of 
Indus  valley. 


of  Roman  Emperor  Morcus  Aurelius 
(161-180  A.D.)  and  wrote  Anabasis  of 
Alexander  and  also  another  book, 
'Indica',  based  on  Magasthenes. 

90  A.D.  : 

Kanishka  the  Great  calls  forth  Buddhist 
assembly. 

100  A.D.  : 

Curtis  Rafus  wrote  on  Alexander, 
basing,  it  on  writings  of  Ptolemy,  son 
of  Lagos,  who  also  accompanied 
Alexander  and  also  of  Kleitarchos  con- 
temporary of  Ptolemy  and  Timageness, 
who  flourished  in  the  reign  of  Augustus. 
The  work  is  inferior  to  that  of  Arrians. 

101-102  A.D.  : 

Kanishka-I    gave    up  the  throne  and 
became  a  Bikshu. 

102-106  A.D.  : 

Vasishka-I  ruled  th:  Kushan  Empire. 

106-138  A.D.  : 

Hurishka   ruled   the    Kushan  Empire. 
He  ruled  jointly  with  Vasishka  and  the 
latter's  son  Kanishka-Il. 

119-145  A.D.  : 

■ 
Kanishka-Il     (title     Kaisara)      joined 

Hurishka    to      govern    the     Kushan 


HCIP,  vol.  II,  p.  702,  puts  the   period 
of  his  reign  as  78-101  or  102  A.D. 


Some  authorities  put  the  year  as  41-54 
AD.,  during  the  reign  of  Claudius. 
McCrindle,    Alexander,  p.     11. 

i 
Sircar.  HCIP,  vol.  II,  p.  144. 

Sircar.  HCIP,  vol.  II,  p.  150. 
Sircar  HCIP,  vol.  II,  pp.  150-151. 

Sircar.  HCIP,  vol.  II.  p.  151. 

r 

■ 


104  CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

Empire.    He  built  large    number    of 
stupas  between  138  and  145  A.D, 

120  A.D.  : 

A  deputation  of  artists  from  the  Indus        Mihran,  vol.  17  part  IV. 
valley  went  to  China. 

123  A.D.  : 

Kanishka-1,  while  still  a  Bikshu,  died. 

140  A.D.  : 

Tne  date  of  writing  of  Ptolemy's 
geography,  which  states  that  Sind  was 
ruled  by  Kushans  then. 


Smith,  EHI,  p.  269. 


Ptolemy  (Claudius  Ptolemaeus),  the 
Greek  astronomer  and  Geographer  born 
in  Egypt  spent  most  of  his  life  in  Alex- 
andria. His  work  the  Geography  in  8 
books  laid  down  the  principles  of  the 
construction  of  the  World  "map,  which 
shows  Sind  and  many  of  its  towns. 
130-131  A.D.  : 

Rudradaman-I    belonging   to    Karda- 
makas  tribe  of  Scythians  became    the 
ruler  after  his    grandfather  Chashtana, 
who  previously  was  the  governor  of  the 
South  Western  part  of  Empire    (Juna- 
gadh,-  Cutch,    Gujarat  etc.),  and  had 
become    independent.  After,  becoming 
the   ruler  Rudradaman  added  Cutch, 
Marwar,  Sind  (Western  Lower  Sind), 
Sauvira  (Eastern  Lower  Sind)  and  Raj- 
putana    up-to     Aravali    hills    to    his 
domain.  However  -their  hold  on    Sind 
must  have  been  short  lived  as  Ptolemy 
saw  Kushans  ruling  Sind. 

145-176  A.D.  r 

Vasudeva  Kushan  king  ruled  th;  Indus 
Valley  and  after  his  death  the  Kushan 
governors  assumed    independence  in 
their  own  provinces.    The  Lower  Sind 
probab'y  became  independent  fust. 


Sircar,  HOP,  vol.  II,  p.  135  and  vol.  nr„ 

pp.  204,  275. 

McCrindie,  Ptolemy,  p. 

E.    H.    Bunbury,.   History    of   Ancient 

Geography. 

His  sources  include  earlier,  writings  and 

the  statements  of  travellers,  who  grossly 

over-estimated  the  distances.    His  other 

work  'Almagest',  was  equally  important. 

Sircar,  HCIP,  vol.  II,  p.  184. 

Smith  puts  it  as  128  A.D.  EHI,  p.  232. 

ortT 

I 


Smith, -_  EHI,  p.  272,  puts  it  as  140-173 
AD.,  HCIP-II,  p.  151,  assigns  his  reign 
to    45-176  A.D. 


1 


1 


65-283  AD. 

KUSHANS   AND   THEIR   CONTEMPORARIES 


YEA* 

A.D. 


6S 

70 
75 
80 

ss 

90 

•s 

109 
105 
110 

i  If 

iao 

125 

130 

135 

UO 

145 

150 

155 

1(0 

165 

170 

175 

1(0 

Iff 

190 

199 

200 

2  OS 

210 

215 

220 

225 

2  30 

235 

240 

2  45 

250 


S  I    N-D 


PARTHIANS 
PRINCIPALITIES 
OF 
SI  NO 


UPPER 
SINO 


GOVERNORS 

OF 

KUSHANS 

OF 
GANOHARA 


FOR 

SOMETIME 

INTERMIT  TANTLY 


LOWER 
SINO 


6ANDHARA 


KADPHISES 
6  5-78 


KANISHKA -1 
7l-l0l/l02 


PARTHIANS 


SCYTHIANS 
135-U5 


PARTHIANS 


~- 


VASISHKA  —  I 
102-108 


HURISHKA 
AND 
KANISHKA   —  II 
AS    JOINT     RULER 
FROM      119  AIX 
108-138 


KANISHKA  —  II 
ALONE       138  -US 


VASUOEVA-  I 
145-176 


KANISHIRA       III 


KANISHKA   -  IV 
226  -  239 


VASUDEVA   -|| 
239  -  246 


CUTCH     ANO 
KAT  H  I  A  WAR 


PARTHIAN 
SATRAP 
NAHAPANA 
?  -MO'7 


RUDRAOAMAN 
THE  ■MYTHIANS 
ANO    HIS 
SUCCESSORS' 
SAT  RAPES 
OF 
SAURASHTRA 
150-  395   ? 


INDEX 

KUSHNS  

PARTHIANS 

SCYTHIANS .... 

SASSANIDS 

INDEPENDENT    PRINCIPALITIES 


W/M 

T 
I 

M^ 

!i'V!i'l; 
id  1 1 1  .i.ii 

--  — 

. 


.  -  jp-ul  -yuap 


110 

— »**- 

110 
12S 
130 
135 
ItO 
1  45 
ISO 
ISS 
1(0 

its 

170 
175 
180 

1  OS- 
ISO 
ISS 
200 

2  OS 
210 
215 
220 
225 
210 
215 
240 
24S  • 
2S0 

2  55 

2  60    . 

2  05 

270 

275 

200 

2IS 


6ANDHAHA 

FOR 
SOMETIME 

INTERMIT  TANTLV 


SCYTHIANS 
135-145 


PARTHIANS 


HURISHKA 
AND 
KANISHKA  —  II 
AS    JOINT     RULER 
FROM       119  AD. 
104-110 


KANISHKA  —  II 
ALONE       130-145 


VASUOEVA-  I 
145-178 


** 


SMAL 

INDEPENDENT 

PRINCIPALITIES 

OF 

S  I  N  D 
9 


SASSANIDS 


KANISHIKA       III 

? 


KANISHKA   -  IV 
226  -219 


VASUOEVA   - 
239  -  248 


KANISHKA    -    V 
240-272 


KANISHKA    -    VI 

? 


?  -  150  ^ 


RUDRADAMAN 
THE  SCYTHIANS 
AND    HIS 
SUCCESSORS^ 
SAT  RAPES 
OF 
SAURASHTRA 
150-  195   ? 


■  ; jn 


NOTE         RUDRADAMAN      CONTROLLED      LOWER     SIND     AND     SINDHU     SAUVIRA     FOR    ABOUT  10  YEARS, 
BUT    KUSHAN    CONTROLLED     PRESENT     DAOU, LARKANA, JACOBABAD,  SHIKARPUR     AND 
SUKKUR     DISTRICTS     EVEN    DURING     THIS     PERIOD. 


T 


osof- 


100-750  A.D 

CITIES  OF  SIND 


INDEX 

1.  CITIES  IN  EXISTENCE   THEN 

2.  CITIES   IN  RUINS  THEN 

3.  PRESENT  COURSE  OF  RIVER   INDUS 

4.  COURSES  OF   RIVER  INOUS  100 -750 A.D 

3.  MODERN  TOWNS...- 

6  MODERN   CITIES  AT   OLD    SITES. 


££hEur] 


KQlat 


Orangi 
Manjobar 
(Mangopir) 


Kol  Nathclo 
CotelLinc  in  750  A.D. 


,l»mr> 


ithi 


p*rk»r 


\u 


SCALE 

50  100 


% 


**C. 


150  MUES 

ad 


DRAWN     UNDER     GUIDANCE     OF     M-H.PANHWAR 


1 


Rush  an  rule  and  development  op  buddhist  architecture 


145  A.D.  : 

Vasudeva-I,  the  Kushan    King    was 
converted  to  Hinduism. 

145-176  A.D.  : 

Vasudeva-I  ruled  Kushan  Empire  in- 
cluding Sind.  His  coins  were  found 
from  the  upper  layers  of  Mohenjo-Daro. 
After  him  the  Kushan  power  declined, 
and  the  Scythian  satraps  started  ruling 
as  independent  monarchs.  Mohenjo- 
Daro  Stupa  constructed  by  the  Kus- 
hans  goes  back  to  earlier  years  of 
the  Kushan  rule. 

150  A.D.  (approx.): 

Date  of  Junagadh  (Girnar)  inscription, 
which  states  that  Rudradaman  the  Saka 
ruled  over  Konkani,  Kathiawar,  Cutch, 
Sindhu  and  Sauvira.  Sakas  ruled  Cutch 
for  more  than  a  century  after  his  death. 


150  A.D. 

Arrian  wrote  Indica.  It  is  based  on 
the  Indica  of  Magasthenes  and  the 
voyage  of  Nearchus. 

■ 

150  AD.  : 

Vasudeva-I's  coins  (found  by  Binnerjee) 
at  Buddhist  buildings  of  Mohenjo-Daro 
prove  that  by  this  time  at  least  the  Upper 
Sind  was  under  the  Kushan  rule.  At 
Junkar  similar  evidence  was  collected 
by  Mujamdar. 

200-300  A.D. 

Jatts  of  Sind  were  moving    along   the 
Persian   Gulf,    grazing   their  buffaloes. 


105 


Smith,  EHI,  p.  272.  This  was  the  begin- 
ning of  the  rise  of  Hinduism  in  the 
North- Western  Sub-Continent. 


Sircar,  HOP,  vol.  II,  p.  151. 


I 

Epigraphia  Indica,  Vol,  IH,  p.  42.  The 
local  chiefs  Parthians  or  Scythians  in  Sind, 
may  have  accepted  suzerainty  of  Rudra- 
daman, but  the  latter  was  not  directly  go- 
verning Sind.  Also  see  entry  130-133  AD. 
As  a  result  of  this,  probably  for  the 
first  time  Cutch's  relations  with  Saura- 
shtra  became  more  close  than  with  Sind. 

Mushsi,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  p.  701. 
He  used  the  works  of  Ptolemy  Sorter 
(367/6-382/3  B.C.),  Aristobolus  (d.  320 
B.C.)  and  Eratosthenes  (275-194  B.C.). 
These  original  sources  are  main  reason 
for  his  accuracy.  He  also  used  Magasthe- 
nes, hut  the  latter  had  not  visited  Sind. 

Annual  Report  of  Archaeological  Survey 
of  India,  1922-23,  A.D.,  pp.  102—104. 
Memoir  Archaeological  Survey  India 
No.  4,  p.  7. 

Hellbusch  &  Westphal,  Jats  of  Pakistan, 
p.  102. 


106  CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

200-300  A.D. 

Kharoshthi    script  used    on  Asoka's 
pillar  Inscriptions  and  later  on  used  in 
Afghanistan,  the  Punjab  and  possibly 
parts  of  Sind  disappeared. 


Rapson,  Ancient  India,  p.    1Q. 


200-500  A.D. 

Revision  of  Markandeya  Brahamanda 
and  Vayu  Puranas. 

226-41  A.I). 

Adasir,  the  first  Sassanian  King  of 
Persia  conquered  Kushan  principali- 
ties to  the  north  of  Hindu  Kush,  and 
they  accepted  to  pay  tributes.  Adasir 
may  have  conquered  Turan  and  Makran 
but  not  Sind. 

230  A.D. 

The  Kushan  Empire  broke  into  several 
principalities.  The  Sassanids  appear  to 
have  rapidly  established  ascendancy  over 
those  areas  nearest  to  Persia,  but  on  re- 
mote countries  like  the  Oxus  and  Indus, 
their  claim  reflected  neither  influence 
nor  authority.  Sind  must  have  been 
divided  into  small  independent  princi- 


Dr.  Harza,  Studies  in  the  Puranic  Re- 
cords on  Hindu  Rites  and  Customs,  pp. 
174-189. 

Cambridge   Ancient   History,   vol.    XLT,. 

p.  110, 

Elliot,  vol.  VI,  p.  557. 


palities  then. 
226  A.D  : 


Beginning  of  the  rule  of  Kanishka-IU 
of  the  Kushan  Empire. 

239  A.D  : 

Vasdev-II  was  ruling  the  Kushan  Empire. 

During  his  rule  the  Sassanian  King  Ard- 
ashir  Babagan  (226-241  A.  D.),  conquered 
Khurasan,  Balkh,  Kabul,  Khyber, 
Punjab  and  reached  Sutlej.  Vasdev-II 
sent  friendly  delegation  to  China  in 
230  A.D.  to  seek  assistance  against 
the  Sassanians. 


• 
ml 


**£> 


JJiXOV 

Under   the  Kushans,  trade  with  Roman 
Empire  was  fuyy  established. 

Sircar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  pp.  151,  152, 

'  off!  let 

1 


i 


L 


KUSHAN  RULE  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OP  BUDDHIST  ARCHITECTURE 


107 


* 


239  A.D.  : 

Kanishka-IV     becomes    ruler   of    the 
Kushan  Empire. 


Sircar,  HOP,  Vol.  II,  p.  151. 


248  A.D.  : 


Vasdev-IV  ruler  or  the  Kushan  Empire 
died. 

248  A.D.  : 

Kanishka-V  became  the  emperor. 

278  A.D  : 

Kanishka-VI      became    the     Kushan 
omperor. 


•     ,fti 


Sircar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  pp.  151,  152. 

•  I 
Rapson.  Indian  Coin*. 

: 

I 


Rapson,  Indian  ceini. 


- 


>.  MX. 

■ 


t 


SIND  UNDER  SASSANIANS  I  RISE  OF  LOCAL  PRINCIPALITIES 


283  A.D.  : 

Hormazd  rebelled  against  his  bro- 
ther Bahram  Gor-II  and  was  sup- 
ported by  both  the  Sakas  (Scythians) 
and  the  Kushans  but  Bahram-II  re- 
conquered the  lost  territories  including 
Seistan,  Makran  and  Sindhu  Valley. 
Local  Sakas  probably  became  his  re- 
tainers. He  also  added  Kachchha, 
Kathiawar  and  Malwa  to  his  domain. 

M3  A.D.  : 

Narsih  son  of  Shapur-I,  successfully 
rebelled  against  Bahram-IT  and  occu- 
pied the  throne.  He  was  congratulated 
by  the  vassals  and  the  chiefs  of  Mak- 
ran, Paradan  and  Abhiras  (Thar  and 
Parkar  Districts  extending  to  Marwar). 
It  is  evident  that  Sind  was  also  one 
of  the  Vassals. 

300-500  A.D.  : 

Writing  of  5  old  versions  of  Siddhanta, 
which  was  later  on  translated  into 
Arabic  by  a  Sindhi  scholar  in  the  9th 
century  at  Baghdad,  from  whero  it 
travelled  to  Europe  via  Spain. 

301  A.D.  : 

Vasdev-VI's  daughter  was  married  to 
Scythian  King  Harmazd  (301-310  A.D.). 

302-09  A.D.  : 

Harmazd,  the  Sassanian  King  ruled 
Persia,  and  possibly  Sind  still  formed 
part  of  his  kingdom. 


Hertzfeld,  Paikuli,  pp.  35-51. 
Ray  Chaudhry,  North  India,  p.  510. 
R.C.  Mujamdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  II,  pp.  52-53, 
believes  that  there  is  no  valid  ground  to 
assume  that  Kathiawar,   Cutch,  Malwa, 
and  Gujarat  were  his  vassal  states. 


Hertzfeld,  Paikuli,  pp.  35-31. 


R.C.  Mujumdar,  HCIP,  vol.  Ill,  p.  322. 


Rapson,  Indian  Coins. 


BHI,  p.  274. 


• 


SIND  UNDER  SASSANIANS  AND  RISE  OF  LOCAL  PRINCIPALITIES 


109 


- 


i 


r 


309-79  A.D.  : 

Shapur-H,  the  Sassanian  King  ruled 
Persia  and  the  Eastern  Empire,  includ- 
ding  Sind,  but  by  about  367-68  A.D., 
Kidra,  the  Kushan,  defeated  Shahpur- 
II  in  two  battles  and  in  one  of  them,  he 
fled  from  the  battlefield,  seceding  Kabul 
and  Upper 'Sindhu  Valley  (NWFP  and 
the  Northern  Punjab).  Sind  probably 
became  independent.  He  had  many  In- 
dian scientific  works  taken  from  present 
Pakistan  area  and  translated  into 
Pahlavi. 

310-311  A.D.  : 

Pahlavi  inscription  from  Persepolis  writ- 
ten about  Shapur-II  (309-379  A.D.),  by 
his   elder  brother  Shapur  Sakanshah, 
gives  latter's  title  as  the  minister  of  min- 
isters of  Sind,  Sakastan  and  Tukharistan. 

320-380  A.D.  : 

Samudra  Gupta  ruled  over  the  whole  of 
the  North  India  with  the  exception  of 
Kashmir,  Western  Punjab,  Western  Raj- 
putana,  Sind  and  Gujarat.  Orissa  and 
the  Eastern  Coast  of  South  India  were 
also  parts  of  his  Empire.  It  was  during 
this  period  that  revival  of  Hinduism 
reached  full  force  in  most  of  the  Sub- 
continent, but  not  in  Sind,  where 
Buddhism  still  flourished. 

345-415  A.D.  : 

Reign  of  Chandra  Gupta- II  of  the 
Gupta  Dynasty.  He  annexed  all  terri- 
tories north  of  Narbada  but  possibly 
not  Sind. 


■ 


346  A.D.  : 

Vasdev-VII    was    ruling   the    Kushan 
Empire,   which  extended   from   North 


Martin,  Coins  of  Kidra  Kushans, 
Numismatic  Supplement,  JRASB,  vol. 
LVIT,  pp.  32-33. 

Siege  warfare  originally  developed  by  the 
Greeks  and  the  Romans  and  maintain- 
ed by  the  Parthians,  received  great  im- 
petus under  this  king  and  his  succes- 
sors and  it  was  the  reason  for  expansion 
of  their  Empire. 
Girshman,  pp.  292,  294  and  313, 


Herzfeld,      Kushano-Sassanian     Coins, 
pp.  35-36. 

Mujumdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  HI,  p.  12. 


Smith,  EHI,  pp.  286,  354  and  355. 


Mehran,  Vol.  17.  No.  4. 


!10 


Western  Province  upto  Mathura.    He 
ordered  collection  of  poetry  of  Sind. 

350-500  A.D.  , 

Mirpurkhas  stupa  (Kahu-jo-Daro)  was 
constructed.  Same  date  is  assigned  to 
Thul  Mir  Rukan,  Depar  Ghangro, 
Bahmanabad  and  Sudheran-jo-Daro 
P    • 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

: 

Percy  Brown,  Indian  Architecture,  Bud- 
dhist period,  p.  52,  and  also  plate  XXX, 

n-9. 

Cousens,  Antiquities  of  Sind,  p.  96,  puts 
it  earlier  than  400  A.D.  He  thinks  that 
these  stupas  may  have  been  built  on  the 
site  of  ruined  stupas  of  Asoka.  Bhan- 
darkar  has  assigned  the  beginning  of  the 
Christian  era  to  Sudheran-jo-Daro  (A.S.T. 
Annual  Report  1916-17,  pp.  41-47)  i.e. 
Kushan  rule,  65-140  A.D. 


Kanishka-VI 
Emperor. 


becomes    the 


Kushan 


360  A.D.  ; 

Shapur-n  (309-379  A.D.),  with  the  help 
of  Indian  elephants  and  the  Kushan 
troops  seized  Amida  on  the  Tigris,  then 
a  territory  of  Roman  Empire.  The 
victory  of  Amida  was  result  of  this  help 
from  the  experienced  King.  Until  then 
Sassanians  probably  had  some  title 
over  the  Indus  Valley. 

Vasdev-II  probably  was  the  last  Kushan 
ruler. 

379-383  A.D.  : 

Ardasir-II  ruled  over  the  Persian  Em- 
pire. (It  is  not  certain  whether  Sind  was 
still  part  of  Persian  Empire). 

397-417  A.D.  : 

Yezdegird-I  regained  Sind.  His  coins 
with  the  head  dress  of  King  bearing 
crescent  and  star  appear  at  Jhunkar. 
Probably  these  coins  were  specially 
struck  for  circulation  in  Sind. 


Rapson,  Indian  Coins. 

^vi8 
Smith,  EHI,  p.  255. 

Rapson   thinks    that    Kanishka  was  the 
Kushan  Emperor. 

aril 

Smith,  EHI,  pp.  286,  354  and  355,  thinks 
that  he  conquered  Sind,  but  this  state- 
ment is  doubtful. 

Martin,  pp.  34-48. 

Cousens,  Antiquities  of  Sind,  p.  183. 


I 


SIND  UNDER  SASSANIANS  AND  RISE  OF  LOCAL  PRINCIPALITIES 


1U 


383-88  A.D.  : 

Shapur-III  ruled  Persia.  Sind  probably 
was  independent,  as  Yazdegird-I  (397- 
417  A.D.)  had  to  reconquer  it. 

388-399  A.D.  : 

The  Sassanians  ceased  to  exercise  any 
authority  on  the  Indian  frontier  after 
Bahram-IV.  Sind  seems  to  have  been 
independent  after  367-68  A.D.,  though 
some  parts  of  Baluchistan  were  still  in 
their  possession,  until  Vahram-IV. 

395  A.D.  : 

Chandragupta-II    Vikramaditya,    bro- 
ought  to  end,  the  Saka  rule  in  Gujarat, 
Cutch  and  Kathiawar.  He  was  opposed 
by  Vahlikas  of  Sind  and  in  order  to 
cross  the  seven  mouths  of  the  Indus,  he 
had  to  seal  the  fate  of  Sakas  in  Cutch, 
Kathiawar  and  Gujarat.    However  the 
conquest  of  Sind  never  took  place. 

400  A.D.  : 

Justinus,  Frontinus,  the  author  of  'De 
Historis  Philippies'  lived.  His  work 
describes  Alexander  and  Chandra- 
gupta. 

404  A.D.  : 

Fifteen  Chinese  monks  led  by  Che- 
mong,  started  for  Indo-Pak  Sub-Con- 
tinent.  Nine  of  them  returned  from 
Pamirs,  one  died,  and  the  remaining  5 
reached  the  Sub-Continent  and  made 
collection  of  Buddhist  texts.  Three  died 
on  the  return  journey  and  Che-mong 
reached  China  with  only  one  compa- 
nion. Since  Sind  was  a  flourishing  cen- 
tre of  Buddhism,  they  may  have  visited 
ft 

400-414: 

Fahein  visited  India,  but  not  Sind. 


Martin,  pp.  34-38. 

■ 
Martin,  pp.  34-38. 

Williams,  pp.  63-67.  See  entry  130  A.D. 
For  the  period  150  A.D.-395  A.D., 
Cutch  was  under  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  Imperial  Governor  of  Saurashtra. 

I 

. 
McCrindle,  Alexander,  p.  8$. 

*£* 

Giles,  p.  X,  Shanghai,  1877.  Reprint 


1 1 2  CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SINT> 

400-450  A.D.  r 

Sind  was  centre  of  buffalo  breeding 


under  Jat  tribes.  The  breeds  Nilli  & 
Ravi  were  raised  in  the  Punjab  and 
Kundi  in  Sind.  Mura  was  bred  in 
East  Punjab. 

414  A.D.  : 

Fahein  returned  to  China. 

420  A.D.  r 

Fayong,  with  25  Chinese  monks  came  to. 
the   Sub-Continent    via    Central  Asia. 
They  toured  most  of  the  northern  areas 
of  the  Sub-Continent  and  possibly  Sind 
and  returned  by  a  sea  route. 


420^38  A.D.  r 

Emperor  Bahrain  Gor,  son  of  Yazdegird 

bin    Shapur,      Sassanid      of     Persia 

travelled  incognito  into  India,  taking  an 

Indian  bride  and  dower  of  Makran  and 

adjoining  parts  of  Sind,  from  its  Indian 

ruler. 

He  ruled  from  442-465  A.D. 

420-440  A.D.  r 

Bahram-V  (Bahram  Gor)  ruled  Persia. 
Sind  (Debal  and  Makran)  was  seceded 
by  its  Indian  Ruler  to  Behram  Gor. 
According  to  Firdausi  he  visited  Kanuj 
in  disguise  and  his  visit  was  honoured 
by  Shangal  ruler  of  Kanuj  by  giving  the 
former  his  daughter  and  made  return 
visit,  being  accompanied  by  rulers 
of  Kabul,  Sind,  Hind,  Sandal,  Jandal, 
Kashmir  and  Multan. 

456  A.D.  : 

Founding   of   Pari    Nagar   (near   Pabi 
Virawah)  by  Jeso  Parmara  of  Barmir. 

465  A.D.  : 

Huns  (of  Tatar  origin  from  Oxus  region) 
defeated  Persian  King  Feroz,  who  also 


Hellbusch   A   Westphal,   Tho   Jatts  of 
Pakistan,  pp.  69-72^ 


.-**«2  od'i 


■ 


Ibn  Balkhi,  Furs  Nama. 
Padruk,  Sassanian  Coins,  p.  105.  Rap- 
son  rejects  this  story.  During  this  period 
Sind  definitely  was  independent.  This 
statement  can  only  be  true  if  the  King 
of  Sind  gave  him  these  parts  in  dowry. 


Baloch,  N.A.,  JSHS,     Vol.    7,     No.    2, 

pp.  74-75. 

Tabri,  Vol.  I,  p.  686.  Jairozbhoy  putsiiis. 

rule  in  420-438  A.D. 

Warner,  Firdausi,  chapter  VII,  pp.   112, 


140,141. 


• 


ttutbhu.' 
n 


I.G.I.,   Provincial  Series,   Bombay  Pre- 
sidency, Vol.  II,  p.  187. 


Mujumdar, 
pp.  8—9. 


Memoirs 


A.S.I.     No.    48 


c 


i 


72.     Coin  of  Kadphises-ll,  in   Kharoshthi  script. 


73.     1st  century  B.  C.-lst  century  A.  D.  Scytho-Parthian,  pottery  from  Banbhore. 


74.     Sassanian  Coins.  s 

(a)  224-241,  Silver   Drachma  of  Ardashir-I 

(b)  Reverse  of  above. 

(c)  241  -  272  A.  D.  Silver  coin  of  Shapur-I 

(d)  590  -  628  A.  D.  Gold  denarius  of  Khusraw-ll 
(From  American  Numismatics  Society  New  York) 


s 


nS^C^mfc-0 33  fro*  T-fc^^fc*^ >J 

— ^~* 


75.     Pahlavi-Sassanian  script. 


Ardashir.J  Shaftur  I 


Bahram  I 


Narseh 


Ohnnizdll 


Shafmr  II 


Ardashir  II 


Ptrozl  ' 


rtzdtgrt  1  III 


76.     Crowns  of  Sassanian  Kings.  (From  Arc  of  ancient  Iran  by  Edith  Porada). 


S 


fl 


77.     590  -  628  A.  D.  A  Sassanian  King  in  an  armour,  on  a  horse  back  (  From  Taq-i-Bustan  \. 

v 


- 


- 


< 


78.     4th  -  7th  century  -  Brahma  in  brass  from   Bahamanabad 
(National  Museum  Karachi). 


- 


176-499  A.D 

SASSAMDS   AND    THEIR   CONTEMPORARIES    IN   SIND    AND   ADJOINING  AREAS 


YEAR 
*  0. 

KUSHANS 
E  MPEROR  S. 

smo 
RULERS 

SASSANIOS        Of 
PERS4A 

GUPTAS          OF 
MALWA 

CUTCH 

1 1 0, 

—  »»s  

no    

IIS    

KANISHKA  -  III 
? 

SMALL 
INDEPENDCTNT 
PRINCIPALITIES 

Of    SWO 

178  -  283 

PAR  T  H 1 ANS 

RUDRADAMAN-I 

AND      HIS 

SUCCESSORS 

IK  -   115  ? 

AROASN  -  1 
224  -  281 

KANISHKA  -        IV 
228-21* 

245    

VASUOEVA   -    II 
23S  -  ?*« 

SHAHPUR -  1 
241   -  272 

2  SS    

260    

2  85    

270    i 

2  7S    

210    

-  2IS-    

210   

2IS    

JOO     1 

10S   

-  no  

J1S    

120    

125    

130    

JJS    

3*0    

US    

ISO   

3  55 

-  i  to  

J  85   

3  70    

1  75    

1*0   

J»5   

3  SO  

39  5   

too  

405    

4  1  0    

4  15    

420    

4  2  5 

4  30   

4  15   

4*0    

4*5    

450    

4  5S 

480    

485 

, 470    

475    

4  10    

485 

i 4  90       

4  5  5    - 

500    

-  SOS 

-     5  1  0 

5,5 

-  520 

S2S 

KANISMKA-V 
? 

CMATOI    KACHA 
2  70-120 

BAHRAM-I  273-278 

KANISHKA      _    VI 
9 

BAHRAM-ll 
278-  383 

• 

SIND 
UNDER 
SASSANIOS 
281-187 

NARSIH 
2  93-302 

HORMUZO-II 
302-309 

SHAH  PUR -II 
309-179 

CHANDRA     GUPTA 

120- ISO 

SAMANORA     GUPTA 
ISO -1*0 

AN     INDEPENDENT 
DYNASTY  Of    SIND 
MOST     PROBABLY 

VAHLIKAS 

WHO    MAY   HAVE  BEEN 

OF   LOCAL  SAKA 

ORIGIN 
UP   TO     4IS   AD. 

AROASMIR-U       J79-383 

CHANORA    GUPTA -II 
110-415 

SHAHPUR-III    383-188 

BAHRAM  -IV 
388-399 

GUPTAS    GOVERNORS 

UP     TO       ABOUT 

490        -> 

VAZDEGERO   -   I 
399-420 

SMA  LL 

INDEPENDENT 

PRINCIPALITIES 

UP    TO     475    A.D. 

K-?MARA   GUPTA 
415  -  455 

BAHRAM    -    V 
420-438 

YAZOE&REO  -11 

438-457 

SKANOA    GUPTA 
455-467 

HORMiOZ-lll    6*7-4*1 

PEROZ 
457  -  414 

KUMARA     GUPTA 
447  -477 

HUNS        Of 
MALWA ? 
475  -499 

BUDDHA  GUPTA 

BALASH      464-466 

K  A  V   A    0-:i 
468    S3I 

BATARKA  (GOVEHNOR1 
490   _    500 

RAI       DYNAS1Y 
499-840/41 

'*> 

RAi  .         rr 
SIN  D 
5"  -&<,cV 

\ 


SIND  UNDER  SaSSANIANS  AMD  RISE  OP  LOCAL  PRINCIPALITIES 


113 


. 


died  the  same  year.  Hun  Chief  Tour- 
mana  established  himself  as  the  Mo- 
narch at  Ma'.wa  and  probably  annexed 
Sind,  as  shown  by  a  large  number  of 
Terracotta  seals  and  coins  of  his  son 
Mihiragula  recovered  at  Jhunkar. 

495  A.D.  : 

Founding  of  Mathelo  town  by  Jam 
Parian. 

■ 


■ 


Mirchandani,  B.D..  Sind  and  White  Huns, 
JASB,  1964,  pp.  61-85. 
The  annexation  may  have  been  short 
lived  and  possibiy  a  raid  of  no  conse- 
quence, but  all  the  same  he  struck  his 
coins  showing  Sind  as  part  of  his  Empire. 

Abbot,  Sind,  p.  105. 


■ 


" 


. 


■ 


RAI  DYNASTY  AND  CLIMAX  OF  DUDDHIST  POWER  IN  SIND 

. 

Jairozbhoy  quoting  Hodiwalla  &  Hoernle 
pi  159.  He  considers  that  Yasodharman's 
rule  is  doubtful  and  is  interpreted  from 
play  of  Kalidas  the  Rghu  Vasma. 


499  A.  D.  : 

Sassanian  King  Kakobad  while  assisting 
Huns,  lost  Sind  to  an  Indian  king, 
whose  name  is  given  as  Yasodhara  by 
some/authorities. 
It  must  be  the  beginning  of  Rai  Dynasty. 
The  Sassanian  controlled  all  areas  west 
of  the  Indus  upto  the  sea  for  about 
two  centuries.  * 

499  A.D.  : 

Beginning  of  the  Rai  Dynasty,  which 
ruled  137  lunar  years  or  133  solar  years 
upto  632  AD.  The  founder  of  this 
Dynisty  was  Rai  Dewaji    a  Buddhist. 


500  A.D  and  afterwards  : 

Buddhists  and  Jains  adopted  the  use  of 
Sanskrit  in  their  texts  and  thus  it  became 
lingua  franca  of  religion. 

500  A.D   : 

Western  parts  of  the  Sindhu  valley  wjre 
already  in  the  possession  of  the  Persian 
Empire  under  the  Hun  king  Tourmana 


Chachnama.  pp.  15-16. 
If  Chach  ascended  the  throne  around 
640  A.D. ,  the  beginning  of  this  dynasty- 
would  b;  in  507  A.D.  Huen  Tsang 
states  that  ruler  of  Sind  in  640  A.D. 
(a  descendant  of  Dewaji)  was  a  Sudra. 
Chachnama  on  tiie  other  hand  considers 
Rais  as  of  Rajput  origin  and  from 
Chitor  The  relationship  with  Chitor 
and  Kashmir  was  continued  by  their 
successor  the  "Brahman  Dynasty." 

The  5  kings  of  Rai  Dynasty  who  ruled 
Sind  for  133  solar  (137  lunar)  years  were 
Rai  Dewaji.  Rai  Ssharas.  Rai  Sehasi-J, 
Rai  Seharas-H  and  Rai  Sehasi-II.  with 
the  capital  at  Alore. 

Rapson,  Ancient  India,  p.  8. 


Sircar,  HCIP,  Vol.  IF,  p.    153. 


RAI  DYNASTY  AND  CLIMAX  OF 

(500-510  A.D.).  Sind  was   not   under 
their  control. 

500-700  A.D.  : 

Revision  of  Matsya  Purana. 

510-540  A.  D.  : 

White  Hun  Mihiragula  on  the  death  of 
his  father  Tourmana,  became  the  king 
of  Persia.  Both  of  them  had  carried  out 
advance  raids  in  parts  of  India  and 
possibly  Sind.  Mihiragula  was  a  great 
tyrant.  He  was  defeated  by  confederacy 
of  local  kings  (probably  Sind  included) 
and  retired  to  Kashmir. 

527-565  A.D.  : 

Reign  of  Emperor  Justinian  and  the 
climax  of  territorial  expansion  of  the 
Roman-Byzantine  Empire,  coinciding 
with  the  climax  of  the  power  of  the  Sas- 
sanids  in  Iran. 

528  A.D.  : 

Joint  forces  of  Indian  rulers  threw  out 
white  Hun  Mihiragula  across  Khyber 
Pass. 

531-579  A.D.  : 

Reign  of  Khusrau-I  (Naushirwan)  and 
the  climax  of  Sassanid  power  in  Persia. 
The  Rai  Dynasty  had  already  estab- 
lished before  this  period.  The  theory 
that  the  Rais  probably  were  satrapies 
of  White  Hun  Mihiragula,  the  king  of 
Persia  from  510  A.D.,  is  not  correct. 
Persian  Empire  included  areas  west  of 
the  Indus,  as  reported  by  Cosmas  In- 
dicopleustes,  may  apply  to  NWFP  and 
North  Western  districts  of  the  Punjab. 

Naushirwan's  personal  physician  Bur- 
zoyah  took  from  Sind,  a  book  Aam'cd 
Panchtantra,  which  was  translated  in 
Persian  and  called  Kalilah  wa  Dimnah. 


BUDDHIST  POWER  IN  SIND  1 1  5 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  319. 

Since  Rai  Dynasty  came  into  existence 
around  510  A.D.,  it  is  clear  that  Hun 
menace  had  very  little  effect  on  Sind. 


■ 

The  highlight  of  the  period  was  the 
building  of  Hagia  Sofia  at  Constantinople 
in  547  A.D.  This  Church  later  on  be- 
came the  source  of  inspiration  for  Muslim 
religious  architecture. 

It  is  probable  that  Rais  of  Sind  also 
joined  this  expedition. 

McCrindle,  Translation  of  Christian 
Topography. 

Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  J.S.H.S.,  Vol.  rf,  No. 
2,  pp.  74-75,  states  that  Rai  Dynasty 
started  as  vassals  of  Khusrau-I  and  paid 
a  small  tribute.  His  view  is  probab.y 
based  on  Raverty  who  in  Mihran  of 
Sind  (J.A.S.B.  1892)  has  expressed  the 
same  opinion,  but  is  not  correct. 

Tabqat-al-Umam  reports  this  incident. 

■ 


116 
535-547  A.D. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Writing  of  'Christian  Topography'  by 
Cosmas  Indicopleustes,  an  Alexanderite 
Greek.  The  book  states  that  the  river 
Phison  (Indus)  separates  the  country 
and  the  Huns  from  all  countries  of  In- 
dia. The  statement  clarifies  the  position 
for  the  period  525-535  A.D.  It  is 
possible  that  Sind  was  never  governed 
by  the  Huns,  and  the  conjecture  that  the 
Rais  of  Sind  were  the  vassals  of  the 
Huns  is  not  correct.  In  the  5th  century 
the  Huns  had  only  temporary  success  in 
NWFP  and  the  Punjab. 

540  A.D.  : 

Death  of  White  Hun  Mihiragula,  which 
probably  brought  more  stability  for  Rai 
Dynasty. 

570  A.D.  : 

Birth  of  Prophet  Muhammad  (peace  be 
upon  him)  at  Mecca. 

589-620  A.D.  : 

The  reign  of  Khusrau-II  and  the  beginning 
of  the  Sassanid  troubles,  which  brought 
their  down-fall  and  the  rise  of  the  Arabs 
within  20  years  of  his  death. 

590-600  A.D.  (end  of  the  century)  : 

Prabhakatra  Vardana,  father  of 
Harsha  and  Raja  of  Thanesvar  waged 
an  unsuccessful  war  against  the  King  of 
Indus  land,  (author  meant  Sind). 


McCrindle,  Christian  Topography  (Eng- 
lish translation),  London,  1897.  Cosmas 
describes  trade  articles  of  Sind  like 
musk,  cotton  and  textiles. 


600  A.D.  : 

Birth  of  Hiuen  Tsang. 


600  AD.   (soon  after)  : 

King  Seharas-11  lost  his  life  in  a  fight 
with  the  King  of  Nimruz,  who  had  inva- 
ded his  country  and  entered  Makran 
from  Kirman.    The  Persian  army  was. 


- 


■ 


.: 


Cowell,  Bana,  Harsacarita,  p.  101.  Sind 
then  was  ruled  by  Rai  Dyansty.  It  was 
probably  a  raid  of  no  consequence. 


Chachnama,  pp.  15-16. 
This  year  is  based  on  the  chronology  of 
Chachnama  which  is  untrustworthy,  as 
Chach  ascended  throne  after  640  A.D.  and 


RAI  DYNASTY  AND  CLIMAX  OF  BUDDHIST  POWER  IN  SIND 


117 


' 


however,  defeated.  He  was  succeeded  by 
his  son  Rai  Sehasi-II,  who  took  over  the 
battle-field  near  Kich.  Since  shortest 
route  from  Nimruz  to  Makran  is  not 
via  Kirman  the  Iranian  King  may  have 
marched  by  a  direct  route  covering 
only  280  miles,  against  830  miles  of 
Kirman  route.  Jats  formed  the  majority 
of  the  population  of  Makran. 

606-646  or  647  A.D.  : 

Harsha  rose  to  power.  He  made  un- 
successful attempts  to  conquer  Sind 
(having  pounded  the  King  of  Sindhu 
and  appropriated  his  fortune).  Since 
Harsha  fought  his  battles  between  600- 
612  A.D.  and  again  620-630  A. D.,  the 
military  campaign  on  Sind  may  have 
taken  place  b3tween  620-630  A.D. 
Harsha's  stables  were  filled  with  horses 
from  Vanaya,  Sind,  Persia,  etc. 
To  attack  Sind,  he  had  'first  to  subdue 
Cutch,  then  a  part  of  the  Kingdom  of 
Valabhi,  who  also  ruled  Malwa  and 
Gujarat.  Valabhi  defeated  and  repelled 
him.  Since  the  Rann  of  Cutch  was  a 
shallow  sea  creek,  the  easiest  route  to 
Sind  was  via  Cutch. 


695-647  A.D.  : 

Bana  the  author  of  Harsacarita  (Sans- 
krit) lived  in  the  court  of  Harsadeva, 
the  King  of  TnaneSvar.  Tne  book  is 
hisrory  of  accession  of  his  patron  and 


Rai's  rule  of  133  solar  years  would  date 
the  beginning  of  Rai  Sehasi's  rule  around 
507  A.D.  But  if  Chachnama's  chronology 
is  considered  correct,  Rai  Seharas  started 
his  rule  in  about  599-600  A.D.  and  by 
about  607  A.D.  if  Chach  ascended  the 
throne  in  640  A.D. 


Cowel,  Harasha,  pp.  50  and  91 .  Rai  Sehasi 
II,  was  the  king  of  Sind  then. 
Cowel  has  based  this  on  Bana's  statement 
that  Harsha  was  burning  fever  to  be 
the  King  of  Sindhu.  But  it  in  fact  means 
that  Harsha  was  an  enemy  of  Sind  with 
potential  threat.  It  is  probable  that 
states  like  Gandhara,  Huna  and  Sindhu 
in  the  north  and  Lata,  Malwa  and 
Gurjara  in  the  south  were  all  on 
hostile  terms  with  Harsha  and  faced 
latter's  threat  jointly.  Similar  view  is 
expressed  by  R.C.  Mujamdar  in  the 
Journal  ot  the  Department  or  Letters, 
Calcutta  University,  Vol.  X,  p.  1. 
Hieun  Tsang  saw  Sind  a  strong  and 
independent  country.  Obviously,  Har- 
sha's military  campaign  bore  no  fruit. 
The  date  of  campaign  is  discussed  by 
Tripathy  in  the  "History  of  KanauT, 
Vol.  Ill,  p.  360  published  by  Annals 
of  Bhandarkar  Institute,  and  also  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Indian  History,  Vol.  II, 
p.  596.  Williams,  pp.  63-68. 

Valabhi  ruled  Malwa,  Gujarat  and  Cutch 
approximately  since  500  A.D. 

Trte  text  tr.  by  E.B.  Cowel  and  F.W. 
Thomas  was  published  from  London  in 
1897. 


118 


describes  the  latter's  relations  with  Sind. 
Its  value  is  limited  by  the  obvious  defer- 
ence Bana  pays  to  Harsha. 

609  A.D.  : 

Birth  of  Islam. 

610-626  A  D.  : 

Khusru  Parvez  stamped  silver  and  gold 
coins  at  Multan  in  610-626  A.D.  At 
the  time  at  least  Multan  was  under 
Sassanid  Persia.  Similarly  a  coin  of 
Sri  Vasudeva  dated  627  with  bilingual 
inscription  would  suggest  rule  of  a 
Persian  satrap.  Vaser  is  called  Persian 
satrap  of  Bahaman  (  Bahmanabad  ), 
Multan,  Zabulistan  and  Rajputana. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


622  A.D.  : 


Hijrat  of  Prophet  Muhammad  (peace  be 
upon  him)  from  Mecca  to  Madina  and 
start  of  Hijri  calendar. 

622  AD.-l  AH.  : 
The  kingdom  of  Rai  Seharas  consisted 
of  Alore  as  capital  and  4  provinces 
namely  Bahmanabad  (Lower  Sind), 
Si wi  stan  (South  Western  Sind  and  Wes- 
tern Hills),  Iskanda  (probably  Uchh), 
and  Multan. 

622-738  A.D.  : 

Expansion  of  Islam. 

624-25  A.D.  : 

Khusru,  King  of  Persia,  received  an 
Embassy  from  Pulakesin-II,  the  Chaul- 
kaya  king  of  Maharashtra.  He  had 
developed  good  relations  with  Sind  too. 


*27  AD.  : 

Hiuen  Tsanc  starts  for  India. 


■ 
St.  Paruck,  'Sassanian  Coins',  p.  125. 
Rapson,  Indian  Coins,  pp.  30  and  109. 
Sind  was  independent  and  Rai  Sehasi- 
II.  The  Rai  seems  to  have  acquired 
Multan  before  622  A.D.  and  put  his. 
Governor  there. 

• 
■ 

Chachnama,  pp.  14-17.  Hieun  Tsang 
saw  the  same  situation  in  640  A.D.,  but 
Makran,  Kaikan,  and  Sibi  were  added 
later  on  either  by  Rai  Seharas-II  or  by 
Chach.     See  entry  640  A.D. 


Tabri  mentions  the  incident. 
Mujumdar    reports   the    name    of   the 
king.  H.C.I.P.  IV. 

Khusru  ruled  from  590-628  A.D.  Ajanta 
caves  furnish  evidence  of  his  good  rela- 
tions witji  Chaulkayas. 
His  personal  bodyguards  were  Sindhis 
and  Balochis. 


< 


"-> 


RAI  DYNASTY  AND  CLIMAX  OF  BUDDH(ST  POWER  IN  SIND 


617  A.D.  December: 

Roman  Emperor  Heraclius  (610-641 
A.D.)  defeated  the  Persian  Emperor 
Khusru  Parvez  at  Nainva  and  at  the 
time  of  celebrations  the  king  of  Sind 
sent  his  ambassador  with  a  congratu- 
latory message  to  Constantinople. 

630  A.D.  : 

Conquest  of  Mecca  by  Prophet 
Muhammad  (May  peace  of  God  be  on 
him). 

630-644  A.D.  : 

Hiuen  Tsang  travelled  in  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent.  In  630  A.D.  he  saw  Sind's 
bordering  bank  to,  the  north  west.  This 
consisted  of  4  states. 

(a)  Sind  proper. 

(b)  Atien-po-chih-lo. 

(c)  Pito-Shih-to,  and 

(d)  A-fantu. 

These  4  states  formed  the  whole  area 
between  the  then  Panjnad  and  the  sea, 
with  Multau  on  left  bank  and  Banu  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  Indus.  To  the  west 
of  Sind  was  the  country  of  Lang-Kie-lo 
roughly  corresponding  to  Makran  and 
Kirman  both  of  which  in  630  A.D.  were 
subject  to  Persia. 

Homo  (Ormuz)  was  the  border  town 
b^tw  :en  Makran  and  Kirman.  To  the 
north  ofMakran  and  west  of  Banu  was 
Ki-Kiang-na  (Kaikan).  It  had  no  chief 
but  was  divided  between  local  tribes. 

630  A.D.  : 

The  tribes  living  in  the  Western  hills  of 
Sind  then,  were  probably  of  the  same  be- 
haviour as  thty  were  only  a  few  decades 
back.  Hieun  Tsang  states  that  they  were 
ferocious,  used  to  taking  life  as    their 


f 

• 

Gibbon,  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman 
Empire,  vol.  VIII,  p.  157. 

Watters,  Vol.  I,  p.  226.  Chachnama,  pp. 
14-17,  however  states  that  Multan,  Mak- 
ran and  Kaikan  were  all  dependencies 
of  Sind.  It  may  be  true  that  shortly  after 
accession  of  Chach,  the  out-lying  provin- 
ces had  declared  independence  as  Hieun 
Tsang  may  be  telling,  but  Chach  soon 
annexed  them. 

Hiuen  Tsang  reports  that  each  King- 
dom in  the  Sub-Continent  had  its  own 
official  for  maintaining  written  records, 
giving  good  and  evil  elements  with 
calamities  as  well  as  fortunate  occurrences. 
These  chronicles  unless  raised  to  the 
status  of  Rajatarangini  (History  of  Kash- 
mir), or  the  sacred  works  like  Puranas, 
were  not  likejy  to  survive  the  fortunes 
of  the  dynasty,  whose  history  they  re- 
corded. The  information  of  Chachnama 
may  have  come  from  such  documents 
for  Rai  and  Brahman  dynasties. 

According  to  Williams,  Cutch  was  a 
part  of  Sind  ar  d  Kita  or  Kicha  a  part  of 
Va'abhi  Kingdom.  Kita  is  now  in 
Kaira  district.  Hieun  Tsang  travelled 
267  miles  South  of  Alore  to  reach  Kote- 


120 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


occupation,  raised  cattle,  recognized  no 
organized  government,  and  although 
they  were  Buddhists  and  looked  like 
them,  but  this  face  of  theirs  was 
only  apparent,  as  otherwise  they  were 
cruel  and  wicked.  He  saw  Buddhism  in 
Sind,  but  Buddhist  priests  were  dis- 
honest and  luxuriant. 

632  A.D.  : 

Death  of  Prophet   Muhammad  (May 

peace  be  on  him). 

Hazrat   Abu   Bakar  became  the   first 

Khalifa. 

634-644  A.D.  7 

Caliphate  of  Hazrat  Umar  after  the 
death  of   Khalifa  Abu  Bakar. 


635-36  A  D.— 14  A.H. 


Due  to  the  initial  defeat  at  the  hands  of 
the  Arabs,  in  the  war  of  Zatul-Sila-Sal, 
the  Emperor  of  Persia  Yazdegird  bin 
Shaharyar  bin  Parvez,  sought  help  from 
all  quarters.  The  King  of  Sind  sent 
troops  and  elephants  including  his  per- 
sonal white  elephants.  In  3  days  and 
nights  war,  the  maximum  damage  to 
Arabs  was  caused  by  the  e'ephants  of 
Sind.  The  white  elephants  which  caus- 
ed great  damage  were  killed  after  3  days. 

636  A.D.  : 

Battle  of  Cadesian  in  which  the  Persian 
Empire  was  laid  low  by  the  Arabs. 
Throughout  their  occupation  of  Sind, 
the  Persians  had  recruited  the  Jats  of 
Sind  and.  the  Punjab  in  their  army.  After 
the  defeat  of  the  Persian  army,  the  Jats 
joined  Arab  forces  under  acceptance 
of  some  terms.  During  Ca'iphate 
of  Hazrat  Ali,  the  Jats  were 
settled  in  Basra  in  637  A.D.  Later 
they   were  appointed   by    Usman  bin 


shvar  near  Lakhpat  a  town  of  Sind 
then.  Valabhi  ruled  Cutch  from  about 
500  A.D.,  but  on  the  decline  of  their 
power  Rai  seems  to  have  occupied  it. 
Without  Cutch,  with  Rann  an  active  sea 
creek,  defence  of  Sind  would  have  been 
precarious. 


■ 


In  this  war,  the  Jats  of  Sind  fought  with 
chains  tied  to  their  feet  and  therefore 
the  battle  is  named  as  war  of  chains. 

■ 


. 


Tabri's  translation  by  Murgotton  gives 
full  details.  Shibli  Nu'amani,  in  Al- 
Farooq,  Vol.  II,  p.  214  confirms  that  the 
Persian  Emperor's  palace  contained  arms 
of  the  ruler  of  Sind. 


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DHAWN  UNDER    GOIOANCE     Cf    «.«    PAN-aA*. 


RAF  DYNASTY  AND  CLIMAX  OF  BUDDHIST  POWER  IN  SIND 


121 


Hunayf  Ansari  the  Governor  of  Kufa  to 
protect  treasury  in  Battle  of  Djamal,  due 
to  their  honesty,  loyalty  and  bravery. 
Within  another  8  years  the  whole  Per- 
sian Empire  as  far  as  Herat  was  annexed 
to  the  Arab  Empire. 

636-644  A.D.  : 

Whole  of  Persia  as  far  as  Herat  annexed 
to  the  Arab  Empire. 

637  A.D.— 15  A.H.  : 

The  first  Arab  naval  expedition  against 
Sub-Continent  at  Barwas  (Broach)  and 
Thana  near  Bombay,  under  Al-Hakam 
Bin  Abi-Al-As,  brother  of  Usman,  the 
Governor  of  Baharain,  took  place.  His 
other  brother  Mughirah  penetrated  in 
the  Bay  of  Debal,  but  without  result. 


< 

- 
Muir,  Caliphate,  p.  46. 

Biladhuri,  (Leiden),  pp.  431-432;  and 
(Cairo),  p.  438.  Elliot,  pp.  155-166  and 
414-416. 

N.A.  Baloch,  Islamic  Culture,  July  1948. 
Chachnama  does  not  record  the  first 
event.  Regarding  Mughirah's  raid, 
Chachnama,  p.  33,  records  his  defeat  and 
death,  but  Dr.  N.A.  Baloch  basing  on 
Biladhuri,  has  shown  that  he  was  not 
killed.  Khalifa  Umar  disapproved  the 
action  of  Usman  the  Governor,  stating 
that  it  was  too  risky  to  send  troops  on 
high  seas.  The  second  incident  may  have 
taken  place  in  21  A.H. 


639  A.D. 

Arab  conquest  of  Egypt. 

640  A.D.  or  soon  after: 

Due  to  confusion  in  the  Persian  Em- 
pire, Chach  or  Rai-Sehasi  decided  to 
extend  his  kingdom  in  that  direction 
and  subdued  Makran,  Jalwan,  Gandava 
and  etc.  fixing  his  border  at  a  stream 
separating  Kirman  from  Makran. 

This  may  have  caused  the  First  Arab 
invasion  ofSindin  the  form  of  a  naval 
raid,  or  Khalifa  Usman's  expedition 
against  Debal,  as  the  Arabs  had  consid- 
ered Makran  a  part  of  the  Persian  Empire 
and,  therefore,  part  of  their  domin- 
ion. These  territories,  at  one  time  under 


Chachnama,  pp.  35-47. 


122 


the  Sassanid  control,  were  virtually  inde- 
pendent in  637  A.D.,  at  the  time  of 
the  fall  of  the  Persian  Empire. 


640  A.D.  : 

Hieun  Tsang,  a  Buddhist  master  of  law, 
visited  Sind  and  found  a  Sudra  ruling 
it.  Probably,    the   Rai    Dynasty    still 
ruled  Sind  and  therefore,  Chachnama's 
chronology  is    incorrect.    He     found 
10,000  Buddhist  monks  in  Sind,  who 
did  no  work  and  indulged  in  debauch- 
ery.   Hieun  Tsang  saw  3  empires  in  the 
north-western  Indo-Pak  Sub-Continent 
including  Afghanistan,   Kapisi*  in  the 
north  (Afghanistan),  Sindhu  or  Sind  in 
the  south,  and  Tsao-Kuta  or  Tsao-lo 
between  the  two  (Gandhara)  and  to  the 
west  of  Sindhu,  tie  kingdom  of  Lang- 
Kie-lo  (Makran  and   Kirman),   which 
was  under  Persian   subjection   and    so 
was  Ki-Kiangna  (Kaikan). 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


He  found  Buddhism  as  the  religion  of  the 
majority,  but  on  the  decline.  He  found 
similar  situation  in  the  Western  Hills 
(Kalat).  The  reason  for  this  was  that 
the  war-like  aristocracy  of  Huns  and 
Kushans  mingled  with  the  local  war-like 
aristocracy  both  culturally  and  by  blood. 
The  off  springs  calling  themselves 
Khatri,  as  in  the  Hindu  tradition,  wor- 
shipped Hindu  deities  and  asserted  for 
power  in  Sind  and  Cutch.  The  Rai 
dynasty's  origin  may  be  typical  of  this 
type.  Same  time  Jainism  started  spread- 
ing in  Sind  and  Cutch.  Williams,  p.  67. 


■ 
■ 


■ 


* 


. 


r 


BRAHMAN  DYNASTY 


- 


640  A.P.  or  soon  after  10  A.H.  : 

Accession  of  Chach  to  the  throne  of 
Sind. 

The  version  of  Chachnama  or  Biladhuri 
or  Tuhfat  ai-Kiram  putting  the  year  of 
his  accession  as  602,  622  or  632  A.D., 
is  incorrect  as  Hieun  Tsang  saw  a  Sudra 
(Raf*  Dynasty)  ruling  Sind  in  640  A.D. 
Rana  Mahrat,  the  ruler  of  Chitor  and  a 
kinsman  of  Sehasi,  hearing  of  Rai  Seh- 
asi's  death  and  treacherous  killing  of  all 
his  heirs  and  relatives  and  usurping  of  the 
throne  by  Chach,  invaded  Sind,  but  was 
killed  by  the  latter  in  single  combat. 

640-644  A.D.    : 

Shortly  after  the  accession  of  Chach  all 
the  four  outlying  provinces  which  Hieun 
Tsang  saw  as  parts  of  Sind,  declared 
independence.  Since  he  saw  a  Sudra 
ruling  Sind,  Chach  may  have  ascended 
the  throne  after  640  A.D.  and  the  four 
provinces  rebelled  on  his  usurpation. 
Besides,  he  was  a  Brahman  and  the 
population  including  its  rulers  was  Bud- 
dhist. Chach  proceeded  in  person  against 
Fskanda  and  Multan  first  and  then 
against  the  Governors  of  Sewistan  and 
Bahmanabad  and  subdued  them  all. 
The  Multan  division  included  the  whole 
of  the  eastern  and  southern  Punjab  upto 
the  Kashmir  border,  but  not  the  north 
and  north-west  Punjab.  He  planted  a 
tree  on  a  stream  called  Panj-Mahiyat 
(Panj-Nahiyat)  which  is  close  to  the 
Kashmir  hills  in  East  Punjab. 
Sewistan    or    Sehwan    included    Arab 


Chachnama,  pp.  23-28. 


' 


Chachnama.  pp.  27-28,  puts  the  dat/e 
as  10  A.H.  or  632  A.D.,  Which  is  wrorig 
in  view  of  Hieun  Tsang's  statement. 

Kalich,  Chachnama,  pp.  27,  30  and  192. 
Among  the  tribes,  which  raised  this 
rebellion,  Chachnama  mentions  Sama, 
Sahta,  Channa,  Lohana  and  Jats.  It 
seems  that  the  rebellion  was  subdued  by 
winning  over  Buddhist  priests  (Shamanis), 
as  Arabs  saw  most  of  forts  held  by  them 
in  711  A.D.  The  powerful  Governor  of 
Bahmanabad,  Aghin  (Agham  or  Agha- 
mani?)    Lohana  was  defeated  and  killed. 

• 


• 


124 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


geographers'  Arma-bel  (Las  Bela), 
Makran,  Rojhan  and  Western  hills  upto 
Gandava.  It  was  the  capital  of  Budhia. 

642-43  A.D.— 21  A.H.  : 

Khalifa  Umar*sent  a  naval  expedition 
against  Debal  under  Mughirah  in  which 
the  Arabs  were  defeated  and  their  leader 
was  killed  by  the  Governor  of  Chach 
at  the  battle  of  Debal.  The  Khalifa  sent 
another  army  to  Makran  and  Kirman, 
but  on  the  advice  of  the  Governor  of 
Iraq  that  the  king  of  Sind  was  very 
powerful,  further  expeditions  to  Sind 

were  abandoned. 

• 

Biladhuri  reports  that  Khalifa  was  told 
that  approach  road  to  Sind  had  scanty 
water,  bad  fruits,  and  arrogant  thieves. 
If  small  force  was  sent,  it  would  be 
wiped  out  by  robbers  and  if  large  army 
was  sent,  it  would  die  of  thirst.  This 
was  the  correct  reflection  of  Makran 
route. 

643  A.D.— 22  A.H.  : 

Abdullah  Bin  Amar.  Bin  Rabi  invaded 
Kirman,  penetrated  Seistan,  Sijistan  and 
advanced  towards  Makran.  Its  ruler 
Rasil  was  killed  in  a  battle  in  which 
the  king  of  Sind  had  sent  him  help  in 
the  form  of  men  and  equipment, 
[t  is  doubtful  if  Arabs  gained  victory.  It 
may  have  been  an  unsuccessful  raid  not 
on  the  Eastern  Makran  which  was  part 
of  Sind,  but  on  the  Western  Makran, 
which  was  not  a  part  of  Sind. 


Chachnama,  pp.  72-73,  puts  the  date  as 
11  A.H.;  but  it  is  a  mistake  for  Biladhuri 
(Cairo),  pp.  38,  records  the  Muslim 
victory  at  Debal  in  21  A.H.  Murgotton, 
p.  209. 

Tarikh-i-Guzida,  p.  181,  states  that  the 
Arabs  on  this  occasion  conquered  Mak- 
ran, Kirman  and  Sijistan  and  the  rulers 
of  Sind  helped  the  chief  of  Makran.  Has- 
san Bin  Muhammad  Shirazi  adds  that  the 
ruler  of  Makran  called  Zahbil  was  also 
the  king  of  Sind  and  was  killed.    Tabri 
and  Habibu-s-Siyar(Translation  by  Price), 
Vol.  I,  p.  138,  also  refers  to  this  expedition. 
Authority  of  Chachnama  is  considered 
correct  as  Makran  and  Sijistan  were  con- 
quered much  later. 
Biladhuri  is  silent  on  the  expedition. 
Chachnama,     pp.   73-74.      states     that 
Chach   had   ruled   for   35   years,   when 
this   expedition  took   place.    This  may 
not  be  .  correct.     It  may  have   been  the 
first  few  years  of  the  beginning  of  his 
rule  or  more  possibly  the  rule  of  Rai 
Sehasi-II. 

■ 
Chachnama,  pp.«  74-76. 
Raverty,*  in  the  Notes  on  Afghanistan, 
states  that  this  is  the  same  incident  as  that 
of  600  A.D.,  wherein  through    mistake 
the  king  of  Nimroz  is  mentioned  against 
the  Arabs.    This  view  is  difficult  to  be 
accepted  as  the  two  incidents  are  men- 
tioned bf  the  same  authority. 
Rasil  no  doubt  was   vassal  of   Chach. 
EHTs  statement  that  the  Arabs  defeated 
the  king  of  Sind  is  far  from  the  truth. 


. 


BRAHMAN  DYNASTY 


125 


645  A.D.  : 

Hieun    Tsang    returned    to    China. 

650  A.D.  : 

The  northern  frontier  of  the  Arab  Em- 
pire advanced  upto  the  Oxus  and  all 
countries  between  the  Oxus  and  Hindu- 
Kush  formed  part  of  it. 

650  A.D.  : 

The  Governor  of  Basra  sent  a  force  to 
Sijistan  (Seistan)  on  Indian  frontier.  This 
gained  some  success  and  advanced  along 
Helmand  river  as  far  as  Bust,  but  soon 
had  to  return  losing  all  that  had  been 
gained. 

650-651  A.D.—30  A.H.  : 

Caliph  Usman  sent  Hakim  Bin  Jabalah- 
Al-Abdi  to  Sind  and  Hind,  but  the 
latter  made  an  unfavourable  report  and 
the  plan  to  send  expedition  to  Sind 
was  dropped. 

On  similar  report  Caliph  Umar  had 
dropped  idea  of  conquest  of  Sind  in 
643-44  A.D. 

651  A.D.  : 

Death  of  the  last  Sassanid  king, 
and  the  complete  Arab  control  over 
the  Persian  Empire,  took  place. 

658-660  A.D.— 38-39  A.H.  : 

During  the  Caliphate  of  Hazrat  Ali 
a  great  expedition  was  sent  against  the 
Indo-Pak  Sub-Continent  under  Haris 
Bin  Abdul  Kais.  The  army  advanced 
without  any  opposition  upto  Kaikan 
(Mountain  region  in  Baluchistan 
around  Kalat),  which  was  a  part  of  Sind. 
The  leader  Haris  Bin  Abdul  Kais  was 
killed  together  with  all  but  a  few  follo- 
wers in  42  A.H.  (663  A.D.). 


M 

I 
■ 
Muir,,  Caliphate,  Its  Rise,  Decline  and 

Fall,  p.  51. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  432. 
Ibn  Asir  (Cairo),  Vol.  m,  p.  22. 

■■ 

H  Id* 

Biladhuri  (Murgotton),  pp.    209-10. 
Chachnama,  pp.  74-77. 

I 


Biladhuri,  p.  432. 


■ 


126 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Chachnama  states  that  the  Muslim 
forces  won  tho  victory  but  returned  back 
due  to  the  murder  of  Hazrat  Ali.  Chach- 
nama puts  the  date  as  80  A.H. 
Which  is  incorrect. 

Chachnama's  authority  is  Amir  son  of 
Haris  son  of  Abdul  Kais,  the  son  of 
defeated  or  victorious  leader  and  there- 
fore the  statement  may  be  doubtful. 
According  to  Biladhuri  the  leader  of 
expedition  was  Haris  Bin  Marah.  Ac- 
cording to  Chachnama  the  booty  col- 
lected by  the  Arab  army  included  1000 
girls. 

662  A.D.— 42  AH.  r 

Chach  died  and  was  succeeded  by  his 
elder  brother  Chandur  son  of  Selaj. 
Mankad  thinks  that  Chach  ruled  Kash- 
mir but  was  deposed.     His  chronology 
of  Chach  is: 

632-35  A.D. 

Ruled  in  Kashmir. 

636-38  AD. 

Wa  ndered. 

638  A.D.  : 

Met  Ram,  the  Vazierof  Rai  Sehasi. 

638-48  A.D.  : 

Worked  his  way  up. 

648-88  A.D.  : 

Ruled     Sind    and    married    Rani 
Soonhadi.  the  widow  of  Rai  Sehasi, 
in  648  A.D. 

695-712  A.D.  : 

Dahar  ruled  Sind. 


Chachnama,  p.  77. 

Athir,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  321-22. 

Elliot,  Vol.  I,  pp.  421-22. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.   432  and  (Cairo), 

p.  438. 

Chachnama,  pp.  49-50  puts  it  as  662  A.D. 
It  is  doubtful  if  Chach  ruled  for  40  years. 
He  may  have  ruled  maximum  for  22 
years  only. 

Mankad,  J.S.H.S.,  Vol.  VII,  Parts  1  and 
2,  pp.  7-13. 


Chachnama,  pp.  49-50. 


Soonhadi   recognized  as  Soonhan  Devi, 
or  goddess  of  beauty. 

u 


^ 


1 


i 


• 


> 


"  < 


r 


r 


, 


UMAYYAD  DYNASTY  669—749  A.D.  AND  BRAHMAN 


662  A.D.  : 


RULE  OF  SIND 


During  the  second  year  of  the  reign  of 
Muawiya  efforts  were  made  to  conquer 
Kabul  and  Zabulistan.  Forces  under 
Abdul  Rahman  Bin  Sainurah,  Governor 
of  Sijistan,  proceeded  to  Kabul,  and 
stormed  it  after  a  few  months'  siege. 
From  Kabul,  he  proceeded  to  Zabul 
and  conquered  it.  Soon  he  was  recalled 
and  the  tribes  of  Kabul  and  Zabul  drove 
out  the  conquerors.  The  new  Governor 
concluded  a  treaty  under  which  the  two 
chiefs  paid  a  sum  of  money. 

662  A.D.  : 

Jats  of  Kikanan  or  Kaikan  (area 
around  Kalat)  rcsisied  the  Arab  raids 
separately  attempted  under  Abdul 
Rahman  Bin  Samurah,  and  Rashid  Bin 
Amai.    These  intrusions  were  resisted. 

664  A.D.  : 

Death  of  Hieun  Tsang. 

664-665  A.D. —41  A.H.  : 

Amir  Muawiya  sent  the  first  expedition 
to  Sind  from  the  side  of  Kabul  under 
Muhlib  Bin  Abi  Sufrah.  He  raided 
Kaikan  (Kalat  District),  Bannah  (Banu) 
and  Anwar  (Lahore),  but  was  killed  in  a 
battle  near  Lahore. 

664-665  A.D.— 46  A.H.  : 

Under  Muawiya's  Caliphate,  Abdullah 
Bin  Amir  sent  Abdullah  Bin  Sawwar- 
Al-Abdi  to  make  expedition  against 
Kaikan  (Kalat  District),  then  part   of 


Biladhuri,  p.  396. 
Yaqoobi,  p.  258. 


• 


- 

■ 

i 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  320-2!. 
Biladhuri,  p.  432. 
Elliot,  Vol.  I,  pp.  116,  422. 

Athir,  Vol".  Ill,  pp.  372-73. 

Biladhuri,  (Leyden),    pp.  432-433    and 

(Cairo),  p.  438. 

Elliot,  Vol.  I,  pp.  116-117. 

Finshta  (Briggs). 

Murgotton,  p.  201. 

v 

Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  366. 

Biladhuri    (Leyden),  p.  433.  and  (Cairo) 

p.  439. 

1 


128 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Sind.  In  the  first  raid  he  Was  successful 
and  collected  large  amount  of  booty  in- 
cluding horses,  which  were  sent  to 
Muawiyah,  but  in  the  second  raid  he 
was  defeated  and  killed.  This  was  the 
second  raid  under  Muawiya. 
During  the  first  raid  a  mirror  called 
"the  World  revealing  mirror",  was  sent 
to  the  Khalifa,  which  survived  in  Umay- 
yad  treasury,  until  the  take  over  by 
Abbasids  in  750  A.D. 

Under  Caliph  Muawiya,  Ziad  Bin 
AJ-Hadli,  dispatched  his  deputy  Sinan 
Bin  Salamah  Bin-Al-Mah  Abbtq-Al- 
Madhli  as  Governor  to  Makran,  which 
then  was  ruled  by  Chach's  brother 
Chandur.  He  was  dismissed  the  same 
year  and  replaced  by  Rashid  Bin  Amar- 
Al-Judaydi-Al-Azdi.  Rashid  was  killed 
in  an  expedition  against  Kaikan  and 
Meds.  Sinan  Bin  Salamah  al-Hadhli  was 
re-appointed  as  the  next  Governor  and 
this  time  he  remained  in  Makran  for  2 
years,  when  he  was  killed  by  the  Jats 
and  Meds  of  Budha,  the  hilly  tracts  of 
Kachhi.  Jacobabad  and  Larkana 
districts. 

666-683  A.D.  : 

After  the  setback  of  Kaikan  in  666  A.D., 
Umayyads  sent  6  expeditions  against 
this  frontier  post  of  Sind  during  the  next 
20  years,  without  any  permanent  im- 
pression. However,  a  part  of  the 
western  Makran  fell  in  their  hands. 

667-668  A.D.— 47  A.H.  : 

Expedition  of  Abdullah  Bin  Sawwar-Al- 
Abdi  to  Kaikan  (Kalat  District,  then 
part  of  Sind).  Abdullah  was  killed  by 
Turks  (probably  his  own  troopg). 


Murgotton,  p.  211. 
Chachnama,  pp.  78-79. 
Chachnama  does  not  mention  the  initial 
success,  but  gives  more  detailed  informa- 
tion on  the  disaster  and  states  that  Mua- 
wiya   had    given    specific,   instructions 

to  send  him  horses. 

lift 

■ 

■ 
■ 

Asir,  Vol.  HI,  p.  377. 
Biladhuri,  pp.  397,  and  433-434. 
Chachnama,  p.  83. 

IX?!. 

:  A 

HA    U  ±1& 

■     i 

Biladhuri,  p.  433. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  278. 


• 


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CD 


Q 

H- 

</>l  % 

h-l  < 

—I  <J) 

di  o 

ND  | 

TSAN 

in 

2 

in 

LU 

X 

X 

CJ 

< 

3 

TTTTT 


II:' 


1 

— 

3    3 

a 


STUPA  AT 
MIRPUR- 
KHAS, 
SIND 


79.     Stupa  at  Mirpurkhas  restored  from  Percy   Brown,  Indian  Architecture-Buddhist   and  Hindu 
period,  based  on  Hency  Counsen's  Antiquities  of  Sind. 


• 


i 

i 

I 

i 


-♦.♦••••A   A 


Squinch  arches; 


Key: 

1.  Pendentivev 

2.  Drum 

3.  Dome 

4.  Lantt'rn 


J? 


I 


80.  Development  of  a  dome,  orldially  a  Byzantine  Roman  Invovation, 
completely  absorbed  in  Muslim  architecture.  See  also  Stupa  at 
Mirpurkhas. 


* 


- 


82.  628.  Signature  of  Emperor  Harasha  from  a  copper  plate.  Signature  was  put  on  the  plate  in 
ink.  the  inked  portion  cut  into  plate  by  an  engraver  and  filled  with  chemicals  (From 
Epigraphia  Indica  vol.  IV  p.  210). 


1- 


83.  711-714  A.  D.  A  type  of  catapult  or  •  Manjaniflue',  which  was  used  by  Arabs  during 
the  seige  of  Oebal.  It  was  a  Greek  invention,  developed  and  perfected  by  Romans, 
copied  by  Parthians  and  Sassanians  of  Iran  and  operated  by  army  recruited  by 
Mohammad    Bin  Qasim  from  Iraq   and    Iran. 


i 


> 


84.     General  Plan -of  Jami  Masjid   Banbhore  (Debal) 


UMAYYAD  DYNASTY  669-749 

668-669  A.D. : 

On  hearing  of  the  news  of  the  death  of 
Abdullah  Bin  Sawwar,  the  Governor  of 
Khurasan,  Ziyad,  sent  Si  nan  Bin 
Salmah  to  replace  the  former. 

He  subdued  the  rebels  of  Makran,  but 
was  replaced  by  Rashid  Bin  Umer 
Jadidi,  who  later  on  attacked  Kaikan 
(Kalat),  recovered  arrears  of  tribute 
for  2  years  and  proceeded  to  Seistan  via 
Bolan  Pass,  where  he  was  attacked  by 
50,000  Meds  and  killed. 

Sinan  Bin  Salmah  was  again  reinstated. 

668-669  A.D.— 48  A.H.  : 

Chandur  son  of  Sehlaj  II  Brah- 
man King  of  Sind,  died  after  7  years 
rule.  His  kingdom  was  divided.  The 
Upper  Sind  with  its  capital  at  Aiore 
went  to  Dahar  and  the  Lower  Sind  with 
capital  at  Bahmanabad,  to  Duraj  son 
of  Chandur. 

669-670  A.D.  : 

Khalifa  Muawiya  transferred  several 
families  of  Jats  from  Basra  and 
Antioch  and  to  other  towns  on  the 
sea-coast,  in  Syria.  In  third  century 
A.H.  Antioch  had  a  quarter  known  as 
"Jat  Quarter".  The  Jats  were  settled 
on  the  sea-coast,  to  resist  any  raids  by 
Byzantine  Romans. 

669-670  A.D.  : 

Daharsiah,  the  elder  son  of  Chach, 
ousted  Duraj  and  occupied  Bahman- 
abad. Since  then  Dahar  ruled  from  Alore 
with  Iskandah,  Multan  and  possibly  the 
Sibi,  Kachhi  and  Bolan  Pass  areas  under 
him,  and  Daharsiah  ruled  the  whole  of 
the  Lower  Sind,  Sehwan,  western  Hills, 


A.D.  AND  BRAHMAN  RULE  OF  SIND  129 

The  statement  of  attack  by  50,000  Meds 
is  an  exaggeration  as  the  surrounding 
area  does  not  have  a  population  of  this 
size  even  to  this  day  in  spite  of  scientific 
development. 


Biladhuri,  p.  433. 
Murgotton,  p.  212. 
Chachnama,  pp.  81—83. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  H,  p.  278. 


Chachnama,  pp.  58-60.  Chandur,  was 
impressed  by  the  Buddhist  teachings  and 
had  appointed  learned  men  and  priests 
to  the  state  administration.  These  ad- 
ministrators must  have  been  Buddhists, 
as  Arabs  found  many  forts  being  ruled  by 
them. 


G.  P.  Tate,    Seistan,   basing    on  Bilad- 
huri, pp.  377-378.  See  also  entry  834  A.D. 


Chachnama,  pp.  59-63. 

Jats  were  captured  in  the    war  with  the 

Iranians  in  635-36  A.D. 


130 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S1ND 


Makran  and  Bahmanabad.  He  accept- 
od  the  suzerainty  of  Dahar,  but 
possibly  in  name  only. 


669-70  AJ>.— 49  A.H.  : 

Dahar  started  tour  of  the  whole  of  his 
kingdom  for  mass  contact  and  to  win 
the  confidence  of  his  people. 

670-700  A.D. : 

Daharsiah  ruled  from  Bahmanabad,  the 
Lower  Sihd,  Sehwan  and  Makran,  and 
Dahar  ruled  the  upper  Sind,  Multanand 
the  Kachhi  hills. 

670-700  A.D.  : 

Dahar  had  no  control  over  the  southern 
parts  of  Sind  as  it  came  into  his  possess- 
ion only  a  few  years  before  its  conquest 
by  Arabs.  This  is  probably  the  reason 
why  Nirunkot  and  Siwistan  (Sehwan), 
the  two  main  strongholds  in  Sind,  open- 
ed their  gates  to  the  Arabs  without  any 
resistance  in  71 1  A.D. 


670-700  A.D. 

The  Arab  penetration  in  Sind  via  Bolan 
Pass  (FCaikan  or  Kalat)  had  been  suc- 
cessfully opposed  for  over  50  years. 
But  as  Dahar  had  no  control  over  the 
Lower  Sind  and  Makran  for  30  years, 
this  had  weakened  his  position  to 
the  extent  that  the  Makran-Debal  route 
was  virtually  unopposed  in  711  A.D. 

I 

670  A.D.— 50  A.H.  : 

Daharsiah  moved  to  Rawar  fort  found- 
ed by  his  father  Chach  who  had  left  it 
incomplete.     He  completed  the  fort. 


Chachnama,  pp.  39-63. 


Chachnama,  pp.  59-65. 


Mujumdar,  H.C.I.P.,  Vol.  m,  p.  173. 
See  entry  668-669  A.D.  Williams,  p.  68. 
Williams,  p.  68,  thinks  that  during  this 
period  Sind's  control  over  Cutch  (which 
was  part  of  it,  most  probably  since  the 
end  of  6th  century  due  to  weakening  of 
power  of  Valabhi  and  was  occupied  by 
Rai  Seharas),  weakened,  due  to  internal 
factions,  and  due  to  increasing  raids  of 
Arabs. 

During  the  period  the  Kathi  tribesmen 
from  Sind  began  to  move  to  Cutch,  on 
their  way  to  what  is  now  called  Kathia- 
war,  which  got  its  name  from  them. 
They  became  overlords  in  Southern 
Cutch  and  Kathiawar. 
Dahar  must  have  lost  control  over  Cutch, 
whose  pirates  may  have  looted  the  Arab 
Ships. 
Williams,  p.  68. 


Chachnama,  p.  50. 

■ 


1 


UMAYYAD  DYNASTY  669-749  A.D.  AND  BRAHMAN  RULE  OF  SIND 


131 


i 


<?71-95  A.D. : 

I-tsing  travels  in  the  Sub-Continent. 


671  A.D. 

First  Arab  voyage  to  Canton.  It  is  not 
known  whether  the  Sind  ports  were  tou- 
ched. There  were  the  years  when  there 
was  complete  peace  on  the  borders  of  the 
Sub-Continent.  The  ships  must  have 
touched  Sind  then. 

671  A.D.— 51  A.H.  : 

Mundhir  Bin  Jarud-Al-Abdi  captured 
tCaikan  (Kalat  District)  and  Kuzdar 
(IChuzdar).  Later  on  he  died,  while 
on  his  way  to  Khuzdar.  After  the 
death  of  his  father  Hukum  bin  Mudhir 
(Munzir)  was  appointed  as  commander 
and  held  frontiers  for  6  months  when  he 
was  re-called.  The  command  then  was 
taken  by  Ibn  Haris  who  subdued 
Khuzdar  and  collected  much  booty. 
Kaikan  probably  was  not  subdued. 

672  A.D.— 52  A.H.  : 

Daharsen  intended  to  attack  Alore. 
His  brother  Dahar  diplomatically  avoid- 
ed the  conflict.  Daharsen  died  outside 
Alore  after  4  days  sickness.  After  a 
month  Dahar  married  his  deceased 
brother's  widow,  the  daughtor  of  Loha- 
na,  the  Governor  of  Agham.  Daharsiah 
Bin  Chach  succeeded  Daharsen. 

671  A.D.— 51  A.H.  : 

Probable   date  of  Dahar's  'marriage' 
With  his  sister  Bai. 

678-679  AD.  : 

Raja  of  Rama!  (Rawal)  invaded  Sind. 
After    occupying     Bupijia.  he  attacked 


• 


Chachnama  calls  him  Munzir  and  puts 
the  date  of  his  campaign  as  61  AH., 
which  is  incorrect. 


Chachnama,  pp.  50-54  and  54-68. 


. 

Chachnama.  p.  68.  The  story  of  this 
marriage  is  considered  fake  by  many 
authorities,  as  there  is  no  such  precedent 
in  Hindu  Society,  though  it  was  common 
among  the  Phar*uns  of  Egypt. 

Chachnama.  pp.  70-80. 

Chachnama's  Sindhi  translation,  p.  425 


' 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Rawar  in  the  Lower  Sind  but  Dahar  de- 
feated him  with  the  help  of  the  troops 
of  Muhammad  Bin  Haris  Alfi. 


679  A.D.— 60  A.H.  or  earlier: 

Ibn  Hurri  Bahli  was  made  the  comman- 
der of  Sind- Makran  frontiers.  Hurri  was 
still  Governor  of  Makran  when  Muawi- 
ya  died  on  22nd  Rajab.  60  A.H. 

683  AD.  : 

Kabul  revolted  against  the  Arabs,  and 
in  a  battle  at  J unzah  the  Arabs  lost.  The 
Governor  Yazid  Ibn  Ziyad  and  leading 
leaders  were  killed. 

684-85  A.D.— 65  A.H.  : 

Abdul    Malik   Bin    Marwan   became 
Khalifa. 

684-85  A.D.— 65  A.H.  : 

Alans  (or  Alvis?)  rebelled  against 
Umayyads,  fled  to  Sind  and  sought  pro- 
tection of  Dahar,  who  treated  their 
leader  Muhammad  Bin  Haris  Alan*  kind- 
ly and  admitted  him  into  his  service. 


685  AD.  : 

Zabul  declared  war  against  the  Arabs, 
but  inspite  of  initial  success  the  rebellious 
leader  Ratbil  was  killed  and  his  army 
routed.  His  son  Ratbil  IT  the  successor, 
compelled  the  Arab  General  to  con- 
cede. The  former  paid  a  sum  of  money 
and  latter  agreed  not  to  raid  his  country 
under  this  agreement.  Khalifa  disapprov- 
ed the  treaty  and  dismissed  the  General. 


(based  on  Fufutul  Baldan,  p.  425)  puts 
the  incident  at  85  A.H. 

It  is  doubtful  whether  Alafis  worked  in 
the  employment  of  Dahar  as  early  as 
678  A.D.  The  date  seems  to  be  in- 
correct. Alafi  is  not  mentioned  by  any 
other  historian. 


! 


I 


Chachnama,  pp.  70,  85,  89  and  100.  No 
other  history  deesribes  Alafis'  flight  to 
Sind.  It  appears  that  it  is  one  of  the 
many  of  the  author's  romantic  fictions 
added  to  the  history.  For  further  in- 
formation on  Alafis  see  Chachnama, 
pp.  138,  140,  175  and  224. 


Elliot,  Vol.  II.  p.  4I6.  has  wrongly  put  the 
year  as  683-84  A.D.  or  64  A.H. 
See  Biladhuri  (Murgotton),  p.  149  and 
Le  Strange.  Land  of  Eastern  Caliphate, 
p.  I50S  Biladhuri  does  not  discuss  it  fully. 


1 


1 


UMAYYAD  DYNASTY  669-749  A.D.  AND  BRAHMAN  RULE  OF  SIND 


133 


687-688  A.D.  : 

Coins  in  Pahlavi  characters  minted  by 
Umer  Bin  Ubaid  Ullah  Bin  Ma' mar. 


Caetani  Leone,  Chronographis  Islamica; 
quoting  ZDMG— Vol.  IV,  pp.  507-1850. 


694-695  A.D.— 75  A.HL 

Hajjaj  Bin  Yousuf  permitted 


694-95  A.D.— 75  A.H.  : 

Hajjaj  was  appointed  as  the  Governor 
of  Eastern  Empire  of  Umayyads. 

Jats  of 

Sind  to  settle  town  in  Kaskar  (Iraq), 
along  with  their  families  and  buffaloes. 
They  were  joined  by  slaves,  Mawali  of 
Bahilah  (?)  and  Khawlah,  and  became 
thieves,  robbing  caravans  and  boats  on 
rivers  and  canals  of  Iraq.  • 

694-695  A.D.— 75  A.H.  : 

Khalifa  Abdul  Malik  sent  Said  Bin 
Aslam  Bin  Zurah  Kalabi  to  govern  Sind 
and  Makran  but  Muawiya  Bin  Haris 
and  Muhammad  Bin  Haris  Alafi  re- 
belled and  murdered  Said  Bin  Aslam. 
Hajjaj  despatched  Mujjjah  Bin  Sir-Al- 
Tamimi,  to  reconquer  the  lost  territories 
on  the  Sind  border.  Mujj  ih  subdued 
Qandabil(Gandava)  but  died  in  Makran 
after  a  yfcir  in  697-97  A.D. 

695-696  A.D.— 75  A.H.  : 

After  the  death  of  Mujjah;  Hajjaj  appo- 
inted Harun  Bin    Dhira-Al-Namari  as 
Governor  of  Indian  frontiers. 
The  Med  pirates  of  Debal  looted  the 
Arab  ships  returning  from  Sarandeep 
and  carried  away  Muslim  Women. 
Hajjaj   sent  several  expeditions  against 
them.    Two     of   the-n     being     under 
Ubaidullah  Bin  Nabhan  and  Budail  Bin 


Biladhuri,  p.  375. 


Ibn  Asjr,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  309. 
Biladhuri,  p.  435. 
Chachnama,  pp.  85-86. 
Biladhuri  (Leyden),  p.  435. 
Chachnama  states  that  Alafis  were  settled 
by  Dahar  in  Mekran.     On  hearing  the 
news,    Hajjaj    had    Suleman    Alafi,  the 
tribal  head  murdered.  Alafis  immediately 
left  Makran  and  took  shelter  with  Dahar 
in  Sind.     This  contradicts  Chachnama's 
own  statements  (See  entries  694-85  A.D. 
and   678-79    A.D.).     Makran   was    not 
under  Dahar's  control  until  700  A.D. 
and   therefore    Dahar   could    not    have 

settled  the  Alafis  in  Makran. 

• 

Biladhuri,  p.  435. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  pp.  330-331. 
Elliot   Vol.  I,  pp.  118,  119. 
Chachnama,  p.  89. 

Meds  were  most  feared  pirates  of  the 
Arabian  sea.  Due  to  their  activities,  the 
Sassanids  built  a  fortress  at  Abla  a  sei- 
port,     as     stated     by    Yaqoot    Hamvi, 


134 


. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Jahfah.    All  suffered  defeat. 


695  A.D.  : 

Hajjaj,  Governor  of  Iraq  soon  after 
his  appointment  sent  Ubaidullah  to 
subdue  Kabul.  The  kings  of  Kabul  and 
Zabul  combined  and  inflicted  severe 
defeat  on  the  Arabs.  The  retreat  was 
also  blocked.  The  Arab  army  faced 
thirst  and  hunger  and  Ubaidullah  died 
of  grief.  The  survivors  were  allowed  to 
retire  after  paying  a  ransom. 

704  A.D.  : 

A  ship  carrying  Muslim  women  from 
Ceylon  was  captured  by  Med  pirates  off 
the  Sind  coast  near  Debal.  Hajjaj  asked 
Raja  Dahar  to  set  women  free.  Dahar 
replied  that  he  had  no  control  over 
pirates.  As  a  result,  fresh  hostility 
arose.  Hajjaj  made  renewed  efforts  to 
conquer  the  country  which  had  defied 
seven  attempts  of  637  &  663-683  A.D. 
Hajjaj  seat  Ubaidullah  Bin  Nibhan  to 
raid  Debal  but  he  was  defeated  aid 
killed.  His  grave  is  at  Clifton  and  po- 
pularly called  Abdullah  Shah's  tomb. 
The  exact  date  is  not  mentioned. 
The  pirates  included  Jats,  and  therefore, 
on  the  conquest  of  Sind,  they  were 
deported. 


• 

' 

7J5-706  A.D.— 8~     A.H.  : 

Hajjaj  Bin  Yusuf  appointed  Muhammad 
Bin  Qasiin  Governor  of  the  Sind  fron- 


Mu'ajamu-ul  Baldan  (Cairo),  Vol.  I,  p.  8 
and  Vol.  E,  p.  196. 

Al-Beruni,   India,   p.  102.     Buzrig   Bin 
Shaharyar,  (Cairo  edition),  p.  114. 


Elliot,  Vol.  II,  p.  416. 
Also  Tarikh-i-Alafi. 


' 


Raverty  in  'Notes  on  Afghanistan',  p.  62, 
assigns  this  incident  to  the  year  79  A.H., 
or  698-99  A.D. 
Le-Strange,   The  land   of  Eastern  Cali- 


phate,  p.  151. 


Chachnama,  pp.  85-92. 
Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  435  and  (Cairo), 
p.  441. 

This  would  have  been  before  the  death 
of  Abdul  Malik  in  86  A.H.  i.e.  705  A.D. 
As  regards  Ceylon,  Chachnama  mentions 
Sarandeb  and  Biladhuri  the  Island  of 
Rubies.  Chachnama  states  that  pirates 
belonged  to  the  tribe  of  Naghmaroh. 
Dr.  Daudpota  has  discussed  the  back- 
ground of  Abdullah  Shah's  grave. 
Chachnama,  p.  91  and  notes  p.  255. 
Hellpusch  &  Westphal,  Jats  of  Pakistan, 
p.  101. 

Masumi  gives  a  different  version  regard- 
ing causes  of  expedition  on  Sind,  but  it 
seems  to  be  author's  own  fabrication. 
The  real  cause  may  be,  desire  to  expand 
Arab  Empire  and  to  collect  funds  for  the 
depleted  treasury  caused  by  Kharjite 
troubles.  Similar  expeditions  were  sent 
to  Kabul,  Oxus,  Chinese  Turkistan 
(Kashgar),  Makran  and  Spain. 

Biladhuri,  p.  436. 

Chachnama,  pp.  93,  94,  96-100. 


UMAYYAD  DYNASTY  669-749  A.D.  AND  BRAHMAN  RULE  OF  SIND 


135 


tiers.  Latter  had  shown  extraordinary 
ability  in  suppressing  rebellion  in  Iraq 
and  also  subduing  Kurds. 


705  A.D.-86  A.H. : 

Khalifa  Abdul  Malik  died. 

705  A.D.—  Shawal,  86  A.H. 

After  the  death  of  Khalifa  Abdul  Malik, 
his  son  Walid  occupied  the  throne. 

708  A.D.  : 

The  King  of  Ramal  invaded  Sind,  but 
was  defeated  and  repulsed  by  Dahar. 

TAQ   \  Ti 

After  the  defeat  and  death  of  Ubaidullah 
at  Debal,  Hajjaj  sent  Budail  Bin  Tuhfa 
by  way  of  sea  from  Oman  to  raid  Debal. 
He  was  reinforced  by  troops  sent  by 
Muhammad  Ibn  Haroon  from  Makran. 
Budail  was  defeated  by  Dahar 's  son 
Jaisina  and  killed  in  a  pitched  battle 
which  lasted  a  whole  day  near  Debal. 
This  was  the  9th  Arab  attempt  to  con- 
quer  Sind. 

In  this  battle  Budail  had  3300  horse- 
men and  Jaisina  had  4000  men  and  4 
elephants. 

709  AD  • 

After  the  defeat  of  Budail  at  Debal, 
Sunder,  the  Buddhist  Governor  of 
Nerun  fearing  Arab  retaliation,  sent  a 
delegation  to  Hajjaj,  accepting  Jazia 
against  protection. 

710-11  A.D.— 92  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Ibn  Haroon  died  near 
Armabil  (Las  Bella). 


Elliot,  Vol.  I,  pp.  428-29. 
Muhammad  Bin  Qasim's  sturdy  ex- 
peditions in  Iraq  and  Kurdistan  show 
that  he  could  not  have  been  a  lad  of  17, 
when  he  had  already  established  his 
name. 

I 

Chachnama,  pp.  69-70. 

Chachnama,  pp.  92-93. 
Biladhuri  (Leyden),  p.  436,  reports  that 
Budail  was  killed  by  the  Buddhist  troops 
of  Dahar. 


Chachnama,  p.  93. 

The  fear  of  Buddhists  confirms  Bilad- 
huri's  story  that  Budail  was  killed  by 
Buddhist  troops  of  Dahar. 

• 
Biladhuri,  pp.  435-436. 


. 


ARAB  CONQUEST  OF  SI  NO 

711  A.D.  : 

Hajjaj  made  elaborate  preparation  for 
the  conquest  of  Sind  under  his  son-in- 
law  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim,  providing 
him  lavishly  the  arms,  soldiers,  food  pro- 
visions and  6,000  Syrian  soldiers  fully 


* 


equipped  With  Roman  War  Machines 
of  the  latest  types,  stone-throwers  (Man- 
janique),  machines  for  scaling  fort  walls, 
flame  throwers,  etc.  The  equipment 
was  sent  by  sea.  At  Shiraz, 
Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  was  joined  by 
6000  horsemen,  6000  camel  men  and 
3000  load-camels. 

711  A.D.  : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim,  after  leaving 
Shiraz,  conquered  Kanazbur  (Panjgur) 
after  a  siege  of  many  months,  and  after- 
wards Armail  or  Annabel  (Las  Bela) 
and  came  by  land  to  Debal. 


711  A.D.— 92  A.H. : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim,  having  assem- 
bled the  siege  machines  which  had  arri- 
ved by  sea,  stormed  Debal,  which  capi- 
tulated after  the  Standard  on  the  top  of 
the  temple  (probably  Buddhist)  was  des- 
troyed by  catapults.  4000  Muslim  colo- 
nists were  settled  at  Debal  and  a  quarter 
of  city  was  marked  for  them.  The  temple 
was  partly  defiled,  700  beautiful  women 
were  captured  and  massacre  was  allow- 
ed for  3  days.  A  mosque  was  built  and 
Hamid  Ibn  Wada  al  Najdi  appointed  as 


M.H.  Panhwar,  Razi  and  His  Times. 

Chachnama,  pp.  96-102. 

There  is  a  dispute  on  the  year.    Tabri, 

Vol.  I  &  H,  p.  1200  puts  it  as  90  AH. 

i.e.  708-09  A.D. 

Elliot  puts  it   as  93   A.H.  (711-12  A.D.). 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  pp.  435-36,  ha*';  put 

it  as  707-708  A.D.  Ibn  Asir  (Cairo),  Vol. 

IV,    p.     257    agrees      with     Biladhuri. 

Masumi      considers    710-11     A.D.    as 

year  of  occupation  of  Armabil  (Las  Bela) 

and  Qatarpun. 

In  Sind,  Chachnama's  version  is  accepted. 

Chachnama,  pp.  99-100,  104. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),     p.  435  and  Cairo, 

p.  442. 

Ibn  Asir  (Cairo),  Vol.  IV,  p.  257. 

Chachnama  has  put  the  date  of  his  arrival 

near  Debal  on  Friday,  Ramzan  93  A.H. 

Here  he  has  mistaken  it  for  92  A.H. 

■ 

Chachnama,  pp.  10O-109. 
Biladhuri,  p.  436,  states  that  the  army 
entered  the  city  by  scaling  walls  (instead 
of  destruction  of  the  Standard  by  Manr 
janiq,  as  stated  by  Chachnama).  Ibn  Asir 
(Cairo),  Vol.  IV,  p.  258,  supports  Bilad- 
huri's  version. 


I 


138 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Arab  geographers  have  called  it  Sindu- 
stan. 


712  A.D.  z 

Chandram  Halah,  the  displaced  Gover- 
nor of  Sehwan  drove  away  the  Arabs 
with  the  help  of  Jats;  but  Muhammad 
Bin  Qasim's  Lieutenants  in  turn  re- 
captured Sehwan  and  took  4000  Jats  as 
captives. 

712  A.D. : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  halted  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  river  Indus  for  2 
months  and  reinforced  himself  with  2000 
select  horses,  with  the  help  of  Moka  so© 
of  Wasaya  of  Jahm  and  built  a  boat 
bridge  on  the  Indus.  Dahar  gallantly 
allowed  him  to  cross  the  river  Indus  to 
show  his  chivalry.  The  place  of  crossing 
is  identified  near  Talhar.  Raja  Rasil 
who  was  posted  to  oppose  the  Arab 
crossing  of  the  river,  probably  connived 
at  it  as  on  the  fifth  day  of  the  war  Rasil 
joined  the  Arabs  to  fight  Raja  Dahar. 

July  2nd  712  A.D.—  10th  Ram/an,  93  AH. 
Dahar's  death  at  the  hands  of  Arab 
army  near  Rawar — after  he  ruled  42 
years,  the  first  30  years  over  a  part  of 
Sind  and  the  last  12  years  over  the  whole 
of  Sind.  He  left  behind  four  sons  namely: 
Jasina,  Gopi,  Vikiyo,  and  Daharsina. 
For  the  first  time  fire  throwers  developed 
by  Sassanids  and  Byzantine  Romans, 
were  used  in  the  Sub-Continent  in  this 
war,  which  lasted  for  5  days,  starting 
from  6th  Ramzan.  The  head  of  Dahar 
along  with  the  heads  of  other  Rajas 
who  fought  with  Arabs  were  sent  to  al- 
Hajjaj  at  Kufa. 

712  A.D.  : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  the  Governor  of 
Sind,  sent  many  thousand  buffaloes  and 


Chachnama,  p.  146. 

Biladhuri,  p.  437. 

Various   names    used   for    Sehwan   are 

Sahban,  Sadusan,  Siwistan,  etc. 

Chachnama's  year  711  is  inaccurate. 

Chachnama,  pp.  150,  159  and  165. 
Biladhuri,  p.  438. 


Tabri,  Vol.  U,  p.  1200,  gives  the  year  as 
90A.H. 

Biladhuri  (Murgotton),  p.  210. 
Chachnama,  pp.     174-183  puts  his  rule 
as  43  lunar  years,  which  is  equivalent  to 
42  solar  years. 

Tuhfatul  Kiram  puts  his  rule  as  32  years, 
which  is  a  mistake.    Haig  suggests  that 
Rawar's  location  would  be  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Fateh  Bagh. 
For  war  machines,  refer  entry  309-79  A.D. 

- 

Biladhuri,  pp.  1 67-168. 

Biladhuri  puts  the  year  as  707-708  A.D., 


ARAB  CONQUEST  OF  SIND 


139 


Jats  to  Hajjaj.  These  were  then  dis- 
tributed in  the  forests  of  Kashkar  in 
Iraq  where  Jats  of  Sind  had  already 
bssn  settled.  The  Jats  ware  occupying 
the  Sind  coast,  river  banks,  jungles  and 
villages.  They  consisted  of  many  tribes 
like  Lohanas,  Lakhas,  Sammas  etc. 

712  A.D.  : 

Khalifa  Walid  sent  the  Jats  of  Sind  and 
other  war  prisoners  and  captives  sent  to 
him. by  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim,  to 
Antioch,  to  join  those  sent  in  670  A. D. 

713  A.D.  : 

On  the  death  of  Dahar,  his  son  Jaisina 
retreated  to  Bahmanabad  fort  and  the 
widow  of  King  Dahar  defended  Alore. 
Jaisina  also  made  preparation  to  pro- 
tect Alore.  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim 
attacked  Alore.  The  queen  Mayain 
bravely  resisted  and  when  conditions 
became  hopeless  she  along  with  other 
royal  ladies  performed  Sati,  leaving  the 
fort  to  the  conquerors. 

Nov.  712  A.D.— Safar  94  A.H.  : 

Conquest  of  Dahlila  while  on  way  to 
Bahmanabad. 

712-713  A.D.  : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  killed  Susah 
(Musah?)  Bin  Dahar. 


713  AD..  May  2nd,  Monday — 
Monday  1st  Rajab  94  A.H.  : 

The  siege  of  Bahmanabad  started. 


Sept.  J— 713  A.D.  :  . 
End  Zil-Haj— 94  A.H.  . 

Jaisina's  Vazier  deserted  him.     After  b 
months  siege  in  which   some   citizens 


but  since  the  conquest  of  Sind  took 
place  in  7J1  A.D.,  the  year  712  is  more 
probable.  Chachnama  gives  details  of 
Jat  settlements  and  their  castes  and 
clans. 

Biladhuri,  p.  162,  puts  it  as  707-8  A.D., 
but  it  is  incorrect.  It  seems  that  still  a 
large  number  of  Jats  remained  in  Iraq. 


• 


Chachnama,  pp.  194-204. 
Biladhuri,  p.  439. 
The  conquest  of  Bahmanabad  and  Alore 
after  6  months  seige,  must  have  taken 
place  in  94  A.H.  or  713  A.D.  and  not  93 
A.D  or  712-13  as  recorded  by  Chach- 
nama. 

Tuhfatul-  Kiram  states  that  Queen  Rani 
Bai  married  Muhammad  bin  Qasim. 
This  is  not  supported  by  any  other 
history. 


Chachnama,  pp.  198-199. 


Caetani— quoting  Dhahab-i-Tarikh  and 
Mahasin,  Vol.  I.  p.  252.  This  incident 
is  not  reported  by  Chachnama  or  Bila- 
dhuri. The  name  Susah  is  also  not  men- 
tioned by  any  other  historian. 

Chachnama,  pp.  199-201. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  438  :  and  (Cairo), 
p.  444. 


140 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


entered  into  secret  alliance  with  the 
Arabs.  Bahmanabad  fell  to  the  con- 
querors. Jaisina,  Gopi,  and  Vikio,  the 
three  brothers  took  shelter  in  Naz 
Walah  Sandal  in  Jitor  (Chitor).  When 
the  fort  finally  fell,  the  garrison  consist- 
ing of  3000  soldiers  was  put  to  sword, 
and  its  populace  reduced  to  bondage. 

September  713  A.D.: 

Zil-Haj  94  A.H.  : 

Jaisina  returned  from  the  country  of 
king  Ramal  and  started  raids  on  the 
Arab  Army,  but  was  repulsed  to  the 
desert,  wherefrom  he  left  for  Chitor 
and  instructed  his  brother  Gopi  to 
protect  Alore. 

September  713  A.D.: 

End  Zil-Haj  94  A.H.  : 

On  the  fall  of  Bahmanabad  after  a  siege 
of  6  months  by  the  Arab  forces,  Queen 
Ladi  along  with  other  women  of  the 
palace  committed  Sati. 


713  AD. : 

Spain  conquered  by  Arabs. 


September  29,  713  A.D.  : 

Friday  night.  Muharram  3,  94  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  left  Bahman- 
abad for  Alore  where  Dahar's  son  Gopi 
was  organizing  forces  to  fight  the  Arabs. 
Gopi  escaped  to  Kiraj  (Chitor)  after  a 
siege  of  the  city,  which  surrendered  on 
the  condition  that  life  of  all  citizens  will 
be  protected,  no  massacre  allowed,  and 
the  Buddhist  temple  shall  not  be 
destroyed. 


Chachnama,  p.  86. 

During  the  siege,  Jaisina  wrote  letters  to 
various  Rajas  for  help.  Of  these,  those 
belonging  to  Chach's  family  were:  Gopi 
Bin  Dahar  at  Alore;  Chach  Bin  Dahar- 
Sin  at  Bhatia  or  Bhatinda;  Dhawal  Bin 
Chandur  at  Kaikan  (Kalat). 


Chachnama,  pp.  203-4,  Biladhuri,  p.  438 
states  that  he  left  Chitor  for  Kashmir,  to 
collect  forces  for  re-conquest  of  Sind, 
He  succeeded  in  his  mission.  See  entry 
year  715  A.D. 


Biladhuri,  pp.  439  and  185. 
Chachnama,  pp.  88  and  207-212  states 
that  Ladi  was  taken  as  prisoner  and  then 
married  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim.  This 
is  just  one  of  the  many  romantic  stories 
of  Chachnama. 

Hodiwalla  puts  it  as  29th  Zil-Haj, 
94  A.H.  or  25th  September  713  against 
Chachnama's  93  A.H. 


• 


Biladhuri,  p.  439. 
Chachnama,  pp.  221-226. 
The  name  of  city  was  Roar.  Arab  his- 
torians and  geographers  added  Al  to  it, 
making  it^AI-Roar;  which  finally  became 
Alore.  Hodiwalla,  Vol.  I,  p.  96,  states 
that  the  year  was  95  A.H.  This  is  incor- 
rect in  view  of  other  dates  preceding  it. 


ARAB  CONQUEST  OF  SIND 


141 


/ 


; 


714  A.D. : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  conquered 
Barham,  Baghrur,  and  Dalilah,  etc.  on 
his  way  to  Multan. 

714  A.D.  : 

After  the  fall  of  Alore,  Muhammad  Bin 
Qasim  conquered  Babiah  (or  Bhatia) 
Golkonda,  Sakkah  and  laid  a  siege  on 
Multan,  which  surrendered  after  the 
source  of  water  supply  of  the  town  was 
cut  off  by  the  Arabs. 


714  A.D.— 95  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  conquered  Mul- 
tan which  was  governed  by  Korsiah 
(Gur-Sen),  son  of  Chander,  brother  of 
Dahar.  On  surrender  of  the  city  6000 
soldiers  of  the  vanquished  army  were 
put  to  sword  and  their  dependents  taken 
as  prisoners.  The  gold  recovered  from 
the  city  as  booty  was  230  maunds  of 
gold  bricks  and  13200  maunds  of  its 
powder,  thus  totalling  13,430 
maunds.  A  golden  statue  was  also  re- 
covered. This  was  sent  to  the  treasury 
at  Damascus.  Korsiah  escaped  to 
Kashmir  to  seek  help  to  fight  the  Arabs. 

714  A.D.— 95  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  sent  a  message 
to  Rai  Harchandar  Jahsal,  King  of 
Kanuj  to  submit.  On  latter' s  refusal,  he 
mad  j  preparation  for  expedition,  but 
hearing  of  Hajjaj's  death  in  May  714,  he 
gave  up  the  plans.  However,  on  his  way 
back,  he  reduced  Sursuit  and  Nilma,  the 
strongholds  of  Jat  and  Med  robbers. 


Chachnama,  pp.  197,  198-201,  235. 


Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  439  and  (Cairo), 
p.  445. 

Biladhuri,  (Murgotton),  p.  272.  Chach- 
nama, pp.  202,  235-241.  The  reason  for 
surrender  of  Multan  due  to  cut-off  of  its 
water  supply  is  improbable,  as  there  is 
virtually  inexhaustible  ground  water 
reservoir  in  the  city.  It  is  also  doubtful 
if  the  city  was  dependent-  on  the  river 
as  a  source  of  its  water  supply.  The 
story  is  similar  to  Cyrus'  draining  of  the 
river  to  conquer  Babylon. 

Biladhuri,  pp.  439-40. 
Chachnama,  pp.  237-241. 
Jasina  and  Korsiah,  both  went  to  Kash- 
mir to  seek  help  of  the  king  of  that  coun- 
try. This  shows  intimate  relations  between 
the  kings  of  Sind  and  Kashmir.  It  could 
just  be  that  Chach  was  displace^  king  of 
Kashmir.  See  entry:  662  AD.  (42  A.H.) 
for  Chach's  rule  of  Kashmir. 
Istakhari,  p.  56,  also  confirms  recovery 
of  gold  from  this  temple.  The  gold 
from  Sind  reimbursed  the  Damascus 
treasury  depleted  by  Kharjite   rebellion. 


Chachnama,  p.  241. 
Jahsal,  probably  was  Jaso-Varman,  who 
sent  embassy  to  China  to  gain  support 
agajnst  the  Arabs,  as  is  discussed  sub- 
sequently. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  440,  and  (Cairo), 
p.  446. 


142 

714.  A.D.: 

Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  completed  his 
conquest  of  Sind  (of  Chach). 


■ 

August  714  A.D.— Ramzao  95  A.H. : 

Hajjaj  Bin  Yousuf  the  Governor  of 
Basra,  and  father-in-law  of  Muhammad 
Bin  Qasim  died. 

714  A.D.— 95  A.H.  : 

O/i  hearing  Haijaj's  death  Muhammad 
Bin  Qasim  returned  from  Multan  to 
Alore  and  Baghror. 
He  captured  Bayloman?  and  also  took 
expedition  against  Kiraj  and  defeated 
Dawhar.  Mandal  and  Kiraj  however 
remained  unconquered. 

March  715  A.D.— Jamadi  II  %  A.H.  : 

Sulaiman  bscame  the  Umayyad  Khalif 
of  the  Arab  Empire,  after  the  death  of 
his  brother  Walid  Bin  Abdul- Malik. 

714-715  A.D.— 96  A.&.  : 

After  the  death  of  Hajjaj,  Muhammad 
Bin  Qasim  was  dismissed  and  Yazid  Bin 
Abi-Kabashah  Saksaki  was  appointed 
as  the  second  Governor  of  Sind,  but 
only  after  18  days  of  his  arrival  he  died. 
Yazid  sent  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  in 
chains  to  Iraq. 

715  A.I).  : 

After  the  death  of  Hajjaj,  Ratbil  II  the 
ruler  o(  Zabil.  refused  to  pay  the  annu- 
al tribute  and  it  was  only  Abbasids 
who  finally  subdued  Zabil. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Asir,  Vol.  IV,  p.  460. 

Tabri,  Vol.  II,  p.  1256. 

For  the  Arab  conquest  of  Sind,   the  real 

hero  behind  the  scene  was   Hajjaj,   who 

organized  very  efficient  system  of  the  swift 

horses  carrying   his  detailed  orders  and 

instructions  in  three  days. 


Muir,  Caliphate,    its  Rise,  Decline  and 
Fall,  p.  354. 


Asir,  Vol.  IV,  pp.  464-5. 
Biladhuri,  p.  440. 

■ 

Tarikh-i-Guzida.  p.  276. 

Masumi   puts  it  as  Jamadi- 1,  which  date 

is  incorrect. 


Athir.  Vol.  IV,  pp.  465-466. 

Biladhuri,  p.  440. 

* 

' 

V 


Biladhuri  (Murgotton).  p.  155. 


N 


ARAB  CONQUEST  OF  SIND 


143 


714  A.D. 

The  death  of  Hajjaj  and  that  of  Khalifa 
Walid  brought  evil  days  for  Muham- 
mad Bin  Qasim.  The  new  Khalifa 
Sulaiman  was  enemy  of  Hajjaj  and  took 
vengeance  on  Hajjaj's  family.  Muham- 
mad Bin  Qasim  was  recalled  to  Iraq, 
imprisoned  and  put  to  death  by  torture. 


11 


■ 
■ 


■ 


Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  440,  (Cairo),  p.  440. 
Biladhuri  (Murgotten),  p.  225. 
Chachnama's  version  of  the  story  of 
Dahar's  daughters  connected  with 
Muhammad  Bin  Qasim's  death  is  a 
fiction,  p.  207. 
Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.  I,   p.   356  and 

Vol.  II,  p.  447. 

■ 

_____ 

- 

■ 

■ 


I 
v 


' 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAYYADS 


715  AD.— 96  A.H.  : 

Zaid  Bin  Abi  Kabasha  Saksaki  came  as 
the  second  Governor  of  Sind  after  Muh- 
ammad Bin  Qasim,  but  died  on  the  18th 
day  of  his  arrival  in  Sind.  He  was  re- 
placed by  Aamir  Bin  Abdullah  but  the 
latter  too  died  within  a  few  months. 
Jaisina  started  occupying  territories  lost 
by  his  father. 

715-717  A.D.  : 

Arab  soldiers  who  had  accompanied 
Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  wanted  to  re- 
turn back,  but  Khalifa  Sulaiman  Bin 
Abdul  Malik  issued  a  firman  asking 
them  to  settle  in  Sind,  become  agricul- 
turists (Jagirdars)  and  tillers  of  soil,  to 
prosper. 


715  A.D.  : 

The  recall  of  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim 
and  death  of  Hajjaj  induced  the  chiefs  of 
Sind  to  regain  independence.  Dahar's 
son  Jaisina  re-occupied  Bahmanabad. 
The  Khalifa  deputed  Habib  to  subdue 
Sind. 

715-716  A.D.— 97  A.H.  : 

Habib  Bin  Al-Muhalab  Bin  Abi  Safra 
came  to  Sind  as  third  Arab  Governor 
of  Umayyads  and  was  dismissed  after 
2  years,  in  99  A.H. 


Biladhuri,  p.  441. 


Tabri    (Leiden),  Vol.  II,  p.    i  75.     The 

Jagirdari  system  was  developed  by  the 
Sassanids,  copied  by  the  Arabs,  and 
introduced  in  Sind  and  elsewhere.  It 
was  bfbught  to  the  rest  of  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent  by  Delhi  Sultans,  reached  its  full 
development  under  the  Mansabdari  system 
of  Akbar  and  attained  its  maximum  stage 
of  exploitation  under  Shah  Jehan,  when 
farmers  deserted  the  land,  rather  than 
cultivate  it,  as  is  described  by  Mazhar-i- 
Shah  Jehani. 


Biladhuri   (Leiden),    pp.     440-441    and 
(Cairo),  p.  446,  puts  year  as  95  A.H.  i.e. 
714  A.D.,  which  is  incorrect. 
Asir  (Cairo),  Vol.  IV,  p.  282. 


Biladhuri,  p.  440. 
Asir,  Vol.  IV,  pp.  464-465. 
Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  66. 
Tarikh-i-Sind  (Nadvi),  p.  124. 


-- 


85.     Banbhore  (Debal)  citadel  fortification. 


86.     Earthens  ware  can.  decorated  with  Sassanian  type  moulded  frieze  of  animals  from  Banbhore 
(  Debal ).  National  Museum  Karachi. 


4 


~- 


87.     Pre-Muslim   period  pottery  mould  from   Banbhore  (  Debal )  Moulded   pottery    was 
also  common  upto  Samma  period  I.e.   ISth^century. 


*» 


88.     Inscribed  glazed  pottery  from  Banbhore,  belonging  to  Abbasid   period  or   later. 


89.     Pot  shreds  with  Dev-Nagri  inscriptions  used  for  measurement  of  volume  of  some  commodities, 
from  Banbhore. 


O 


> 
p 

c 


3 

r» 

■5 
o' 


I 


O 


O 

3 
w 


"1 


J 


^ 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAYYADS 


145 


715  A.D.— 96-97  A.H.  : 

Dahar's  son  Jaisina  recovered  a  large 
portion  of  his  father's  dominion  and 
established  himself  at  Bahmanabad. 
Habib  Bin  Al-Muhlab,  the  3rd  Arab 
Governor,  failed  to  interfere  with  his 
authority. 

715-717  A.D.-  97-99  A.H.  : 

Habib  Bin  Al-Muhlab  Bin  Abr  Safra 
attacked  Alore.  It  had  gained  inde- 
pendence after  the  departure  of  Muham- 
mad Bin  Qasim,  but  capitulated  on 
agreeable  terms. 

He  also  sent  expeditions  to  various 
tribes  of  Sind,  which  probably  had  dec- 
lared independence.  These  tribes  dwelt 
near  the  Mihran  (Indus)  river.  The 
revolt  of  armies  of  Muhammad  Bin 
Qasim  and  their  being  forced  to  return 
to  camps  also  occurred  simultaneously. 

3rd  Oct.  717  A.D.— 20  Safar  99  A.H.  : 

The  Khalifa  Sulaiman  Bin  Abdul  Malik 
died  and  his  cousin  Umer  Bin  Abdul 
Aziz  became  the  next  Khalifa.  He  dis- 
missed and  imprisoned  Habib  Bin 
Muhlab  the  Governor  of  Sind,  and  his 
brother  Yazid  Bin  Muhlab  on  the 
charges  of  misappropriation  and  law- 
lessness in  Sind.  In  place  of  Habib,  he 
appointed  Amro  Bin  Muslim  Bahli  as 
the  fourth  Governor  of  Sind. 

717-718  A.D.— 99  A.H.  : 

On  his  taking  over  as  Khalifa,  Umar  Bin 
Abdul  Aziz  invited  the  Indian  kings  to 


Athir,  Vol.  IV,  p.  283. 
Biladhuri,  pp.  441  &  446. 


He  was  brother  of  Yazid  Bin  Muhalab, 
the  new  Governor  General  of  Iraq,  and 
son  of  Muhalab,  who  had  attacked 
Kaikan,  Banu  and  Ahwazia  in  earlier 
raids. 

■ 

Athir,  Vol.  IV,  p.  283. 

Biladhuri,  pp.  440-41. 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  336. 
Biladhuri  puts  year  as  95  A.H.,  which  is 
incorrect. 

It  appears  that  he  did  not  interfere  with 
the  authority  of  Jaisina,  who  had  occupied 
the  left  bank  of  the  river  Indus. 


• 


Athir,  Vol.  IV,  p.  283. 
Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  441  and  (Cairo), 
p.  447.  Qani  mentions  Asmir  Bin  Abdullah' 
as  the  Go\*ernor  of  the  same  period 
(Khalifa Sulaiman  Bin  Abdul  Malik's  rule) 
as  stated  in  the  Tuhfatul  Kiram,  Vol.  III. 
p.  23.  This  is  incorrect.  His  source  is 
Masumi  and  is  dis-proved  by  original 
Arabic  works. 

v 

Athir  (Leiden),  IV,  p.  466  and  (Cairo), 
p.  283. 


146 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


accept  Islam.  He  restored  or  confirmed 
the  dominion  of  Dahar  to  his  son  Jaisina, 
who  had  accepted  Islam  and  had  re- 
covered these  territories  between  97  & 
99  A.H.  i.e.  September  715  to  August 
717  A.D. 

He  also  addressed  the  chiefs  of  Sind, 
and  the  heads  of  tribes,  informing  them 
that  if  they  accepted  Islam,  they  would 
be  allowed  to  retain  their  lands.  Dahar's 
son  Jaisina  was  the  first  to  accept  Islam 
and  many  others  followed  suit.  Even  the 
masses  taking  example  of  Jaisina  and 
other  leaders  accepted  Islam.  The  whole 
of  Sind  became  independent  thereby, 
and  the  Arab  Empire  receded  to 
Kandabil  (Gandava). 

I 

717-719  A.D.-  99-101  A.H.  : 

Amro  Bin  Muslim  Bahli,  the  Governor 
of  Sind  made  successive  expeditions 
against  different  parts  of  the  country 
(except  that  of  Jaisina,  son  of  Dahar 
who  had  become  Muslim),  and  recon- 
quered it  for  the  Umayyads.  It  ap- 
pears that  all  the  areas  conquered  by 
Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  were  recovered 
by  the  local  chiefs  within  three  years  of 
his  departure  from  Sind. 
He  is  also  reported  to  have  conquered 
Cutch  and  annexed  it. 

719-20  A.D.— 101  A.H.  : 

The  Khalifa  Umer  Bin  Abdul  Aziz  died, 
and  Yazid  Bin  Abdul  Malik  became  the 
next  Khalifa. 

719-20  A.D.— 101  A.H.  : 

Amro  Bin  Muslim-Al-Bahli,  the  fourth 
Governor  of  Sind,  was  dismissed  due  to 
the  rebellion  of  Habib  and  Yazid  Bin 


Biladhuri  (Leiden),  pp.  441  and  442  and 
Cairo  edition,  p.  447. 
Elliot,  Vol.  I,  p.  440. 
Biladhuri  asserts  that  on  becoming  Mus- 
lim, Jaisina  adopted  Arabic  name  Jalisa. 
He  seems  to  have  held  all  areas  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  river  Indus,  excepting 
the  Alore  territories,  in  the  Upper  Sind. 
Among  the  tribes  which  accepted  Islam 
were  many  chiefs  of  Rajput  origin,  and 
whose  official  title  Jam  is  connected  with 
Jamshed,  the  Iranian  Emperor,  whose 
tributaries  they  may  have  been  to  start 
with.  Some  Samma  chiefs,  who  continued 
the  Hindu  faith  began  to  develop  closer 
relations  with  Chawra,  Vaghela  and 
Solanki  Rajput  tribes  of  Cutch,  with 
whom  they  also  contracted  marriage 
alliances.  Williams,  p.  71. 

Athir,  Vol.  V,  p.  40. 
Biladhuri,  p.  447. 

Conquest  of  Cutch  if  correct,  may  only 
have  been  temporary,  as  Valabhi  the 
ruler  of  Kathiawar  and  Northern  Gujrat. 
whose  territories  included  Cutch  was  still 
powerful  and  must  have  recovered  it 
soon  afterwards. 

Williams,  p.  71,  mentions  that  effect  of 
Arab  conquest  of  Sind,  was  to  destroy 
Alore's  authority  over  Cutch.  Among 
those  who  accepted  Islam  were  many 
chiefs  of  Samma  Rajputs. 

■ 

v 
Biladhuri,  p.  442. 
Athir,  Vol.  V,  p.  64. 


1 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAYYADS 


147 


- 


Muhlab,  his  predecessor  and  the  Gover- 
nor of  Sind  from  97-99  A.H. 
Hilal  Bin  Ahooz-Al-Tamimi  was  ap- 
pointed as  the  fifth  Governor  of  Sind  in 
place  of  Amro. 

720-721  A.D.— 102  A.H.  : 

Bukayr  Bin  Mahn  a  missionary  who 
had  come  to  Sind  earlier  returned  to 
Iraq. 

719-20  A.D.  to  723-24  A.D.— 

101-105  A.H.  : 

During  the  period,  Yazid  Bin  Muhlab, 
the  brother  of  the  ex-Governor  of  Sind, 
dismissed  and  imprisoned  by  Umer  Bin 
Abdul  Az«z,  escaped  from  prison  and 
came  to  Sind  along  with  his  family  and 
started  a  rebellion. 

Hilal  Bin  Ahooz  Tamimi  was  deputed  to 
chase      them.     He  captured   Mudarik 
Bin  Muhlab  at  Gandava.  Muhlab's  other 
sons,  Mufazil,  Abdul  Malik,  Ziad  and 
Marwan  too  were  captured  and  killed 
Among  those  killed  was  Muawya  Bin 
Yazid  who  had  tortured  Muhammad 
Bin  Qasim  in  his  captivity  at  Wasin  Jail. 

24th  February,  724  A.D.— 

25  Shahban— 105  A.H.  : 

The  Khalifa  Yazid  Bin  Abdul  Malik 
died.Hisam  Bin  Abdul  Malik  took  over 
as  the  new  Khalifa  in  •  the  month 
of  Ramzan  of  the  same  year.  He 
appointed  Umar  Bin  Habira  as  the 
Governor  General  of  Iraq.  The  latter 
sent  Junaid  Bin  Abdul  Rahman  Al-Amri 
as  the  Governor  of  Sind,  dismissing 
Hilal  Bin  Ahooz  Al-Tamimi,  the 
Governor  since  101  A.H. 

725-72*  A.D.-107  A.H.  : 

Junaid  Bin  Abdul  Rahman,  the  Gover- 


- 
i 


Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  380. 


1 


Biladhuri,  p.  442. 
Athir,  Vol.  V,  p.  64. 


Biladhuri,  p.  442. 


- 


Athir,  Vol.  IV,  p.  446 and  Vol.  V,  p.  101. 


148 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


nor  of  Sind  made  a  campaign   against 
Kiraj  and  captured  it. 

725  A.D.— 107  A.H.  : 

Junaid  the  new  Governor  of  Sind  reach- 
ing Debal,  advanced  in  the  interior  and 
having  camped  on  the  western  bank  of 
the  Mihran,  sent  a  message  to 
Jaisina,  the  son  of  Dahar,  requiring 
him  to  pay  a  tribute.  The  latter 
refused  on  the  ground  that  he  was 
now  a  Muslim  and  the  territories  were 
confirmed  on  him  by  Umar  Bin  Abdul 
Aziz  the  late  Khalifa  and  therefore 
won't  pay  the  tribute.  On  insistence  of 
Junaid,  he  is  reported  to  have  abjured 
Islam  and  prepared  to  fight  but  in  a 
naval  battle  on  the  lake  Sarki,  he  was 
defeated,  taken  captive  and  beheaded. 
His  cousin,  Daharsia's  son  Chach,  escap- 
ing from  the  battle,  made  preparations 
to  report  to  the  Khalifa  about  breach  of 
faith  of  the  Governor,  but  he  was 
treacherously  captured  by  Junaid  and 
put  to  death. 

725-729  A.D.— 107  A.H.  : 

Junaid  reconquered  all  important  towns 
of  the  valley  (which  seem  to  have  gained 
indepedence  within  10  years,  after  the  de- 
parture of  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim),  one 
by  one,  and  conducted  successful 
expeditions  against  Gujarat  and  Nilma. 
(The  latter  statement  is  not  corrobo- 
rated by  any  other  evidence  from 
Tndian  records).  He  also  took  expedi- 
tion against  Ujjain  and  returned  back 
with  large  amount  of  booty,  of  which 
4000  million  dirhams  were  sent  to  the 
Central  Treasury. 

725-738  A.D.  : 

The  Arab  Governor  of  Sind  Junaid  and 

his  successors  over-ran  Chitor  (Kiraj), 


Biladhuri,  p.  442. 


Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  pp.  379-380. 
Biladhuri,    (Leiden),   pp.    440-442,    and 
(Cairo),  p.  447. 

Athir  (Leiden),  Vol.  IV.,  p.  446.  and 
(Cairo),  Vol.  X,  p.  64. 
If  Jaisina  had  abjured  Islam,  Chach  would 
not  have  prepared  to  go  to  the  Khalifa  for 
justice.  It  appears  that  his  abjuring  of 
Islam  was  a  made  up  story. 
Haig  thinks  that  lake  Sarki  was  the  Rann 
of  Cutch  (Indus  Delta  Country).  The 
Rann  of  Cutch  is  too  far  away  from 
Bahmanabad.  This  lake  may  have  been 
Chotiari,  close  to  Bahmanabad,  and 
probably  connected  with  both  the  Indus 
and  the  Hakra. 


• 

i 

•         J 

%              **A          m'M,    ■      n 

p.  448. 

Athir  (Cairo),  Vol.  IV,  p.  283. 
R.  C.  Mujumdar,  Gujrara   Prathihaves 
(Jour.  Deptt.  of  Letters),  Calcutta   Uni- 
versity, p.  20.         9  ' 
Yaqoobi  (Cairo),  Vol.  Ill,  p.  50,  puts  the 

booty  as  8000  million  Dirhams. 

• 

■ 
u 

HOP,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  158-159. 


* 


i 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAYYADS 


149 


-> 


when  the  Mauryas  or  Moris  were  ruling 
it.  The  Mauryas  succumbed  to  the 
raids,  and  Rawal  Bappa  (Khummana-I), 
a  neighbouring  chief  of  Guhila,  who 
was  able  to  resist  the  Arabs,  seized 
Chitor.  According  to  Todd  he  had  ex- 
pelled the  Malechchas  (Non-Hindu  for- 
eigners). Guhila  a  small  state  was  prob- 
ably over-run  by  the  Arabs. 


725-738  A.D.  : 


Junaid  conquered  Bailaman  (Vallaman- 
dla).  Jurz  and  his  lieutenants  proceeded 
as  far  as  Ujjain,  Marmod,  Mandal,  Dah- 
naz,  Cutch,  Barwas  (Broach)  and  Malibah 
(Malwa);  i.e.  they  over-ran  Rajputana, 
Malwa  and  Broach.  Indian  records  con- 
firm that  the  Arabs  defeated  the  Kings 
of  Saindhavas,  Kachchellas,  Saurashtra, 
the  Chavotaches,  the  Mauryas  and 
Gurjaras  and  advanced  as  far  as  south 
of  Navsari. 

725-735   A.D.  : 

The  Arabs  under  the  lieutenants  of 
Junaid,  the  Governor  of  Sind,  and  his 
successors  over-ran  Mandor  in  Rajpu- 
tana, Malibah  (Malwa),  Surast  (Gujarat), 
Baras  (Broach),  the  island  of  Cutch  and 
theKathiawar  Peninsula.  The  setback 
came  when  Chaulakaya,  the  king  of 
Lata  and  Prathihara,  the  king  of 
Malva,  repulsed  them.  Valabhi  re- 
cords of  Gurjara  mention  that  King 
Jayabhata-IV  of  Broach,  inflicted  a 
defeat  on  Tajjiks  (Arabs)  in  the  city  of 
Valabhi.  The  result  of  this  was  that  the 
Valabhi 's  Empire  started  breaking  and 
he  lost  the  southern  part  of  Kathiawar. 
The  last  King  of  the  Valabhi  Dynasty 
ruled  upto  766—67  A.D. 


.H.A 

■ 

H  I    HI 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  IV,  p.  449. 
Biladhuri,  p.  448. 


Annals  of  Bhandarkar  Oriental  Research 
Institute,  Poona,  Vol.  X,  p.  31. 
The  two  accounts  agree,  except  that 
the  Muslim  records  do  not  mention 
Saurashtra,  the  Valabhi  Kingdom. 

Epigraphia  Indica,  Vol.  XXIII,  p.  151. 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  IV,  p.  466. 
Biladhuri,  p.  442. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  pp.  379-80. 
Indian  Antiquary,  Vol.  XII,  p.  155. 
Bombay  Gazetteer,  Vol.  I,  Part  I,  pp.  87 
and  137.      • 

Al-Beruni  records  that  a  rich  citizen  of 
Valabhi  had  quarrelled  with  the  King 
and  fled  to  Sind.  By  presenting  gifts  he 
persuaded  the  Arab  Governor  of  Sind  to 
attack  the  Valabhi  Empire.  The  Arabs 
made  a  night  attack,  destroyed  the  town 
and  lulled  the  King  (vide  Sachau,  Vol.1, 
p.  192);  This  is  of  course  a  folk-lore.  The 
town  survived  upto  758  or  776  A.D.,  when 
it  was  destroyed  by  the  Arabs. 


150 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF    SlND 


727-28  A.D.— 109  A.H.  : 

Possible  date  of  completion  of  the 
mosque  at  Debal,  by  Ali  Bin  Musa  as 
per  inscription. 

729-30  A.D.-  111  A.H.  : 

Junaid  Bin  Abdul  Rehman  Al-Amri  was 
dismissed  from  Sind's  Governorship, 
but  as  he  joined  the  insurrectionary 
movement  against  the  Umayyad  Khalifa, 
Hasham  appointed  him  Governor  of 
Khurasan. 

Tamim  Bin  Yazid  Al-Utbi  was 
appointed  Sind's  seventh  Governor  in 
Junaid's  place  by  Khalid  Bin  Abdullah 
Al-Qasri,  the  Governor  General  of  Iraq 
and  the  Eastern  Provinces. 

728-29  A.D.— 110  A.H.  : 

Tamim  sent  to  Damascus  18,000,000 
Tatari  dirhams,  which  Junaid  had  left  in 
the  treasury  at  Sind;  it  was  loot  from 
Sind  and  also  booty  from  the  Indian 
territories  over-run  by  Junaid. 

73031  A.D. -112  A.H.: 

There  was  great  local  uprising  against 
the  Arabs  in  which  many  of  them  were 
killed  and  Tamim  had  to  abandon  Sind 
after  many  battles.    During  his  escape 
Tamim  Bin  Zaid  al-Utbi  died  near  Debal. 
Khalid  Bin  Abdullah  Al-Qasri  the  Gover- 
nor General  of  Iraq  and  the  Eastern 
Provinces    dispatched     Hakam      Bin 
Awanah  Al-Kalbi  to    reconquer    Sind 
and  parts  of  Hind  all  of  which  except 
Qassah,  were  lost  to  the  Arabs. 

- 


. 


F.  A.  Khan,  Bhanbhore,  1963,  p.  76. 

■ 
Biladhuri,  p.  442. 

Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  p.  93. 

Tabri  and  Yaqoobi  have  also  corroborated 

this  behaviour  of  Junaid. 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  pp.  380,  399-400. 
Biladhuri,  p.  444. 

Junaid  is  reported  to  have  sent  600,000 
prisoners  of  war  and  8  crore  Dirhams 
to  Damascus,  while  still  in  Sind.  Also 
see  entry  725-29  A.D. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  442. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  pp.  399-400. 
Cutch  was  occupied  by  a  Sindhi  clan 
Kathi,  who  had  migrated  to  Cutch  bet- 
ween 670-700  A.D.  Hindu  Sammas  of 
Sind  had  developed  marriage  alliances  in 
Cutch,  after  712  A.D.  It  was  therefore 
easy  to  create  a  local  uprising  with 
the  Cutchi  help.  Cutch  being  an  island 
at  the  delta  of  the  Indus,  made  communi- 
cations easy,  and  the  sea  pirates  and 
seamen  of  Cutch  were  better  than  the 
Arab  sfeamen  of  the  time.  They  continued 
to  be  so  even  in  the  16th  century,  when 
they  were  the  only  competitors  of  Por- 
tuguese in  the  Indian  O^ean. 


t 


^ 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAyYADS 


151 


Al-Hakam  Bin  Awana  Al-Kalbi  was 
appointed  the  eighth  Governor  of 
Sind  by  Khalifa  Hasham  in  place  of 
Tamim. 

The  Arab  power  in  Sind  got  a  setback 
and  quick  decline  started.  Arabs  started 
migrating  from  Sind  to  other  places  of 
safety. 

730-32  A.D.— 112  or  113  A.H.  : 


Biladhuri,  pp.  442-442. 
Yaqoobi,  pp.  384—86. 


Hakam  Ibn  Awanah  Al-Kalbi  on  his 
arrival  as  the  Governor  of  Sind  invaded 
and  conquered  some  of  the  lost  territories 
after  many  bitter  fights.  He  also  invad- 
ed Cutch.  In  1 13  A.H.,  he  built  a  place 
of  refuge  for  Muslims,  calling  it 
Mahfuza.  He  also  built  Mansura  on 
the  other  side  of  lake  (in  fact  the  river 
Indus).  It  later  on  became  capital  of 
the  Governor  of  Sind.  (The  last  named 
place  was  Bahmanabad,  renamed  as 
such.  Mahfuza  was  on  the  other  side  of 
the  river  Indus,  the  old  course  of  which 
is  visible  even  today). 

725-740  A.D.  : 

Kathis  of  Sind,  settled  in  central  and 
southern  Cutch  30  years  earlier,  spread 
east-wards  and  established  themselves 
in  Wagad  with  capital  at  Kanthkot. 

730  A.D.— 112  A.H.  : 

Accompanying  Hakam,  Mundhar  Ibn 
Zuhayr,  Ibn  Abdul  Rahman  Ai-Habari 
came  to  Sind.  (The  descendants  of  the 
latter  founded  an  independent  kingdom 
in  Sind  110  years  afterwards. 

730-739  A.D.— 112-121  A.H.: 

During  the  rule  of  Tamim  Bin  Yazid,  a 
greater  portion  of  the  province  was  re- 
conquered by  natives,  expelling  the 
Arabs.    The  first  task  of  Al-Hakam  the 


■ 


Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  442  and  (Cairo), 
p.  448. 

Biladhuri  (Murgotton),  pp.  228-229. 
Ibn  Asir  (Cairo),  p.  283. 
S.  S.  Nadvi,  in  AAHKT,   p.  335,  states 
that  Mansura  may  have  been  built  bet- 
ween 110   and    120  A.H.    i.e.   728-738 
A.D. 


Williams,  p.  71. 


Biladhuri  .(Cairo),  p.  450  and  (Leiden), 

p.  444. 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  389. 

Btfadhun,  pp.  444-449. 

Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.  Ill,  p.  50    and 

p.  58  (Cairo). 

Ibn  Asir,  p.  283. 


152 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


new  Governor,  therefore,  was  to  found 
a  new  town  Mahfuza  for  safety  of  the 
Arabs  and  his  aide  Amar  Ibn  Muham- 
mad Bin  Qasim  (who  came  with  him) 
found  another  town  Mansurah  in  com- 
memoration of  victory  against  the  locals 
in  120  A.H.  (737-38  A.D.). 


i 


' 


i 

731-32  A.D.—113  A.H.  : 

Hakam  Bin  Awanah,  the  new  Governor, 
collected  Arabs  from  all  over  Sind  and 
settled  them  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Indus  in  the  newly  founded  city  of 
Mahfuza. 


There  is  now  an  evidence  that  Bahman- 
abad  was  renamed  as  Mansura  and  made 
the  capital,  at  present  called  the  ruins  of 
Dilu  Rai  in  Sanghar  district,  about  a 
mile  south  of  crossing  of  Jamrao  canal 
with  Shahdadpur-Jhol  road. 
Masudi,  Murawiju-Zahab,  Paris  edition, 
Vol.  I,  pp.  390-391  and  Baghdad  edition, 
p.  42,  states  that  Mansura  owes  its 
name  to  Mansur  Ibn  Jamhur  al-Kalbi, 
the  Governor  of  Sind  (746-750  A.D.). 
Zakariya  Qazwini  in  Atha'ar-al  Bilad, 
p.  38,  states  that  it  was  built  during  the 
reign  of  Abbasid  Khalifa  Abu  Jafar 
al-Mansur  (754-775  A.D.).  Yaqoob 
Hamavi  agrees  with  Zakariya  and  states 
that  it  was  built  by  Mansur's  Governor 
Amar  Bin  Hafs  al-Muhalabi  (760-766  A.D.) 
as  stated  in  Mujam  al-Baldan  (Cairo), 
Vol.  VIII,  p.  177.  It  appears  that  Bah- 
manabad  was  re-named  as  Mansura 
between  760  and  767  A.D.  Hamavi  con- 
firms that  Vahmanabad/Bahmanabad 
was  re-named  as  Mansura.  Istakhri  in 
Al-maluk  wal  Mamalik  (Leiden),  pp. 
171-173  and  Haukal,  Surat  al-Ard, 
(Leiden),  p.  320,  also  give  the  same  ver- 
sion. Beruni  (Kitab  al-Hind,  p.  100) 
calls  Mansura  as  Bamanva  or  Bahmanva. 
Idrisi-  wrote  when  Mansura  was  not 
existant.  Other  writings  on  this  subject 
are  untrustworthy. 

Recent  excavations  at  Dilu  Rai  confirm 
that  it  is  the  site  of  Bahmanabad,  re- 
named as  Mansura  and  a  Mosque  wa* 
built  at  the  remains  of  a  stupa. 

( 

■ 
■ 


1 


. 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAYYADS 


153 


731  A.D. 


' 


J 


' 


Yasovarman,  King  of  Kanauj,  sent  his 
minister,  the  Buddhist  monk  Puta  Sin 
(Buddasen)  as  an  ambassador  to  China, 
with  a  purpose  to  fight  jointly  against 
the  Arabs  of  Sind,  (who  under  Junaid 
had  started  spoilatory  campaigns)  and 
also  possibly  against  the  Tibetans.  After 
the  conquest  of  Sind,  the  Arabs  had 
sent  an  expedition  against  Kanauj  but 
without  any  success.  The  defeat  of  Para- 
sikasby  Yasovarman  refers  to  the  Arabs. 

732  A.D.  : 

The  progress  of  expansion  of  the  Arab 
Empire  in  the  West  was  checked  by  the 
victory  of  Charles  Martel  between 
Tours    and    Poitiers. 

735  A.D.  : 

The  first  colony  of  the  Parsee  immi- 
grants in  the  Sub-Continent  at  Sajan, 
District  Thana  in  Gujarat. 

735-36  A.D.— 116  A.H.: 

Junaid,  the  ex-Governor  of  Sind  and 
then  the  Governor  of  Khurasan,  was 
dismissed  for  marrying  Fazia.  daughter 
of  Yazid  Bin  Muhalab.  Soon  afterwards 
he  died  in  Marv. 

735-740  A  D.  : 

Gujar  Prathra  King  Nagabhatal  defeat- 
ed Junaid's  successor.  (Possibly 
Hakam  Bin  Awanah  Kalbi). 

736  A.D.: 

Lalitaditya,  King  of  Kashmir,  sent  an 
Embassy  to  China  and  referred  to  Yaso- 
varman of  Kanauj  who  had  also  sent 
such  an  Embassy  in  731  A.D.  Both 
Kings  sought  the  Chinese  help  against 
the  Arabs  and  Tibetans.  The  Arabs  after 


HCIP,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  130. 


Refer  also  entry  736  A.D 


auifiH 

Smith,  EHI,  p.  444. 

i 

Refer  entry  717  and  723-24  for  Yazid 
Bin  Muhalab. 

HCIP,  Vol.  IV,  p.  20/ 

HCIP,  Vol.  II,  p.  130. 

Stein,    Sir   Aurel,    English  tr.    of  Raja- 

tarangini,  Part  IV,  p.  134. 

The  Governor  of  Sind  then  was  Hakam 

Bin  Awanah  who  had  started  expedition 

in    some   areas,    which    his   predecessor 


154 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


the  conquest  of  Sind  had  sent  an  expedi- 
tion against  Kanauj  but  without  any  suc- 
cess.   Kashmir  too  was  threatened. 


737-38  A.D.— 120  A.H.  r 

The  Governor  of  Sind,  Hakam  Bin 
Awanah,  on  hearing  the  news  of  cruelty 
on  Khalid  Bin  Abdullah's  lieutenants, 
invaded  the  territory  but  was  killed. 
Amar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim 
Thaqafi  took  over  the  command  of  the 
field. 

His  leadership  was  challenged  by  Ibn 
Arar.  The  Governor  of  the  Eastern  Pro- 
vinces, Yusuf  Bin  Umer  supported 
Amar  and  Arar  was  put  into  prison. 
There  was  a  local  revolt.  The  Arab 
army  took  shelter  in  Mahfuza,  which 
the  enemies  besieged.  It  was  not  until 
4000  troops  from  Iraq  had  arrived  that 
the  siege  was  raised  and  the  Arabs  scored 
victory  in  121  A.H.  (738-39  A.D.). 

738  A.D.  and  soon  after  : 

Junaid's  successor  Hakam  Bin  Awanah 
or  Amar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim 
was  defeated  by  king  Nagabhata 
and  the  Chaulukaya  ruler  of  Lata 
(South  Gujarat),  Avani  Janasraya  Pula- 
Kesiraja.  The  Gurjara  King  Javabhala- 
IV  of  Nandipuri  also  claims  to  have 
defeated  the  Arabs. 

Hakam  Bin  Awanah  had  conquered  Kiraj 
or  Kira  near  the  frontiers  of  Kanauj  and 
Kashmir.    Tne    ruler  of  Kashmir  had 
sought  Cninese  help  which  was  not  re- 
ceived, but  both  Yasovarman  King  of 


Junaid  had  raided.  The  confirmation 
comes  from  th  Indian  sources.  See 
entry  years  725-735,  725-728,  729, 
725-738,  7^,  738-740  and  739  A.D.  The 
provocation    was   that   the     rulers     of 

Chitor,  Marwar,  Cutch  and  Gujarat  helped 
internal  rebellions  in  Sind  and  many 
times  they  took  part  in  direct  wars  with 

Arab  troops. 

Biladhuri,  p.  446. 
Yaqoobi,  n,  pp.  389-390. 
The  local  uprising  may  have  been  helped 
from  Marwar,  Cutch  and  Gujarat  as  is  in- 
dicated by  the  entry  for  the  year  738  A.D. 
Biladhuri  states  that  Khalid  Qasri,  Go- 
vernor General  of  Iraq,  was  dismissed 
and  replaced  by  Yousif  Bin  Umar  Thaqafi, 
who  started  replacing  all  the  nominees 
of  Khalid.      Hakam,   the   nominee   of 
Khalid,  decided  to  show  some  chivalry 
to  please  Yousif,  and  to  put  down  a  local 
rebellion,  he  fought  to  death  in  121  A.H. 
(739  A.D.). 

Annals  of  Bhandarkar  Oriental  Research 
Institute,  Poona,  Vol.  X,  p.  31. 
It  is  also  admitted  that  under  Junaid's 
successor  Tamim,  the  Arabs  lost  almost 
all  the  conquered  territories  and  fell  back 
upon  Sind.  It  is  possible  that  a  period 
of  chaos  in  the  last  days  of  Umayyads  also 
witnessed  the  decline  of  Arab  power  in 
Sind.  Entry  year  737-38  mentions  great 
revolt^  and  chaos. 

Stein,  Rajatarangini,  Vol.  IV,  pp.  34,  130. 
See  entries,  736,    739  and  738-740  A.D. 


^ 


1 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAyYADS 


155 


Kanauj  and  Lalitaditya  King  of 
Kashmir  were  able  to  repulse  the  Arabs 
by  their  own  efforts. 

738  A.D.— 121  A.H.  : 

The  Sindhis  rebelled  against  the  Arab 
Governor,  Hakam  Bin  Awanah  who  was 
killed  while  fighting  against  them.  He 
was  replaced  by  Amar  son  of  Muham- 
mad Bin  Qasim.  Amar  imprisoned 
Yazid  Bin  Arar,  an  Arab  official  whose 
name  alongwith  that  of  Amar  had  been 
recommended  for  the  Governorship  of 
Sind  by  the  Governor  General  of  Iraq, 
Yousif  Bin  Umar  Thaqafi.  Hakam  ruled 
for  9  years.  During  this  period  there 
were  continuous  wars  from  within  and 
outside. 

738-740  A.D.: 

Dantidura  son  of  Indra-I  Rushtrukuta  of 
Gujarat  (South  Gujarat)  is  said  to  have 
conquered  Lata  and  Sindhu  but  this  is 
doubtful  as  he  may  only  have  aided  an 
uprising  in  Sind  against  Hakam  Bin 
Awanah  and  Amar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin 
Qasim  and  helped  Sindhis  as  well  as  the 
local  Arabs. 


739  A.D.  : 


The  Arabs  of  Sind  invaded  the  kingdom 
of  Saindhavas  (Khathiawar  and  Gujraat), 
during  the  rule  of  Pushyadeva  of  Saind- 
hava  Dynasty  also  called  Jayadratha 
Dynasty. 

739  A.D.— 121  A.H.  : 

On  the  death  of  Hakam  Bin  Awanah 
Kalbi,  his  two  lieutenants,  Amar  Bin 
Muhammad  Bin  Qasim  Thaqafi  and 
Yazid  Bin  Arar,  contested  for  the 
Governorship  of  Sind.  Khalifa  Hasham 
appointed  Amar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin 


■ 

Biladhuri,  p.  446. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  738. 

■ 

■ 

Mujamdar,  HCIP,  Vol.  HI,  p.  157, 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  390,  records  an 
uprising  under  a  local  Raja  in  Sind.  The 
Arab  invasion  of  Saindhavas  (Kathiawar 
&  Gujarat)  is  also  recorded  in  year  739 
A.D. 

. 
HCIP,  Vol.  IV,  p.  99. 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  390. 

Biladhuri,  p.  440. 

See  entries,  738  and  738-40. 


156 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Qasim  as  the  ninth  Governor  of  Sind. 
Immediately  on  taking  over,  the  latter 
put  Yazid  Bin  Arar  in  prison.  Due 
to  this  confusion  there  were  local  up- 
risings under  a  Raja  and  also  disorder  in 
the  Arab  camp. 

739-743  A.D.— 121  A.H.  : 

Civil  war  broke  out  in  Sind  between 
the  Arab  tribes  and  natives.  The  Go- 
vernor, Amar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin 
Qasim,  was  defeated  and  his  capital  be- 
sieged, but  he  was  rescued  by  time'.y 
help  of  Yousif  Ibn  Umar-Al-Thaqafi, 
Governor  General  of  Iraq.  Even  then, 
the  Arab  tribes  under  the  leadership  of 
Marwan  Bin  Yazid  Bin  Muhalab  re- 
belled against  Amar. 
Amar  put  Marwan  to  death  after  over- 
powering the  rebel  Arab  tribes. 

740  A.D.: 

Due  to  Junaid  and  his  successors' 
(Hakam,  Amar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin 
Qasim  and  others)  attacks  on  the  Hindu 
rulers  of  Cutch,  Gujarat,  Marwar,  Rajis- 
tan,  East  Punjab  and  Kashmir,  between 
725  and  739  A.D.,  the  Hindu  rulers 
joined  together,  defeated  the  Arabs  and 
also  helped  in  local  rebellions  and  up- 
risings in  Sind.  This  stopped  the  Arab 
expansion  in  the  East.  Since  then  their 
control  over  Sind  also  weakened  and 
the  next  100  years  saw  local  uprisings, 
Arab  feuds  and  poor  administration. 
.OVE  q   * 


Biladhuri,  pp.  447-8  (Leiden). 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  pp.  397-98. 
The  local  uprising  must  have  been  sup- 
ported by  the  rulers  of  Cutch,  Marwar 
and  Gujarat  as  mentioned  under  entries 
738  and  738-740  A.D. 
The  Raja  who  laid  seige  on  Mansura, 
may  have  been  from  the  neighbouring 
states. 

See  entries  under  years: 
725, 

725-79 

» 

■ 


725-35, 

725-38, 

730-31, 

730-32, 

731, 

735-40, 

736, 

738, 

738-40, 

739,  and 

739-40  A.D., 

and  also  entries  under  years : 

728-2*, 

729-30, 

735-36  A.D. , 

for  Junaid's  ambitions. 


ARAB  RULE  OF  SIND  UNDER  UMAYYADS 


157 


February  6th,  743  A.D.  : 

Rabi  II  6th,  125  A.H.  : 

Hisam  Bin  Abdul  Malik  died  and  was 
succeeded  by  Walid  Bin  Yazid  in  Rabi 
II,  125  A.H. 

743-44  A.D.— 125  A.H.  : 

Amar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim,  the 
ninth  Governor  of  Sind  was  dismissed 
by  Khalifa  Walid  Bin  Yazid  and  Yazid 
Bin  Arar  Al-Kalbi  was  appointed  as  the 
tenth  Governor.  Amar  committed 
suicide  while  in  Sind.  Yazid  made  18 
expeditions  against  the  infidels  (rebels). 
It  was  during  this  year  that  the  "capital 
of  Sind  was  transferred  from  Alore  to 
Mansura. 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  p.  93. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  H,  pp.  399-400. 
Biladhuri,  p.  450. 
Chach  Nama  (Sindhi),  p.  375. 


April  744  A.D.— Jamadi  II,  126  A.H.  : 

Khalifa  Walid  II  was  assassinated. 
Ibrahim  Bin  Walid  Bin  Abdul  Malik 
became  the  next  Khalifa,  but  was  de- 
posed after  beginning  of  127  A.H.  (or 
after  October  744  A.D.)  and  replaced 
by  Marwan-II. 


Among  the  assassins  of  Walid-II  was  a 
Sindhi  named  Ibn  Ziad  Bin  Abi  Kabsha, 
as  reported  by  Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  p.  340. 


746  A.D.— 129  A.H.  : 

Yazid  Bin  Arar  Al-Kalbi,  the  tenth 
Arab  Governor  of  Sind,  was  killed  by 
Mansur  Bin  Jamhur  Al-Kalbi,  a  rebel 
of  Damascus  who  had  come  to  Sind 
from  Iraq.  Mansur  became  indepen- 
dent ruler  of  Sind.  He  appointed  his 
brother  Manzoor  as  Governor  of  the 
Western  Sind  i.e.  Gandava,  Debal 
etc.  Previously  Mansur  Bin  Jamhur 
was  the  Governor  of  Iraq  and  was 
dismissed.  He  came  to  Sind  where 
Yazid  Bin  Arar,  a  relative  of  his,  was 
the  Governor,    but  conflict  arose  bet- 


Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  II,  p.  407  and  (Beirut), 

Vol.  HI,  p.  56. 

This  incidents  corroborated  by  Tabri. 


158 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTONARY  OF  SIND 


ween  the  two.  Mansur  besieged  Man- 
sura,  took  Yazid  as  captive  and  had 
him  buried  alive  in  a  pillar. 

749  A.D.^132  A.H.  : 

Abu  Atta  Sindhi  a  famous  poet,  who 
composed  his  poems  in  Arabic  died. 


> 


. 


I 


• 


" 


s 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 

(749-^854  A.D.) 


October  30th,  749  A.D.  : 
Rabi  1, 13th,  132  A.H.  : 

Appointment  of  the  First  Abbasid 
Khalifa  Abdul  Abbas  Abdullah  Sifah, 
due  to  the    conquests  of  Abu  Muslim 

Khurasani. 

■ 

July-August,  750  A.D.  : 

Zil-Haj,  137  A.H.  : 

The  last  Khalifa  Marwan-II  was  assassi- 
nated. Thereby  came  the  end  of  the 
Umayyad  Dynasty  and  their  replace- 
ment by  the  Abassids. 

750-51  A.D.— 133  A.H.  : 

Abu  Muslim  Khurasani,  the  Governor 
of  the  Eastern  Abbasid  Empire,  deput- 
ed Abu  Muslim  Abdul  Rehman  Bin 
Muslim  Muflis  Abdi  to  Sind.  Mansur 
Al-Kalbi's  brother,  Manzoor,  Governor 
of  the  Western  Sind  was  killed  at 
Debal.  Mansur  Al-Kalbi  encountered 
Abu  Muslim's  forces  near  Mansura, 
where  Abu  Muslim  Abdi  was  defeated. 

750-800  A.D.  : 

Kathis  of  Sind,  who  had  migrated  to 
Cutch  in  725-740  A.D.  and  had  estab- 
lished their  principality  in  Wagad,  were 
defeated  by  Chawras,  who  now  occupied 
their  capital  town,  Kanthkot.  Chawras 
were  displaced  by  Solankis  (a  branch 
of  Chaulakayas)  after  two  centuries 
around  1000  A.D. 


• 


• 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  p.  17. 

Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.    II,  p.  449  and 

(Beirut),  Vol.  Ill,  p.  66. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  443  and  (Cairo), 

p.  449. 

Williams,  pp.  69-70. 


160 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


751  A.D.— 133  A.H.  : 

Fall  of  the  Umayyads  and  rise  of  the 
Abbasids  with  active  help  of  the  Persian 
elements,  specially  Abu  Muslim  Khura- 
sani. 


751-52  A.D.— 134  A.H. 


Abu  Muslim  Khurasani,  Governor  of 
Khurasan  and  the  Eastern  Abbasid 
Empire,  on  hearing  of  the  defeat  and 
death  of  Abu  Muslim  Abdi,  attacked 
Sind.  Mansur  Bin  Jamhur,  rebel  ruler 
of  Sind  since  129  A.H.  (746  A.D.),  was 
defeated  but  escaped  to  the  Thar  desert 
where  he  died  due  to  thirst. 


751-52  A.D.— 134  A.H.  : 

After  the  death  of  Abu  Muslim  Abdul 
Rehman  Bin  Muslim  Muflis  Abdi  in  133 
A.H.  (750-51  A.D.),  Musa  Bin  Ka'ab 
Al-Tamim  was  appointed  as  the  first 
Abbasid 'Governor  of  Sind.  He  enlarg- 
ed the  mosque  and  carried  out  repairs 
to  the  city  of  Mansura,  which  had 
suffered  badly  during  operations  of  Abu 
Muslim  Khurasani. 

754  A.D.-136  A.H.  : 

Abu  Jafar  Mansoor  became  Khalifa. 

June,  10th,  754  A.D.: 

Zil-Haj  13th,   136  A.H.  : 
The  first   Abbasid  Khalifa  Sifah  died. 
This  happened  3  days    after  a  Sindhi 
deputation  apprised  him  of  the  problems 
of  Sind. 

754-755  A.D.  : 

The  Governor  of  Sind  is  reported  to 
have  conquered  Kashmir,  which  is 
doubtful  as  the  latter  was  at  the  climax 
of  its  power  under  Lalitaditya    Mukta- 


Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  443  and  (Cairo), 
p.  449. 

Biladhuri  (Murgotton),  pp.  229-30. 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  p.  347. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  2,  p.  429  and  Vol.  Ill,  p.  80, 
reports  that  he  was  arrested  and  then  put 
to  death.  This  statement  is  more  prob- 
able than  the  death  due  to  thirst  as  Thar 
desert  is  intercepted  by  chain  of  wells 
not  more  than  10  miles  apart. 


Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  442. 
Biladhuri   (Murgotton),  p.  230. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  80. 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  pp.  17-18. 

A.  bo 
.G.V 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  p.  387. 


I 
Biladhuri  (Murgotton),  p.  231. 


>_ 


91.     Excavations  of  Siva  temple  at  Banbhore.  destroyed  after  Its  fall  in  711  A.  D. 


s 

} 


- 


n 


' 


• 


92.     5th-8th   century  A.  D.  Siva  lingum  from  temple  in  situation  at   Banbhore. 


9 


94.  Masoleum  of  Oljeilu  the  Mongol  King  at  Sukania.  The  dome  is  a  great  feat  of 
structural  engineering  and  was  copied  by  Mughals  of  Central  Asia  and 
sub-continent.  This  type  of  structure  was  introduced  In   Sind   by  Tarkhans. 


\ 


> 


* 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 


161 


» 


pida  (733-769  A.D.). 

Stein's  Rajatarargini  states  that  Lalita- 
ditya  Muktapida  thrice  defeated  a  ruling 
chief  of  the  Arabs.  There  may  have 
been  an  Arab  raid  on  Kashmir. 

757-58  A.D.— 140  A.H.  : 

Musa  Bin  Kaab  Al-Tamimi,  the  first 
Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind,  returned 
to  Baghdad,  after  handing  over  the 
charge  to  his  son  Ainia,  due  to  ill  health 
and  died  in  141  A.H.  (758-59  A.D.). 

757-767  A.D.— 140-151  A.H.  : 

Abdullah  Bin  Muhammad  Al-Shattar 
Alvi,  a  direct  descendant  of  Ali,  visited 
Sind,  while  Amar  Bin  Hafs  was  ruler 
of  Mansura,  Sind.  The  former  was  a 
Shiite  and  came  for  Tabligh  and  publi- 
city of  Islam  as  well  as  support  of  Ahl- 
bait  (Descendants  of  Prophet  Muham- 
mad). The  Governor  of  Sind,  Amar 
Bin  Hafs,  became  his  disciple  and  gave 
him  protection  by  sending  him  to  a 
Hindu  Raja's  capital,  where  he  spent  10 
years.  Khalifa  Mansur  deputed  Hi  sham 
Bin  Amar  to  recover  Abdullah  from  the 
Raja.  He  attacked- the  Raja  and  won 
the  battle.  Abdullah  al-Shattar  was 
assassinated  in  Sind  by  Hisham  at  the 
instructions  of  the  Khalifa  Mansur  in  767 
A.D.  (151  A.H.).  His  wife  and  minor 
son  were  sent  to  Baghdad,  the  same 
year.  In  spite  of  this,  Al-Shattar  was 
successful  in  introducing  Shiaism  in 
Sind. 


HOP,  Vol.  IV,  p.  126. 


Biladhuri,  p.  200. 


■    \ 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  pp.  283,  455. 
Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  ILL,  p.  198. 
The  Raja's  name  is  not  known  but  his 
territories  lay  between  desert  and  Arab 
Sind  (Mansura  and  its  dependencies)  along 
a  river.  From  this  description  it  is  clear 
that  his  kingdom  was  on  Hakra  in  Sukkur 
or  Khairpur  district,  and  may  possibly  be 
Alore.  During  the  same  period  Kharjis 
were  quietly  active  in  anti-Abbasid  cam- 
paign in  Sind.  In  142  A.H.  (759-60  A.D.) 
Hisan  Bin  Mujahid  Hamadani  Kharji 
came  to  Sind  to  seek  Amar  Bin  Hafs' 
support,  but  the  latter  did  not  co-operate. 


758  A.D.  : 

Closing  of  Canton  to  foreign  merchants 
(which  was  re-opened  in  792  A.D). 
Sind  ports  must  have  been  touched. 


162 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


758-59  A.D.— 141  A.H.  : 

Musa  Bin  Kaab  Al-Tamimi,  the  first 
Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind,  died  in 
Baghdad. 

759  A.D. : 

The  Governor  of  Sind  sent  Amru  Bin 
Jamal  with  a  fleet  of  barks  to  the  coast 
of  Brada  (Kathiawar  and  Gujarat) 
during  the  rule  of  Krishanaraja,  son  of 
Pushyadeva,  who  had  fought  the  Arabs 
in  739  A.D.  The  Arabs  were  routed. 
Later  on,  Hisham  Bin  Amar  led  another 
fleet  himself,  probably  in  766-67  A.D., 
and  conquered  Gandhar  near  Broagh. 
He  built  a  mosque  there. 

759-60  A.D.-.142  A.H.  : 

Hisan  Bin  Mujahid  Hamadani,  a  leader 
of  the  Kharjis,  came  to  Sind  for  preach- 
ing his  sect,  but  was  not  successful. 

759-60  A.D.— 142  A.H.  : 

As  Ainia  Bin  Musa  Al-Tamimi,  the 
Second  Governor  of  the  Abbasids  in 
Sind,  was  a  weak  administrator,  he 
was  replaced  by  Amar  Bin  Hafs  Ataki, 
but  the  former  instead  ofrhanding  over 
the  charge,  rebelled.  Amar  captured 
Mansura,  arrested  Ainia  and  sent  him 
as  a  prisoner  to  Baghdad  but  was  assas- 
sinated on  the  way. 

762  A.D. : 

Baghdad  became  the  capital  of  Abbasids 
and  the  baginning  of  a  large  scale  Per- 
sian influence  in  political  and  cultural 
life  of  the  Arab  Empire  commenced. 

767  A.D.— 151  A.H.  : 

Amar  Bin  Hafs,  the  third  Governor  of 
Abbasids  in  Sind,  was  transferred  to 


HOP,  Vol.  IV,  p.  99,  puts  the  year  as 
756  A.D.  Zafar  Nadvi,  AAHKT,  p.  17 
puts  it  as  759  A.D.  (140  A.H.).    The 

latter  incident  is  not  confirmed  by  tho 

■ 

Indian  sources. 

Hissamuddin  Rashidi,  Mihran,  Vol.  10, 
No.l,  1961.  Also  see  entry  757-767  A.D., 
for  another  version  of  the  same  mission. 

Jbn  Asir  (Leiden)  Vol.  V,  p.  388  and 
(Cairo),  p.  281. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  448. 
Biladhuri  (Murgotton),  pp.  231-3.  Ainia 
rebelled,  as  he  was  pro-Nizaris  (Hijazis) 
and  Khalifa  hearing  of  this  determined  to 
sack  him.  The  former  got  this  informa- 
tion from  the  chief  of  police  at  the 
Abbasid  court,  named  Musib  Bin  Zubair 
and  determined  not  to  leave  Sind. 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  449  gives  144  A.H. 
(761-62  AD),  as  the    year  of    Amar's 


■- 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 


163 


• 


' 


Africa  due  to  his  pro-Shiite  tendencies 
and  possibility  of  giving  shetter  to 
Abdullah  Bin  Muhammad  Al-Shatar, 
but  all  the  same  he  was  promoted  and 
made  Governor  of  Africa,  and  Hisham 
Bin  Amar  Taghlibi  appointed  as  the 
fourth  Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind,  with 
special  instruction  to  capture  Al-Shattar, 
even  if  it  became  necessary  to  attack  the 
Raja  under  whose  protection  former 
was  living.  Al-Shattar  resisted  advance 
of  Safin  brother  of  Hisham,  but  was  de- 
feated and  killed.  This  did  not  satisfy 
Khalifa  Mansur,  who  anticipated  upris- 
ing of  Al-Shattar's  400  body,  guards, 
under  leadership  of  Al-Shattar's  minor 
son,  so  he  ordered  attack  on  Raja's  terri- 
tories to  eliminate  his  followers  and 
capture  the  minor  boy. 

767-773  A.D.— 151-157  A.H.  : 

Hisham  Bin  Amar  Taghlibi  conquered 
Multan  which  had  become  independent 
after  Muhammad  Bin  Qasim's  recall 
in  96  A.  H.  He  over-powered  the  re- 
bellious leaders  of  Qandabil  (Gandava) 
and  reconquered  the  valley  west  of  the 
Indus,  lost  to  the  Arabs. 
He  also  led  a  fleet  to  Broach,  conquered 
a  town  near  it  and  built  a  mosque  on  the 
site  of  a  Buddhist  temple  destroyed  by 
his  fleet. 

768-772  A.D.: 

Hisham  Ibn  Amar  Al-Taghlibi,  the  Arab 
Governor  of  Sind,  raided  Kashmir  and 
secured  many  prisoners  and  slaves.  The 
Kashmir  ruler  then  was  Vajraditya,  who 
is  said  to  have  sold  many  men  to 
Malechhas  (non-H»ndu-foreigners)  and 
introduced  many  customs  which  befitted 
only  Malechhas. 


transfer.  Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  pp.  456  and 
281,  assigns  year  151  A.H.  to  his  transfer. 
Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  HI,  p.  19$. 
Biladhuri  states  that  Hisham  was  a 
predecessor  of  Amar  Bin  Hafs.  This 
does  not  fit  into  the  chronological  order, 
specially  Al-Shattar's  incidents.  Also  see 
entry  757-767  A.D. 

■■ 

Ibn    Asir,    V,    pp.    281-82      and    457. 

See  entry  759  A.H. 

Biladhuri,  p.  445. 

The  town  mentioned  is  Gandhar  a  port  in 

Kathiawar,  where  the  Arab  fleet  reached 

by  the  river  Indus  and  sea  coast. 

■ 

• 

HCIP,  IV,  pp.  115,  126. 
The  conquest  of  Kashmir  is  doubtful  as 
it  was  at  the  climax  of  its  power  then.   It 
may  have  been  a  raid  on  that  territory. 
See  also  entry  754  A.D. 


1*4 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


770  A.D.r 

Sindhi  Bhikshus  who  had  migrated  dur- 
ing Brahman  rule  of  Sind  to  Gujarat 
and  from  there  went  to  Bengal  to 
preach,  were  threatened  expulsion  by 
the  king  Dharmpal,  but  the  latter  was 
stopped  by  his  advisers. 

773  A.D.— 157  A.H.  : 

A  deputation  ot  Sindhis  waited  upon 
Khalifa  Mansur.  Among  the  members 
were  some  scholars,  including  a  Pandit, 
who  was  a  scholar  of  Sanskrit  language 
and  presented  Siddhanta  to  Khalifa.  It 
was  translated  into  Arabic  with  the  help 
of  Ibrahim  Fizari. 

773    A.D.-157  A.H.  : 

Indian  numerals  were  introduced  in 
Baghdad  by  a  Hindu  Pandit  of  Sind 
who  took  Siddhanta  in  the  court  of 
Khalifa  Mansur.  These  numerals  travel- 
led to  Europe  via  Spain.  Siddhanta  in 
its  Arabic  translation  was  called  Al- 
Sindh-Hind.  Since  then  Indian  nume- 
rals are  being  called  Arabic  numerals. 

773  A.D.-  158  A.H.  : 

Khalifa  Mansur  awarded  the  Governor- 
ship of  Kirman  in  addition  to  that  of 
Sind  to  Hisham  Bin  Amar  as  a  reward 
for  h^s  conquests  and  ability  to 
govern  Sind. 

773  A.D.-157  A.H.  : 

Hisham  Bin  Amar  Taghlibi.  the  fourth 
Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind,  returned  to 
Baghdad  on  leave  and  his  brother 
Bistan  Bin  Amar  Taghlibi  acted  as  the 
fifth  Governor  for  some  months. 


Majumdar,  Age  of  Imperial     Unity,  p. 

272. 

■ 

Akhbar-ul-Hukma  Qatti  (Cairo) 

p.  177. 

To    gn. 

j -j 

• 


Encyclopaedia  Bnttanica,  under  Nume- 
rals . 

The  Arabic  version  of  Indian  numerals 
was  adopted  by  Munajjam  Al-Khwarizmi 
(780-840  AD.)  a  courtier  of  Ma'amoon. 
The  Indian  Arithmetic  was  further  ela- 
borated into  Arabic  by  Ali  Bin  Ahmed 
Naswi  (980-1040  A.D.). 
Bu  Ali  Sina,  the  famous  anatomist  and 
philosopher     learnt    Indian      arithmetic 

during  Naswi's  times. 

• 

Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  6. 
Yaqoobi.  Vol.  JI.  p.  449. 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  449. 

Biladhyri,  Ibn  Asir,  and  Tabri  have  also 

reported  the  incident. 


% 


X 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 


165 


Hisham  Bin  Amar  Taghlibi  died  in 
Baghdad.  Bistam  Bin  Amar  his  brother, 
and  the  fifth  Governor,  was  replaced 
by  Ma'abid  Bin  Khalil  Tamimi  as 
the  sixth  Governor  of  Sind. 

Oct-775  A.D.— Zil-Haj,  158  A.H.: 

The  Abbasid  Khalifa  Abu  Jaffar  Mansoor 
died  and  his  son  Mahdi  took  over  as  the 
next  Khalifa.  Latter  invited  Rajas  of 
his  domain  to  accept  Islam.  There  was 
response  from  1 5  Rajas.  One  of  them 
was  a  Raja  from  Sind  and  the  otr  er  was 
called  Maharaja,  a  descendant  of  Poros. 

773-76  A.D.-^139  A-H.  : 

Ma'abid  Bin  Khalil  Tamimi,  the  sixth 
Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind  died  at 
Mansura  and  was  replaced  by  Ruh  Bin 
Hatim.  During  the  tenure  of  the  latter, 
there  were  Jat  uprisings  in  the  Western 
Sind. 

775-776  A.D.— 159-160  A.H.  : 

Ruh  Bin  Hatim  Muhlabi,  the  seventh 
Governor  of  the  Abbasids  in  Sind, 
was  transferred  within  a  few  months  of 
his  arrival  due  to  the  Jat  uprising  and 
was  replaced  by  Bistam  Bin  Amar, 
brother  of  Hisham  Bin  Amar  Taghlibi, 
as  he  had  gained  experience  in  Sind  dur- 
ing his  brother's  tenure. 

776-77  A.D.— 160  A.H.  : 

Birth  of  Abu  Usman  Amir  Ibn  Bahr  al- 
Jahiz  of  Fukhaymi  al  Basri  who  wrote 
Kitab  al  Bayan  wal-Tabiyin. 
It  describes  some  Sindhi  scholars  who 
visited  Abbasid  court.  The  author  was 
an  Abyssinian. 

776-77  A.D.— 160  A.H.  : 

The  Arab  Governor  of  Sind  sent  a  naval 
expedition  under  Ar-Rabi  Ibn  Subh-Al- 


■ 


Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  479. 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  71. 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  71,  77. 


Text  was  published  from   Cairo  in   1 367 
A.H. 

■ 

Biladhuri  reports  the  first  version.  HCIP, 
Vol.  IV,  p.  100. 


166 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Fakih  against  Baroda,  They  captured  a 
city  but  withdrew  due  to  an  epidemic. 
This  town  has  been  identified  as  Ghumli. 
The  Indian  sources,  however,  state  that 
the  Arabs  were  defeated  by  Agguka  I, 
son  of  Krishna  Raja,  son  of  Pushyadeva. 
The  father  and  grandfather  had  fought 
the  Arabs  in  759  A.D.  and  739  A.D. 


776  A.D.: 

The  Second  Arab  expedition  under 
Abdul  Malik  against  Baroda  (Porban- 
dar)  near  Baroach  succeeded  in  taking 
the  town,  but  as  sickness  broke  among 
the  troops,  they  left  without  permanent 
result.  Possibly  in  the  expeditions  of 
758,  767-72  A.D.  or  776  A.D.,  Valabhi, 
the  capital  city  too  was  destroyed.  The 
Arab  naval  expedition  may  have  been 
aided  by  internal  revolution  against 
Valabhi's  successors. 

776-778  A.D.— 160-161  A.H.  : 

Bistam  Taghlibi,  the  Governor  of  Sind, 
was  dismissed  and  Ruh  Bin  Hatim  was 
again  appointed  as  the  Governor  of  Sind 
a  second  time.  He  once  again  failed  to 
show  results  and,  therefore,  was  dis- 
missed and  replaced  by  Nasar  Bin 
Muhammad  Bin  Asha'at  Khazai.  Even 
he  was  dismissed  in  less  than  a  year  and 
in  his  place  Muhammad  Bin  Suleman 
Bin  Ali  Hashmi  was  appointed  as  the 
Governor  of  Sind.  Hashmi  did  not 
come  to  Sind  but  deputed  Shuhab 
Musmai  to  rule  on  his  behalf.    He  was 


Also  see  entries  739  A.D.  and  756  A.D. 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  31,  reports  that 
this  expedition  was  sent  by  Khalifa  Mahdi 
under  Abdul  Malik  bin  Shubab  Musmai 
and  RaW  was  one  of  his  officers. 
After  capturing  a  city  Bahar  Bhut  (8 
miles  west  of  Baroda),  they  withdrew  due 
to  an  epidemic.  Further  setback  came 
when  most  of  their  troops  and  boats  were 
destroyed  by  a  cyclone  in  Persian  Gulf. 
The  dismissal  of  Abdul  Malik  after  18 
days  Governorship  of  Sind  shows  that 
epidemic  and  cyclone  may  be  a  made- 
up  story  and  Khalifa  on  finding  the  truth 
dismissed  him. 

IHQ,  Vol.  TV,  p.  467. 
Some  scholars  believe  that  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  city  of  Valabhi  may  have  taken 
place  during  the  Arab  raids  of  725-735 
A.D.,  but  this  is  doubtful  as  the  city 
continued  even  in  the  fifties  and  the 
sixties.    It  may  have  been  destroyed  in 

767-72  A.D. 

. 

b  « id 


■ 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  71. 


Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  479-80. 

■ 

i 
■ 

■ 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 


167 


removed  after  20  days  and  Nasar  Bin 
Muhammad  Asha'at  Khazai  was  appo- 
inted as  the  Governor  of  Sind  a  second 
time.  He  in  turn  was  dismissed  again 
and  replaced  by  Zubair  Bin  Abbas,  but 
the  latter  did  not  come  to  Sind  and 
ruled  from  Baghdad.  Mahdi  there- 
fore, sent  Musabih  Bin  Amar  Taghlibi, 
brother  of  Hisham  Taghlibi,  as  the 
Governor  of  Sind. 

776-777  A.D.— 160  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Abu  Hafs  bin  Rabi,  a  Taba 
Tabin  and  a  reliable  Muhadis  in  Sind, 
and  probably  the  first  person  who  wrote 
Hadis. 

777-78  A.D.— 161  A.H.  : 

The  Governorship  of  Musabih  Bin 
Amar  Taghlibi.  During  this  period 
there  were  serious  fights  between  the 
Hijazi  and  the  Yamani  Arabs.  Musabih 
was,  therefore,  dismissed  and  replaced 
by  Nisar  Bin  Muhammad  Bin  Al-Sha'at 
for  the  third  time. 

777-78  A.D— 161-62  A.H.  : 

Nasar  Bin  Muhammad  Al-Sha'at  was 
appointed  as  Sind's  Governor  for  the 
third  time  and  became  the  twelfth 
Abbasid  Governor.  These  changes  in 
the  Governors  of  Sind  in  about  two 
years  caused  confusion  and  local  up- 
risings. 

i 
780-81  A.D.-  164  A.H.  : 

Nasar  Bin  Muhammad  Al-Sha'at,  the 
twelfth  Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind 
died  at  Mansura. 

Satiah  Bin  Umar  Taghlibi  was  appoint- 
ed as  the  thirteenth  Governor  of  Sind 
and    in    his   absence    Khalifa  Mahdi 's 


■ 


Zubaid,  p.  12. 


■ 

■ 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  71. 

Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  V,  p.  457  and  Vol.  VI,  p.  42. 

Biladhuri,  p.  445. 

Ibn  Asir,  assigns  163  A.H.  to  his  death. 
v 


168 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


slave,  Laith  Bin  Tarif  ruled  as  the  thir- 
teenth Governor.  The  Jats  organized 
a  rebellion  against  the  government. 

781-82  A.D.— 165  A.H.  : 

As  Laith  Bin  Tarif,  thirteenth  Abbasid 
Governor  of  Sind  could  not  control  the 
Jat  rebels  of  Sind,  the  Khalifa  sent 
troops  from  Baghdad  to  crush  the  up- 
risings. 

1st  September,  786  A.D.  : 
Rabi-1 14th,  170  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Mahdi  in  169  A.H.,  rule  of  his 
son  Musa  Hadi  for  14  months  and  on  his 
death  taking  over  of  Haroon-Al-Rashid 
as  Abbasid  Khalifa. 

786-808  A.D.: 

Reign  of  Abbasid  Khalifa  Haroon-Al- 
Rashid. 

786-87  A.D.— 170  A.H.  : 

Laith  Bin  Tarif  was  dismissed  and  re- 
placed by  Salim  Younisi  as  fourteenth 
Governor  of  Abbasids  in  Sind  by 
Haroon  Al-Rashid. 

786-87  A.D.— 170  A.H.  : 

Abu  Maashar  Sindhi  who  was  taken  as 
a  captive  in  a  war  and  sold  as  slave  to 
Uma  Musa,  daughter  of  Khalifa  Mansur 
and  had  risen  to  become  a  great  scholar, 
died.  The  funeral  prayers  were  offered 
by  the  Khalifa  Haroon-Al-Rashid  him- 
self. 

Another  Sindhi  poet  Abu-Dila  who 
composed  in  Arabic,  lived  in  Abbasid 
court  during  this  time. 

787  A.D.: 

The  Chinese  Emperor  made  an  alliance 
with  (he  Khalifa  of  Baghdad  and  some 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  71. 


• 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  117. 


' 


Wafai     Din 


Tazkira-i- 


Muhammad, 
Musha'ahir-i-Sind,  p.  16. 
S.  S.  Nadvi,  AAKHT,  p.  303,  states 
that  Khalifa  Mahdi  offered  the  funeral 
prayers.  Since  Mahdi  also  died  in 
170  A.H.  it  would  be  one  of  two  Khalifas, 
Mahdi  or  Haroon  who  led  the  prayers. 


Sastri  :  Foreign  Notices,  p.  17. 


i 


1 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 


169 


r 


Indian  Kings  for  security  against  the 
Tibetans.  (A  century  and  half  later 
Ibn  Haukal  and  Istakhri  called  Bay  of 
Bengal  as  Tibetan  seas  showing  Tibet- 
an influence  in  Bengal). 

787-88  A.D.— 171  A.H.  : 

■ 

Death  of  Shaikh  Abu  Turab,  who  had 
made  some  conquests  in  the  Upper 
Sind. 

790-91  A.D.^174  A.H.  : 

Salim  Younisi,  the  fourteenth  Governor 
of  Abbasids,  transferred  and  Ishaque 
Bin  Suleman  Bin  Ali  Hashml  was  ap- 
pointed as  the  fifteenth  Governor  of 
Sind.  He  died  in  Sind  during  the  same 
year  and  was  replaced  by  his  son  Yousif 
Bin  Ishaque  temporarily  as  the  sixteenth 
Governor.  The  latter  was  transferred 
and  Tayfur  Bin  Abdullah  Bin  Mansur 
Al-Hamiri  became  the  seventeenth 
Governor. 

791-800  A.D.— 175  A.H.  : 

The  struggle  between  the  Arab  tribes 
of  Mudarites  and  Yamanites  in  Sind 
developed  into  a  civil  war.  Tayfur  being 
Yamanite  himself  supported  the  latter 
group.  Even  after  his  dismissal  in  175 
A.H.  and  during  the  tenure  of  the  next 
six  governors,  the  situation  remained 
out  of  control.  Jabir  Bin  Asha'ath  Tai 
became  the  eighteenth  governor  of  Sind 
and  Makran. 

792-93  A.D.-176  A.H.  : 

Jabir  Bin  Asha'ath  Tai,  the  eighteenth 
Abbasid  Governor  was  not  able 
to  control  the  tribal  uprising  and 
was,  therefore,  removed  and  replaced 
by  Saeed  Bin  Muslim  Bin  Qataiba  who 


t 
T.  K.  Sindhi,  states  that  he    conquered 
Bakhar  fort.    This  place  did  not  exist 
then.    He  must  have  been  one  of  Arab 
chiefs  in  Sind.    Also  see  entry  108  A.H. 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  m,  p.  117. 

and  Vol.  II,  p.  494. 

Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  HI,  p.  218. 

■ 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  IE,  p.  117. 

■ 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  in,  p.  117. 


170 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


sent  his  brother  Kathir  Bin  Muslim  as 
nineteenth  Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind. 
On  his  arrival  in  Sind  he  indulged  into 
luxuries  and  forgot  the  state  affairs. 

794-95  A.D.— 178  A.H.: 

As  Kathir  Bin  Muslim  Qataiba,  the 
Governor,  was  not  able  to  improve  the 
law  and  order  situation  in  Sind,  Issa  Bin 
Jaffar  Bin  Mansur  Abbasi  was  appoint- 
ed as  the  twentieth  Governor  of  Sind  but 
he  nominated  Muhammad  Bin  Adi 
Saalabi  in  his  place.  The  latter  reached 
Sind  in  179  A.H.  (795-96  A.D.). 

DBS 

796-97  A.D.—180  A.D.  : 

Birth  of  Abu  Tamim  Habib  Awas,  whose 
Diwan  al  Hamasah,  gives  extracts 
from  Abu  Ata  Al-Sindhi's  poetry. 

797-798  A.D.— 181  A.H.  : 

Having  failed  to  restore  peace  among 
the  Arab  tribes  of  Sind,  and  having  been 
defeated  by  them,  Muhammad  Bin  Adi 
Saalabi  shifted  to  Multan,  but  Multanis 
shut  doors  to  him,  gave  him  a  battle  and 
defeated  him.  Later  on  he  was  dismiss- 
ed and  Abdul  Rahman  came  as  the 
twenty-first  Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind. 
He  also  failed  to  improve  the  law  and 
order  situation. 

798  A.D.— 810  A.D.  (Approx.).  : 

An  important  Samma  chief  of  Hindu 
branch,  Lakho  Ghurano  son  of  Lakhiar 
Bad  of  Sind  died  leaving  eight  sons,  four 
from  a  Cutchi  wife  Gaud  Rani  daughter 
of  Gohel  chief  of  Kera  and  other  four 
from  another  Cutchi  wife  Baudhi 
daughter  of  Vagham,  a  Chawra  chief  of 
Patogh.  The  eldest  son  Unar  born  of 
Gaud  Rani  succeeded  him  but  was  mur- 
dered by  his  step  brothers    Mod    and 


■ 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  K  P-  494, 

itveG 

■ 


•  a    • 

Tex     published     from      Deoband     in 
1353  A.H. 

benrteo*!*  esw  lattxi 
Yaqoobi,  Vo.  n,  p.  494. 

■     . 

l  dm  A 
. 

-vab 
■jjY 

i 
• 
Williams,  pp.  73-75. 

The  first  Samma  dynasty  ruled  a  part  of 
Cutch  between  810-985  A.D.  During  the 
same  period  rest  of  Cutch  was  ruled  by 
Chawras.  The  first  Samma  dynasty 
maintained  relations  with  Sind  seeking 
assistance  whenever  there  was  an  emerg- 
ency. 

Lakho  Fulani  is  different  from  Lakho 
Ghuraro. 


"> 


i 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 


171 


. 


Manai.  Gaud  Rani  managed  the  success- 
ion of  her  grandson  and  therefore  Mod 
and  Manai  escaped  to  Cutch  with  a  few 
followers  and  took  refuge  with  their 
Chawra  maternal  uncle  at  Patogh  (6 
miles  West  of  Lakhpat,  now  in  ruins). 
Finding  an  opportunity  they  killed  him 
and  seized  his  city  and  surrounding 
territories  with  the  help  of  their  clans- 
men from  Sind.  They  then  subdued 
Guntn,  which  was  ruled  by  Vaghelas. 
Finally  they  annexed  Anahilapataka. 

The  grandson  of  assassinated  Unar 
called  Lakho  went  to  Cutch  and  estab- 
lished the  second  Samma  dynasty 
named  as  Jareja  Dynasty  in  1 147  A.D. 

798-99  A.D.— 182  A.H.  : 

Abdur  Rehman  the  twenty-first  Abba- 
sid  Governor  of  Sind  was  removed  and 
replaced  by  Ayub  Bin  Jaffar  Bin  Sule- 
man  as  the  former  could  not  maintain 
order. 

800  AD— 184  A.H.  : 

Ayub  Bin  Jaffar  Bin  Suleman,  twenty- 
second  Governor  of  Sind,  was  removed 
due  to  the  same  reason  and  was 
replaced  by  Daud  Bin  Yazid  Bin 
Hatim  Muhlabi,  who  sent  his  brother 
Mughira  Bin  Yazid  Muhlabi,  as 
governor  in  his  own  place. 

801  A.D.— 185  A.H.  : 

As  Mughira  Bin  Yazid  Muhlabi,  the 
twenty-third  Abbasid  Governor  of 
Sind  failed  to  bring  peace  among  the 
Arab  tribes  of  Sind,  Daud  Bin  Yazid 
Bin  Hatim  Muhlabi,  Mughira's  brother, 
was  appointed  as  the  twenty-fourth 
Governor.  He  came  and  crushed  revolt 
of    the    local    Arab    tribes    'Nazari' 


-turn  jbQ 

i 

:.  lot 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  494. 
(«ee< 

Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  494. 

Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.  II,  p.  494,  and 
Yaqoobi  (Beirut),  Vol.  Ill,  p.  152. 


172 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


(Hijazis)  and  Mudarites,  who  formed 
majority  of  Arab  tribes  of  Sind.  Nazaris* 
plan  was  to  throw  out  Qahtanis 
(Yamanites)  and  divide  Sind  in  three 
parts,  one  each  for  Qureshis,  Qais  and 
Rabiahs  tribes,  all  of  them  from  Hijaz. 
They  had  already  defeated  Mughira  and 
stopped  him  from  entering  Mansura. 
He,  therefore,  went  to  Multan,  where 
doors  were  shut  to  him.  Settlements 
of  Nizaris  were  completely  destroyed  by 
Daud.  During  the  operations  the  mas- 
sacre of  population  of  Mansura  lasted 
for  20  days  and  a  great  portion  of  the 
city's  population  was  killed. 
The  result  of  these  operations  was  the 
destruction  of  Arab  settlements  in  Sind. 

801  A.L>.: 

Arrival  of  Iranian  immigrants  (Parsees) 
at  Diu. 

801-808  A.D.: 

Manek  translated  Susruta,  a  medical 
work  into  Arabic  at  Baghdad. 

807—808  A.D.: 

Khalifa  Haroon  Al-Rashid  became  sick 
and  sent  for  Sindhi  Ved  (Physician) 
Manek.  The  Khalifa  was  cured  and 
Manek  was  appointed  in  Darul- 
Hukma  for  translation  of  Sanskrit 
books  into  Arabic.  He  helped  Abu 
Hatim  Balkhi  in  translation  of  Al- 
Samoom. 


■ 


"1 


■ 


HCIP,  Vol.  IV,  p.  353  quoting  Quissa-i- 
Sanjan.  The  descendants  are  present 
Parsees  of  the  Sub-Continent. 

•■ 

we 

Tarikh-al-Tibba,  Vol.  H,  pp.  32-34. 
Tabri  states  that  Haroon  could  not  re- 
cover from  disease,  but  left  a  will  to 
send  Manek  back  to  his  homeland  and 
the  will  of»the  Khalifa  was  carried  out. 
This  statement  is  doubtful  in  view  of  Ma- 
nek's  being  associated  with  Darul- 
Hukma  for  many  years.  Besides,  the 
above  book  was  translated  into  Persian 
by  Manek  for  Yahya  Bin  Khalid  Barmaki 
who  was  not  in  good  books  of  the  Khalifa 
for  many  years  before  Khalifa's  death  in 
193  A.H.  (809  A.D.)  Manek  must  have 
come  to  Baghdad  by  the  end  of  the  eighth 
century  A.D.  or  at  least  by  801  A.D. 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASID  KHALIFAS  IN  SIND 


173 


I 


ii 

T 


801-821  A.D.— 185-205  A.H.  : 

The  cultural  exchange  of  talent  from 
Sind  to  Baghdad  took  place. 

Kanka  or  Ganga  a  Sindhi  Physician 
treated  Haroon-Al-Rashid.  Another 
Physcian  Manek  (Mannika)  was  recruited 
to  work  in  Baghdad  Bayt-al-Hikmat,  the 
Institute  of  Scientific  knowledge.  A 
third  one  Saleh  Ibn  Bahra  cured 
Ibrahim,  husband  of  the  Khalifa's  sister 
Abasah.  Manek  also  translated  an  In- 
dian book  on  medical  plants  into  Arabic 
for  Suleman  Bin  Ishaque.  Besides  this, 
Maneck  with  the  help  of  Abu  Hatim 
Balkhi  translated  an  Indian  treatise  on 
poisons  into  Persian  for  Yahya  Bin 
Khalid  Barmaki. 

807  AD.-  191  AH.  : 

The  date  on  the  tomb  of  Shaikh  of  Abu 
Turab,  an  Arab  Jagirdar  of  Sakro. 

809  A.D.-  193  A.H.  : 

Khalifa  Haroon-Al-Rashid  died  and  his 
son  Muhammad  Amin  became  the  next 
Khalifa. 

809-813  A.D.— 193-198  A.H.  : 

Due  to  Civil  War  between  Amin  and 
his  younger  step  brother  Mamun,  Daud 
did  not  send  annual  tribute  (Khiraj)  to 
Baghdad. 

810-985  A.D.  : 

Most  of  Cutch  except  Wagad  ruled  by 
Samma  Rajputs  of  Sind.  They  practis- 
ed Hindu  faith,  but  maintained  rela- 
tions with  the  Sammas  of  Sind.  The 
latter  were  both  Hindus  and  Muslims. 
The  former  sought  assistance  from 
Sind,  in  case  of  all  emergencies. 


Ibn  Abi  Usaybiah,  pp.  22-35. 
Ibn  Nadeem,  Fihrist,  p.  303. 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  in,  p.  105. 
The  treatise  on  poisons  was  re-translated 
into  Arabic  by  Abbas  Bin  Saeed  Johri 
for  Khalifa  Mamoon  in  218  A.H.  (838 
A.D.),  as  is  reported  in  Tabqatul-Tibba, 
pp.  33  and  317. 


The  present  tomb  on  his  grave  was 
built  in  the  15th  century.  Also 
see  787-88  A.D. 

Williams,  pp.  71-78. 


174 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


813  A.D.— Muharam  198  A.H.  : 
Khalifa  Amin  was  killed  and  Mamoon, 
primarily    with    Persian      assistance, 
became    the    next  Khalifa.    Both  his 
mother  and  queen  were  Persians. 

813-821  A.D.— 198  A.H.  : 

Abu  Samaah,  a  freed  slave  of  Kundah, 
arrived  in  Sind,  due  to  disturbances  on 
account  of  civil  war  between  Mamoon 
and  Amin,  which  had  spread  to  the 
whole  of  Empire. 

813-842  A.D.— 198-227  A.H.  : 

Abu  Samaah's  slave  Fazal  Bin  Mahan 
and  his  family,  established  a  kingdom  in 
Sindan,  a  part  of  Sind.  This  kingdom 
came  to  end  due  to  family  feuds. 


820-21  A.D.— 205  A.H.: 

Daud  Bin  Yazid  Muhlabi  the  twenty- 
fourth  Governor  died  at  Man- 
sura  and  his  son  Bashar  Bin  Daud  Al- 
Muhlabi  was  appointed  as  the  twenty- 
fifth  Governor  of  Sind.  He  appointed 
his  younger  brother  as  ruler  of  Makran. 

820-827  A.D.  : 

During  Mamun's  rule,  Arab  Governor 
of  Sind,  Bashar,  attacked  western  part 
of  Pratia  Thara  Empire,  but  Nagabhata 
II  with  the  help  of  feudatories  Govinda 
Raja-I  and  Khommana-II  succeeded  in 
repulsing  him. 

826-27  A.D.— 211  A.H.  : 

Bashar  Bin  Daud  Muhlabi  the  twenty- 
fourth  Governor  of  the  Abbasid  Khalifa's 


■ 

■ 
Biladhuri,  p.  445. 

Biladhuri,  p.  446. 

Sindan  is  reported  to  be  a  seaport  at  a 
distance  of  120  miles  from  Mansura  as 
well  as  Debal  and  about  1/2  farsang 
(4  miles)  from  the  sea  coast.  Its  prob- 
able location  accordingly  would  be  on 
Koree  Creek.  Sindhree  a  town  that 
sunk  in  1819  A.D.  may  have  been  Sindan. 
(Mu'ajmul-Baldan  (Cairo),  Vol.  V, 
p.  151,  and  Taqweemul-Baldan,  p.  359. 

Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  256. 

£18408 

HCIP,  Vol.  IV.  p.  106. 

I 

v 

■ 
Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  153. 


S 


^ 


GOVERNORS  OF  ABBASrD  KHALIFAS  IN  SlND 


175 


* 


r 


was"  to  send  an  annual  tax  of  one 
million  Darhams  to  the  latter.  As  he 
refused  to  remit  the  amount  and  rebel- 
led, Hajib  Bin  Saleh  was  appointed  as 
the  Governor  by  Mamoon.  Hajib  was 
defeated  by  Bashar.  Then  Ghusan  Bin 
Ibad  Muhlabi  and  the  latter's  brother 
Muhammad  Bin  Ibad  were  sent  by 
Khalifa  to  replace  Bashar. 

826  A.D.— 211  A.H.  : 

Birth  of  Ibn  Khurdadba. 

828-29  A.D.— 213  A.H.  : 

Ghusan  Bin  Ibad  Muhlabi  twenty- 
fifth  Governor  of  Abbasids  in  Sind  and 
his  brother  Muhammad  Bin  Ibad  defeat- 
ed Bashar  and  took  him  as  prisoner  to 
Baghdad  in  213  A.H.  (831-32  A.D.). 
Khalifa  excused  Bashar.  Ghusan  took 
about  3  years  to  improve  the  law  and 
order  situation  and  handed  over  the 
Governorship  to  Musa  Barmaki. 
During  his  stay  in  Sind,  he  did  not  miss 
to  eat  peacock  meat  with  every  meal. 

831  A.D.— 216  A.H.: 

Ghusan  Bin  Ibad  Muhlabi,  the  twenty- 
6fth  Governor  of  Abbasids  in  Sind  was 
transferred  to  Baghdad.  Musa  Bin 
Yahya  Barmaki,  grandson  of  Haroon- 
Al-Rashid's  famous  Vazier  Khalid 
Barmaki,  replaced  him  as  twenty-sixth 
Abbasid  Governor. 

831-836  A.D.— 216-221  A.H.  : 

Musa  Bin  Yahya  Barmaki,  Governor 
of  Sind,  kept  sending  to  the  central 
treasury  at  Baghdad  one  million  dir- 
hams   as  yearly  tribute. 

831-833  A.D.— 216— 218  A.H.  : 

Musa  Bin  Yahya  Barmaki  attacked  a 
Sindhi  Raja  Bala  Chunder  who  had  in- 


■ 
■ 

Also  see  entry  250  A.H.  and  300  A.H. 


Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.  II,  p.  558  and 
(Beirut)  edition,  Vol.  m,  p.  158. 
Akhbar-ul-Hukma  (Cairo),  p.  53. 


Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  p.  558. 


Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.  II,  p.  558. 
Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  445. 


176 


suited  Ghusan  Bin  Ibad  by  calling  him 
to  his  court.  Bala  Chunder  was  defeat- 
ed and  taken  prisoner.  He  offered 
a  ransom  of  dirhams  500,000  but  Musa 
rejected  the  offer  and  got  him  killed. 

833-34  A.D.—218  AH.  : 

The  Jats  of  Sind  settled  in  Iraq  rebelled. 
It  took  Mamoon  and  his  successor 
Mu'tasim  Billah  20  years  to  quell  the 
up-rising. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

Ibn  Khurdadba  (Leiden),  pp.  57,  62-69. 


1 


•• 


hsdl 


b*tJ 

*>e/ 

- 


] 


I 


DECLINE  OF  ARAB 

833-34  A.D.-218  A.H.  : 

The  Khalifa  Mamoon  died  and  Mu'tasim 
Billah  became  the  next  Khalifa.  With 
Mamoon's  death  started  the  decline  of 
Arab  power  in  far  off  provinces  including 
Multan  and  Sind.  Gandava  too  became 
independent  under  Muhammad  Bin 
Khalil,  though  he  was  later  subdued. 

9X\  An* 

Sind  and  Multan  remained  part  of  the 
Arab  Empire  from  711—833  A.D.  until 
the  end  of  the  rule  of  Mamoon.  The 
Empire  now  weakened  to  such  an  extent 
that  the  Sind  and  Multan  governors 
declared  independence  whenever  the 
Khalifa  was  weak. 

834  A.D.  : 

The  rebellion  of  Jats  in  South  Iraq  con- 
tinued and  27000  Jats  (of  whom,  12000 
were  armed)   were  deported  to  Syria. 

833-842  A.  D.— 218-227  A.H    : 

Khalifa  Mu'tasim's  rule.  During  this 
period,  part  of  temple  of  Debal  was 
converted  into  a  jail  by  Musa  Bin  Yahya 

Barmaki. 

■ 

836  A.D.— 221  A.H.  : 

Musa  Bin  Yahya  Barmaki,  the  twenty- 
sixth  Governor  of  the  Abbasids  in  Sind 
died  at  Mansura  and  his  son  Imran  Bin 
Musa  Barmaki  took  over  as  twenty- 
seventh    Governor.     Civil    war    broke 


hUBil 

POWER  IN  SIND 


AD.) 


Bi  lad  hurt,  p.  445. 
twnV 

^Iqr 
Tate.  Seistan.  p.  377-378 


r.1     JL  •  4-,-t 

Biladhuri,  p.  437. 


- 

Biladhuri,  pp.  435  and  446  (Leiden). 
Yaqbobi,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  153  (Beirut). 
Biladhuri,  (Brill    Leiden  1886),  p.  445 
Dr.  N.A.  Baloch  thinks  that  this    bund 
was  near  Rohri  &  Alore  and  name  of 


178 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


out  between  the  Arab  tribes  of  Nizari 
and  Yamanites.    The  former  tribe  had 
recovered  from  the  loss  inflicted  on  them 
by  Daud  Muhlabi.    The  Jats  and  Meds 
also  joined  hands  in  the  rebellion,  creat- 
ing confusion  all  over  Sind.  Imran  had 
also  to  make  expedition  against  the  Jats 
and    Meds    of  Kaikan   (Kalat).    The 
Kaikanites    (Kalatis)  protected  Bolan 
Pass  and  made  any  advances  from  the 
north-west  on  Sind  difficult.    The  con- 
tinuous subduing  of  them  was    necess- 
ary for  the  Arab  army.    Imran  crushed 
rebellion  at  Gandava  and  then  fought  a 
battle  with  the  Meds  in  the  Upper  Sind, 
where  3000  of  them  were  killed.    He 
revived  the  old  customs,  ordering  Jats, 
always  to  take  a  dog  with  them.  He  then 
attacked  the  Meds  of  the  Lower  Sind. 
The  Meds  were    getting  water  supply 
from  a  lake.    This  was  connected  by  a 
channel  with  sea  and  turned  brackish. 
Mean-time  there  was  a  tribal  warfare 
between  the  Yamanites  and  Hijazis  and 
Imran  supported  the  Yamanites.    He 
also  built  a  dam  for  agricultural  pur- 
poses  and   called   it  Sikar-al-Med   or 
Med's  Bund. 

836-37  A.D.: 

Imran  Barmaki  founded  a  new  city 
Bayd.iau  in  Budh  district  to  suppress 
the  Jat  rebellions  of  this  District  as  woll 
as  of  Kaikan  (Kalat)  District.  This 
military  cantonment  was  at  Booqan 
and  was  renamed  as  Baiza. 

838-923  A.D.: 

Tabri,  the  Persian  historian  born  at 
Amul  in  Tabristan,  on  the  south  of  the 
Caspian  Sea  lived  and  wrote  in  Arabic, 
'The    History  of    Prophets  and  Kings 


Sukkur  is  derived  from  Sakar-al-Med. 
This  is  of  course  incorrect  as  contours 
of  area  would  not  permit  flow  of  water 
from  Alore  to  Sukkur. 
Meds  were  sea  pirates  settled  on  Makran, 
Sind  and  Kathiawar  coasts.  Longworth 
Dames  in  'Baloachees'   has  recognized 
them  with  fishermen  of  Makran  coasts. 
The  same  stock  is  settled  in  Karachi  as 
well  as  Thatta  districts  and  are  known 
as  Machhi,  Medha  or  Mohanas.  Raverty 
in  Notes  on  Afghanistan,  p.  670,  dissusses 
Sikar-al-Med  and  argues  that  Sikar  may 
be    Sukkur;     whereas    Med  in   Arabic 
means  dyke,  in  Hindi  too  Mend  means 
dyke.  Dr.  Baloach  has  accepted  this  view, 
but  it  is  improbable  as  contours   of  the 
area  won't  allow  water  from    Hakra  to 
flow  to  Sukkur,  Bakhar  and  Rohri. 
Origin  of  Barmakis  has  been  traced  back 
to  Kashmiri  Buddhists  by  S.S.  Nadvi  in 
AAHKT.    Barmaki    is    considered    to 
originate  from   Sanskrit  Parmukh  mean- 
ing a  leader. 

Biladhuri,  p.  442,  calls  the  city  Baiza. 
Booqan    could    be    in    Kachhior    Sibi 
district,  as  is  suggested  by  its   similarity 
with  names  of  that  area,  like,   Bolan, 

Jalwan,  Sarawan,  Kharan  and  Makran, 

all  in  Kalat  Division.    Booqan  survived 

up  to  279  A.H.  (89-293  A.D.). 

De  Ooeje:  Tabri,  Introduction. 
Biladhuri,  p.  442,  calls  the  city  Baiza. 

Urdu  tr.  of  the  text  has  also  been  printed 

from  Karachi. 


1 


I 


I 


DECLINE  OF  ARAB  POWER  IN  SlND 


f* 


? 


' 


Upto  Year  915  A.D.'  Tabri  throws 
some  light  on  the  rule  of  the  Arab  Gov- 
ernors of  Sind.  Its  Persian  translation 
was  started  by  Abu-Ali  Bal'ami  in  963 
A.D. 

832-33  A.D.— 217  A.H.  : 

Abu  Tahir  Qarmati  occupied  Aman. 
Abu  Samaah  had  old  relations  with 
Sind  (see  279-286  A.H.)  and  exercised 
great  influence  in  it.  His  slave  Fazal  Bin 
Ma'ahan  and  the  latter's  relatives,  who 
were  settled  in  Sind,  ruled  Sindan  from 
the  times  of  Mamoon  to  Mutawakil 
(possibly  813  A.D.  to  842  A.D.).  His 
power  was  destroyed  by  family  "feuds. 
Fazal  Bin  Ma'ahan  had  obtained  Sanad 
from  the  Khalifa  Mamoon  and  Khutba 
in  Sindan  was  also  read  in  the  name  of 
Khalifa. 

836-840/41  A.D.— 221/222  A.H.: 

Imran  Bin  Musa  Barmaki  sent  a  depu- 
tation of  Sindhi  scholars  to  Khalifa  at 
Baghdad,  and  these  scholars  were  ad- 
mitted in  Bayt-al-Hikmat  (Institute  ot 
Philosophy)  for  the  translation  of  works 
of  Indian  origin.  The  scholars  whose 
names  have  survived  in  corrupted  form 
are:  Bahla  (Bulo),  Kank  (Ganga)  Raja 
Bajahrai  (Raja  Bajarai),  Dhano  etc. 
He  also  sent  Indian  texts  namely:  Surya 
Sidhanta,  Arya  Bhat,  Brahamgupta, 
Khanda  Khandek,  Mahabharta  and 
Arthra  Sutra. 

840-41  A.D.-226  A.H.  : 

In  the  warfare  between  the  Yamanites 
and  Hijazis,  Imran  Bin  Musa  Barmaki 
the  twenty- seventh  Governor  of  Sind 
was  killed  at  Mansura  by  Umar  Bin 
Abdul  Aziz  Habari,  head  of  a  Sindhi- 
Arab  tribe  from  Hijaz.    Aiyatakh  Turki 


, 


Biladhuri,  p.  446. 


. 


• 


■ 

Murawiju-Zahab    (Baghdad),    Vol.    I, 
p.  143. 

Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.  II,  p.  585. 
Biladhuri  (Leiden),  pp.  446-7. 
Ibn  4sir,  Vol.  VI,  p.  339. 
Biladhuri  states  that  Ambasah's  appoint- 
ment was  made  during  Mu'tasim  rule, 
but  Yaqoobi    assigns  at  during  Wasik's 


180 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


was  made  the  next  Governor  of  Sind. 
He  nominated  Ambasah  Bin  Ishaque 
Al-Zabal  as  Sind's  Governor  on  his 
behalf.  The  latter  reached  Mansura  in 
227  A.H. 

841-42  A.D.-227  A.H.  : 

Fazal  Bin  Maahan's  brother,  ruler  of 
Sindan  attacked  the  Meds  in  a  naval  ex- 
pedition. In  his  absence,  his  brother 
occupied  Sindan  and  these  feuds 
brought  to  end  the  Arab  power  in 
Sindan. 


841-42  A.D.— 227  A.H.  : 

Ahmed  Ibn  Yahya  Ibn  Jabir  Al-Biladhuri 
of  Iranian  stock  and  author  of  Arabic 
History  Futuh-i-Buldan  (The  Book  of 
Conquests),  was  born. 

841/42  A.D.— 227  A.H.    : 

On  the  death  of  Mu'tasim  Billah.  the 
Abbasid  Caliphate  became  too  weak  to 
have  any  de-facto  control  over  Sind. 

842  A.D.— 227  A.H.  : 
Mu'tasim     Billah     died.    Abu    Jaflar 
Haroon  Mulqab  or  Wasik  Billah  be- 
came the  Khalifa.    Since  then  Multan 
became     virtually     independent     of 
Abbasid  Caliphate. 

844-848  A.D.: 

Persian  born  Ibn  Khurdadba,  son  of  the 
Governor  of  Tabristan  and  working  as 
Post  Master  in  Iraq  completed  The 
Bjok  of  Roads  and  Countries',  based 
on  the  information  collected  due  to 
nature  of  his  post.  It  gives  information 
on  Sind  and  Multan. 


rule.  Since  Sind  was  assigned  to  Aiyatakh 
for  his  services  in  crushing  Babak  Khurmi, 
a  rebellion  of  Khurasan,  in  223  AH.,  the 
statement    of   Biladhuri    appears    to  be 

more  reliable. 

Biladhuri  (Leiden),  p.  444. 

See  also  entry  198-227  A.H. 

Sindan,  possibly  was  Sindhuri,  a  town 

that  sunk  underground  in  the  earthquake 

of  1819  A.D. 

Its  location  along  Rann  of  Kutch,  shown 

by  Ibn  Haukal  in  his  map  reproduced 

by  Elliot,  leaves  us  with  no  other  altor- 

native. 

S.  S.  Nadvi,  AAHKT,  p.  305,  assigns  mid- 
third  century  A.H.  to  separation  of 
Multan  from  Sind  and  its  independence. 
Multan  had  formed  part  of  Sind  since 
Darius-I's  times. 

The  book  Kitab  al-Masalik  wal  Mamalik 
was  published  by  De  Goeje  from  Brill 
(Leiden)  in  1889.  A  French  translation 
was  published  in  Journal  Asiatique  in 
1865.  Portions  pertaining  to  Sind  have 
appeared  in  Elliot  and  Dowson's  Vol.  I. 
Urdu  ^translation  of  extracts  pertaining 
to  the  Sub-Continent  has  been  done  by 
Masud  Ali  Nadvi.  Also  see  entry 
844  A.D. 


\ 


> 


DECLINE  OF  ARAB  POWER  IN  SIND 


181 


Ibn  Khurddaba  describes  Jewish  mer- 
chants who  spoke  Persian,  Greek,  Latin, 
Arabic,  Frankish,  Spanish  and  Slav 
languages,  and  carried  from  the  West 
(Europe)  eunuchs,  female  slaves,  boys, 
silk,  furs  etc.,  entered  the  Red  sea 
and  went  to  Sind  and  India,  wherefrom 
they  took  in  exchange  musk,  aloes,  cam- 
phor, cinnamon,  spices  etc.  This  seems 
to  have  continued  upto  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury as  per  later  findings. 

It  was  during  the  same  period  (331-337 
A.H.)  that  another  traveller  Abu  Dulf 
Musar  Bin  Muhlubilu  Yonbui  came 
to  Multan  and  Sind. 

May,  24th— 846  A.D.  : 

Ramzan  22nd— 231  A.H.  : 

Hafiz  Abu  Muhammad  Bin  Sulaiman,  a 
Sindhi  slave  taken  from  Sind,  who  had 
become  a  wellknown  Muhadith,  died  in 
Baghdad  at  the  age  of  69.  His  pupils 
included  Imam  Ahmed  Bin  Hambal. 

846-47  A.D.-232  A.H.  : 

Khalifa  Wasik  Bilah  died  and  Mutawakil 
became  next  Khalifa. 

849-50  A.D.— 235  A.H.  : 

As  Khalifa  Mutawakil  Billah  arrested 
Aiyatakh  Turki  patron  of  Ambasah  Bin 
Ishaque  Al-Zabi  the  twenty-ninth  Go- 
vernor Of  Sind,  the  latter  was  dis- 
missed and  returned  to  Baghdad.  He 
was  replaced  by  Haroon  Bin  Abi  Khalid 
Morozi  as  the  thirtieth  Governor  in 
name  only,  though  the  Abbasids  no 
longer  had  any  hold  over  Sind.  The 
Governor  may  have  protected  some 
frontier  posts. 

Ambasah  had  spent  his  total  tenure  in 
suppressing  the  local  revolts  and  most 


The  trade  with  Sind  goes  back  to  prfr. 
historical  times. 

arikh-Khatib  Baghdadi,  Vol.  8,  p.  329. 
Tazkirat-Ul-Hafiz,  Vol.  LL  p.  65. 
Tahzeeb-Al-Tahzeeb,  Vol.  II,  p.  252. 
Bashari  Muqadisi,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  77. 

1 
■ 

Yaqoobi  (Leiden),  Vol.  II,   p.    585  and 
(Beirut),  Vol.  Ill,  p.  177. 
Biladhuri,  p.  437. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


of  Sind    had    already  passed  into  the 
hands  of  the  local  Arab  tribes. 

After  850  A.D.  : 

Death  of  Mod  and  Manai,  the  Samma 
brothers  of  Sind  who  had  established 
their  principality  at  Patgodh  and  Guntri 
in  Cutch.    Sad  son  of  Mod  succeeded 
then  and  made  Kanthkot  his    capital. 
His  father-in-law  Dharan  Vaghela  to 
rid  himself  of  Samma  intruders  had  Sad 
poisoned,  when  latter's  son  Ful  was  only 
six  months  old.      Ful   was  brought  to 
Sind  by  maidservant  Boladi,  who  re- 
portedly exchanged   her   son  for  the 
prince  and   sacrificed  former's  life^  to 
save  royal  Successor.    Ful  was  brought 
up  in  the  court  of  Muslim  Sama  prince 
Dhulara.     When  Ful  reached  fighting 
age,  he  returned  to  Kutch  to  challenge 
his     maternal      grandfather     Dharan 
Vaghela  to  combat.    Old  man  pacified 
him  by  giving  him  a  kinswoman  in  marri- 
age, and   returning  his  father's  terri- 
tories to  him    But  at  first  opportunity 
Ful  had  his  maternal  grandfather  assa- 
ssinated and  his  corpse    flayed.    Later 
on  he  tricked  his  wife  to  sit  on  the  skin 
of  her  murdered  kinsman,  but  instead 
she  committed  suicide.  An  unborn  boy 
was  rem  >ved  from  her  body  and  named 
as  Ghao  (Born  of  th^wound). 

Ful  ruled  the  territories  of  his  ancestors 
as  warrior  probably  until  mid-second 
quarter  of  10th  century  when  he  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Lakho  Fulani. 

851  AD.— 237  A.H.  : 

Sulaiman  Tajir  wrote  his  book  Silsilat- 
Al-Tawarikh  which  is  the  first  guide  to 
navigation  of  the  Arabian  sea  after 
The    Periplus    of    the  Erythrean  Sea, 


. 


Williams,  pp.  75-76. 
Lakho  Fulani  is  different  from  Lakho 
Ghuraro  of  9th  century  and  Lakho 
Lakhia  of  12th  century. 


i 


• 


■ 

■ 

Silsilat-Al-Tawarikh  was  first  published 
from  Pahs  in  1811  A.D.,  pp.  21,  50-58. 
Elliot-Vol.  I,  p.  200,  gives  English  trans- 
lation of  extracts  pertaining  to  the  Sub- 


^ 


DECLINE  OF  ARAB  POWER  IN  SIND 


183 


written  nearly  1000  years  before  him. 
The  book  was  a  source  for  all  Arab  tra- 
vellers who  wrote  after  him.  He  may 
have  visited  ports  of  Sind  as  he  made 
many  trips  to  the  Sub-Continent  and  has 
described  it.  The  work  was  continued 
after  Sulaiman  and  completed  in  880 
A.D.,  by  Abu  Zaid,  who  died  in  934 
A.D.  Abu  Zaid  added  many  maps  to  the 
work.  It  describes  Mansura  and  Mul- 
tan,  trade  of  Sind  and  special  details  of 
rhinoceroes  horns  from  Sind  and  their 
use  in  China,  as  aphrodiasiac. 


Continent.    Masud  Ali  Nadvi    has  done 
the  same  in  Urdu. 

Reinett  published  its  French  translation 
from  Paris  in   1854  and  G.   Ferrand's 
French  translation,  Paris  1922. 
Author's  year   of  birth    and    death    is 
not  known. 


- 


■ 


i 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 

(854—1010  A.D.) 


854-55  A.D.-240  A.H.  : 

Umar  Bin  Abdul  Aziz  Habari  a  head 
of  local  Arab  tribe  had  Haroon  Bin  Abi 
Khalid  Marozi  the  thirtieth  and  the  last 
Abbasid  Governor  of  Sind  assassinated, 
but  due  to  declaration  of  allegiance  to 
the  Khalifa  Al-MutWakil,  he  was 
accepted  as  an  independent  ruler  of 
Sind,  on  condition  that  he  would  recite 
the  name  of  Abbasid  Khalifa  in 
Friday  congregations.  He  stayed  in 
Bartia  or  Baiza  (a  small  town  at  short 
distance  from  Mansura)  though  he  had 
conquered  Mansura. 

854-55  A.D.— 240  A.H.  : 

Umer  Bin  Abdul  Aziz  Sami  descendant 
of  Habar  Bin  Aswad  usurped  the  pro- 
vince. Khalifa  Mutawakil  accepted  his 
request  for  Governorship  and  he  con- 
tinued to  administer  it  well. 


855  A.D.  : 

Byzantines  attacked  Ainzarba  in  Syria 
where  Jats  were  deported    in  834  A.D. 


Yaqoobi,  Vol.  II,  585,  599  (Leidon). 
and  Vol.  HI,  p.  117  (Beirut). 
Biladhuri,  p.  437. 
Ibn  Haukal,  Elliot's  translation. 


Yaqoobi.  Vol.  II,  p.  599  (Leiden). 
Yaqoobi's  view  that  Umer  Bin  Abdul 
Aziz  was  descendant  of  Saumah  Bin  Loi 
is  incorrect.  He  was  descendant  of 
Abdul  Aziz  Habar  Bin  Aswad  who  was 
descendant  of  Kab  Bin  Loi  as  per  state- 
ment of  Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  II,  p.  327, 
(Cairo  Edition).  Habaris  had  become  the 
independent  rulers  of  Sind.  but  Yaqoobi's 
statement  shows  that  even  then  the 
approval  of  Khalifa  was  taken  which  had 
remained  merely  a  formality. 
Yaqoobi's  statement  that  Haroon  died 
a  natural  death  is  contradicted  by 
Biladhuri  (  p.  437),  who  states  that  he 
was  killed  in  an  uprising. 

Tate's  Seistan,  p.  377-78. 

Toynbee,  A  Study  of  Histor\,  Vol.  VII. 


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ABBASID  GOVERNORS  OF  SIND   AND   THEIR   CONTEMPORARIES 


YEAR 
A-O. 

ARAB 

GOVERNORS    OF   SINO 

ABBASIO 
KHALI  FS 

CMAWRA     DYNASTY 
CUTCH 

PRATIHARAS     OF 

KATHIAWAR     OR 

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PRATIHARAS 
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SAFFAH 
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751/52  -  757/M 

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754-775 

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740-744 

HISAM    BIN   AMRO      TABHLIBI 
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BAHRAJA 
74  »  -  100 

DEVARA J  A 

MAABIO     TAMIMI           77S-77S/7S 

7*7-77t 

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V  Ik    105 

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JABIR     TAI        712-7U 

KATHIR     KATIBI       71}  -  714/35 
MUHAMMAD     SAALABI      715734-7*1 

ABDUL    RAHMAN      711-711 

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000-031 

OAUO       MUMLIOI 
•01-020/21 

AMIN        001-113 

YOBARAM 
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SAMMA 

RAJPUTS 

OF 

SINO 

• 

THE 

MAMUN 
013-013 

BASHAR   BIN   DAUO    MUHLABI 

(INDEPENDENT    RULER) 

•20/21  -  MI/21 

6HUSAN    MUHLABI             I2(/21-IJI 

MUSA    BIN    YALYA     BARMAKI 
131  -  Bit 

MUTASIM 
•13-042 

OF 

LAKHO 

6HURANO 

010 -oos 

RAMABHADRA                   Oil   —  »34 

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010- BBS 

AMBASAH      BIN      ISHAO.UE 
•  40/41-041/50 

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042-047 

V 

KWMARAJA 
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MU1AWAKKIL 
047-001 

HAROON     BIN      ALI    KHALIO 
051/50-054/55 

HABARIS         054-  HUB /ll 

SAMMAS   OF     SINO     RULED     FART   OF    CUTCH    BE 

WEEN      8W-905     AD. 

' 


951  A.D    ISTAKHRfe      MAP   OF    SIND 

(MODERN    NAMES    IN   BRACKETS) 

Northern   Frontier     of  Sind   was  about  SO  miles  North 
ot   Multan.  Lasbcla,part   of  Makran  up  to  Kcj,Kalat 
Sibi.and    Gandava  formed    part    of    Sind. 


INDEXk 

TOWNS    Or    THE     10th    CENTURY. 9 

THE     MODERN     EQUIVALENTS. .(  \ 

THE     RIVER     INDUS*  ITS    TRIBUTARIES.- 
BORDER    OF  SIND. 

'FthiS   MAP    HAS     MANY    SIMtLAPJES    WITH    IBNHAUKALS   MAP     976    ADJ 

DRAWN     UNDER     SUIDANCE     OF    M.H.PANHWAR 


976A.D. ibn  haukal's  map  of  sind 

BASED  ON    ELLIOT  (1867). 


>jfgf*fj»  < 


MODERN    EQUIVALENTS    OF   OLD    TOWNS. 


SADUSAH _.SEHWAN 

KASDUN KHUZDAR 

KAIKAN ......KALAT    DISTRICT 

BUDHA...SIBI-KACHHI  DISTRICTS 

KANDABIL. GANDAVA 

AL-MULTAN MULTAN 

AL-RUR ALORE 

KALARI DEH   KALRI    (NAWABSHAH  DISTTJ 

MANSURAH BAHMANABA  D 

ARMABEL LASBELA 

KI2 KEJ    OR  KECH 

NIRUN HYDERABAD 

SINDOH SINJAN 

BAHERE   FARS..._.PERSlAN    SEA 

OR   ARABIAN   SEA 

KANZBURD PUNJGUR 

BASMAD. ...  BHATIA?OR   BHATINTJA? 
BANIYA....  BAIZA 
MANJABARI...   MANGHOPIR 

Til— GAWADAR 

DAYBAL -BANBHORE 


.LEGEND 


TOWNS   OF   Wth  CENTURY. 

ROADS 

THE  RIVER    INDUS    &  ITS 
TRIBUTARIES. 
BORDER   OF    SIND. 


o 


(PERSIAN     SEA) 
BAHERE    FARS 


% 


NOTE 


AS    COMPARED    TO   PTOLEMYS    MAP  OF    150  A.D.,THE    MAPS   OF  ARAB   GEOGRAPHERS   ARE    IN-ACCURATE. 


i 


1 


DRAWN      UNDER     GUIDANCE     OF    M.H.PANHWAR- 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SlND 


185 


They  captured  all  Jats  and  took  them 
to  Byzantine  along  with  their  women 
and  buffaloes.  It  is  a  conjecture  that 
this  detachment  of  Jats  was  the  adva- 
nce guard  of  Gypsies  in  Europe. 

858-59  A.D.— 244  A.H.  : 

Abu  Abdul  Malik,  a  Sindhi  slave,  who 
was  sent  to  Baghdad  and  was  a  great 
scholar,  died  at  age  of  99  years  in 
Baghdad. 

862-63  A.D.-248  A.H.  : 

Syedna  Ibrahim  Shahid  who  came  to 
Sind  during  the  rule  of  Khalifa  Muta- 
sim-bi-Allah  for  preaching  religion  died 
at  Nerunkot. 

863-64  A.D.— 249  AH.: 
Yaqoob  Bin  Ishaque  Kandi  wrote  a 
book  on  the  religions  of  the  Sub-Conti- 
nent based  on  reports  of  a  team  sent  by 
Yahya  Bin  Khalid  Barmaki  to  study 
religions  and  botany  of  the  Sub- 
continent. It  describes  Multan  temple. 


863-930  A.D.-  279  A.H.  : 

Rise  of  Banu  Samaah  to  power  in  Amar 
and  establishment  of  a  kingdom  by  Abu 
TahirQarmati. 

864  A.D. — 250  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Ibn  Khurdadba,  a  Persian  and 
son  of  the  Governor  of  Tabristan.  He 
wrote  Kitab-Al-Masalik-wa-al-Mamalik, 
which  describes  Kaikan,  Makran,  Bana, 
Med,  Khuzdar,  Gandava,  Kunz- 
pur,  Armabil  (Las  Bela),  Debal,  Sidusan 
(Sehwan),  Roar,  Multan,  Mansura,  etc., 
and  also  castes,  tribes,  trade  and  agri- 
culture. He  was  an  official  in  the  Postal 
Department  of  the  Khalifa  Mutamid 
and  was  in  touch  with  tourists  and 
businessmen. 


J.A.S.B.  has  published  articles  on  Gypsie 
language,  which  has  many  Sindhi  words. 
Bhasham  has  also  listed  a  few  such 
words  in  appendix  XII  of  Wonder  that 
was   India. 

Kitab-Al-Nisab,p,314. 

Tarikh  Khatib-Baghdadi,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  326. 

■ 

Tuhfatul  Kiram.  (Sindhi). 

■ 

■  ' 

Reported  by  Ibn  Nadeem  in  Al-Fihrist, 
(Cairo),  p.  484-87. 

: 

■ 

Text  published  by  Goeje  from  Leiden 
in  1889.  Extracts  pertaining  to  the  Sub- 
continent in  Elliot  and  Dowson  and 
Urdu  translation  of  extracts  by  Akhtar 
Nadvi. 

. 
v 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


869  A.D.— 255  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Haijique,  a  philosopher  and 
writer  who  mentions  that  Sindhis  were 
well  known  accountants,  engaged  by 
every  establishment  in  Baghdad,  due  to 
their  proficiency  and  honesty. 

869  A.D.—255  AH.: 

Abu  Al-Samaah  came  as  Abbasid 
Khalifa's  Governor  of  Sind.  He  was 
killed  within  a  few  months  and  Umar 
Bin  Abdul  Aziz  Habari  continued  to 
govern  Sind  as  an  independent  ruler. 

870  A.D.-256  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Imam  Bukhari  the  author  of 
Kitabul  Adab  Almufarid,  in  which  he 
mentions  that  Hazrat  Aiysha  became 
sick  and  was  treated  by  a  Jat  physician, 
brought  by  her  nephews. 

870-71  A.D.—257  A.H.: 

Khalifa  At-Mutamid,  in  order  to  divert 
Yaqoob  Bin  Layth  Safari's  intention  to 
attack  Iraq,  conferred  upon  him  Sind, 
Balkh  (Bactria)  and  Tabristan,  in  addi- 
tion to  Kirman  and  Seistan  which  he 
had  already  occupied.  Yaqoob 
rejected  the  offer,  attacked  Iraq,  but 
having  been  defeated,  had  to  flee  to 
Sijistan.  He  took  no  interest  in  Sind 
nor  in  Multan.  Habaris,  therefore, 
ruled,  undisturbed. 

. 
870-93  A.D.-  256  A.H.  : 

Even  though  Habaris  were  independent 
rulers  of  Sind,  the  Abbasid  Khalifas 
claimed  suzerainty  over  it,  as  in  257 
A.H.  (870-71  A.D.),  Yaqoob  Bin  Layth 
Safari  was  appointed  as  the  Governor 
of  the  Eastern  Empire  to  include  Turk- 
istan,  Sijistan,  Kirman  and  Sind.  Again 
in  261  A.H.  Mu'tamid  allotted  Sind  and 


Risala-i-Fakhru-Sudan     Abial     Bayzan, 
p.  81,  (Cairo),  1324  A.H, 

■. 

I 


" 


Kitabul  Adab  Almufarid  (Cairo),  p.  35. 

.<J.A  ! 

■ 

Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VIII,  p.  96. 
Ibn  Khaldun  (Cairo),  Vol.  in,  p.  343, 
and  Vol.  II,  p.  327,  gives  genealogical 
tree  of  Habaris  as,  Umer  Bin 
Abdul  Aziz  Bin  Munzar  Bin  Zubair  Bin 
Abdul  Rahman  Bin  Habar  Bin  Aswad. 
The  last  one  Aswad  accepted  Islam  in 
8  A.H.  or  630  A.D.  This  makes  the  whole 
family  tree  improbable,  as  in  250  years 
there  would  be  at  least  12  generations. 
• 

Tbn   Khaldun  (Cafro),  Vol.   Ill,  p.    343. 

■ 

■ 


other  Eastern  Provinces  to  his  brother 
Muwaffiq. 

872-73  A.D.-*259  A.H.  : 

A  Sindhi  Raja  accepted  Islam  and  sent 
a  golden  chain  with  diamond  work  on 
it  for  deposition  in  Kaba.  Khalifa 
Mu'tmad  after  examination  sent  it  to 
Kaba. 

874-75  A.O.— 261  A.H.  : 

The  Khalifa  Al  Mutamid  conferred  upon 
his  brother  Muwaffiq,  the  authority  to 
rule  the  Eastern  Provinces  including 
Sind,  though,  in  practice  the^Habaris 
were  ruling  Sind  independently. 

875-76  A.D.— 262  A.H.  : 

Abu  Zaid  Serafi,  visited  the  Sub-Con- 
tinent and  also  Sind  and  wrote  his  travels. 
He  describes  temple  at  Multan. 

875  A.D.: 

Yaqoobi,  the  historian  wrote  his  work. 

878-79  A.D.— 265  A.H.  : 

The  Khalifa  Mutamid  entrusted  the 
Eastern  Empire  to  Amar  Bin  Layth  but 
he  could  not  occupy  Sind  which  was 
governed  by  an  independent  ruler  of  the 
Habari  tribe. 


HABARI  DYNASTY  IN  SIND 


187 


, 


Alam  Baitul-Haram  (Cairo),  p.  42, 

AAHKT. 

Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  343. 

Habaris,   however,  seem  to  have  ruled 

undisturbed  in  spite  of  this  order. 

■ 

The  text  was  published  from  Paris  in 
1811  AD.  Reineu  published  its  French 
translation  in  1845  from  Paris. 

• 

Raverty  in  Nasiri,  Vol.  I,  p.  23,  narrates 
that  in  the  same  year  Khalifa  excommuni- 
cated Amar  son  of  Layth  from  Pulpit  at 
Baghdad  and  when  Amar  sent  an  agent 
to  the  Khalifa,  the  latter  cursed  him. 


878-79  A.D.— 265  A.H.  : 

Yaqoob    Bin    Layth    Safaii    died    in 
Sijistan. 


Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  II,  pp.  316  and  337. 
Asir,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  96. 

879-80  A.D.— 265  A.H.  : 

Multan  became  independent  of  Abbasid 
Caliphate. 

883-84  A.D-270  A.H.  : 

Abdullah   Bin   Umar   Bin  Abdul  Aziz 

Habari  ruled    Mansura;  and  a    Hindu        (Leiden),  p.  3. 


Ajaibul-Hind  by  Buzrig  Bin  Shaharyar 


188 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Raja  named    Mahrok  Bin   Raik  was 
ruling  at  Alore. 

This  Hindu  ruler  of  Alore,  Sind  (he  pro- 
bably ruled  upper  Sind)  wrote  to  Abdul- 
lah Bin  Umar  Habari  to  send  him  a 
book  in  Sindhi  on  Islamic  beliefs  and 
education.  A  book  on  the  subject  writ- 
ten in  poetry  by  an  Iraqi  scholar  resid- 
ing in  Mansura  was  sent  to  the  Raja  who 
asked  Abdullah  to  send  him  also  the 
scholar. 

883-887  AD.— 270-273  A.H.: 

A  scholar  sent  by  Abdullah  Bin  Habari 
to  the  court  of  Raja  Mahruk,  the  Hindu 
ruler  of  Alore  (Alra)  in  Upper  Sind, 
translated  the  Holy  Quran  into  Sindhi 
prose,  at  the  Raja's  request.  During 
the  period  the  Raja  acted  as  host  to  this 
scholar. 

883-884  A.D.-270  A.H.  : 

Umar  Bin  Abdul  Aziz  Habari  died  in 
Mansura.  His  son  Abdullah  took  over 
as  an  independent  ruler  of  Sind.  During 
the  last  year  of  his  rule  Imam  Abdullah 
Al-Mahdi,  sent  Hashim  an  Ismaili  Dai, 
to  Sind  for  preaching  this  faith. 

888-89  A.D.—175  A.H.  : 

Ahmed  Bin  Muhammad  Bin  Haroon,  a 
well  known  commentator  of  the  Holy 
Quran  and  Hadith  wrote  his  work. 


892-899  AD.— 279-286  A.H.  : 

Rise  of  Banu  Samaah,  descendants  of 
Loi  Bin  Ghalib,  a  Quresh  tribe  in  Aman. 
They  had  old  trade  relations  and  con- 
tacts with  Sind. 


' 


This  statement  proves  that  Sindhi  was  a 
written  and  spoken  language  in  Sind  in 
the  9th  century,  and  not  Prakrit  as  stated 
by  Bhirumal. 


- 

Ajaibul-Hind  of  Buzrig  Bin  Shaharyar, 
Leiden  Edition,  p.  4.  The  text  puts  Alra 
(Alore?)  between  Kashmir  and  Punjab 
which  is  not  probable  as  Sindhi  language 
may  not  have  been  known  there. 

Buzrig  Bin  Shaharyar,  (Leiden),  p.  3. 
Shaharyar  saw  Abdullah  ruling  Sind.  It 
is  not  known  for  certain  when  Umar  Bin 
Abdul  Aziz  died.  In  271  A.H.  Musa  Bin 
Abdul  Aziz  Al-Habari  sent  gifts  to 
Abbasid  Khalifa  Mutamid  as  reported, 
by  Dhakhair  wal-Tuhf,  pp.  24-25,  show- 
ing that  Umar  and  Abdullah  both  ruled 
for  30  years  in  aggregate. 

■ 

India's    contribution   to   the   studies  of 
Hadith  literature,  p.  35. 


S.  S.  Nadvi,    AAHKT,  p.  301. 

v 


i 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 


180 


P 


f 


892-93  A.D— 279  A.H.  or 
afterwards: 

Ibn  Faqih  Hamdani  wrote  Kitab  Al- 
Baldan.  He  describes  rhinoceroes,  poul- 
try, elephants,  peacocks,  scents,  coconuts 
etc.  of  Sind. 

892-93  A.D. —279  A.H.  : 

Samaah,  the  son  of  a  freed  slave  of  Banu 
Kundah  Abdul  Samaah  who  with 
Umer  Bin  Hafiz  Abbasi  and  other  1000 
persons  had  migrated  to  Sind  in  the  be- 
ginning of  3rd  century  Hijra.  establish- 
ed himself  in  Sind  as  an  independent 
ruler  at  Mansura,  but  Abdullah  Bin 
Umar  Habari  soon  recovered  the  town 
and  restored  order. 

Since  then  Abdullah  shifted  his  head- 
quarters from  Bania  to  Mansura. 

Shawwal,  280  A.H.  : 
893-94  A.D.  : 

An  earthquake  combined  with  ava- 
lanche took  place  at  Debal  in  which 
many  houses  collapsed  and  1 5  lac  people 
were  buried  alive  in  the  town.  There 
were  5  shocks  of  high  intensities  which 
destroyed  the  whole  town. 


892-93  A.D.-  279  A.H.  : 

Kha'ifa  Mutamid  Billah  sent  Ahmed 
Bin  Khafi  Demli,  a  mathematician  to 
the  Sub-Continent  (i.e.  Sind  which  was 
governed  by  Habaris),  to  investigate 
some  scientific  facts. 

892-1000  A.D- 279-389  A.H  : 

Samanid  rule  in  Iran.  Under  them,  the 
Persian  language      started      replacing 


The  work  was  published  by  Geographical 
Society  London  in  1885. 

Biladhuri,  p.  445,  written  in  279  A.H. 
See  entey  240  A.H.  (854-55  A.D.)  for 
Bania.  Samaahs  seem  to  have  moved 
to  Multan  where  they  established  them- 
selves as  rulers  in  290  A.H. 
Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  I,  p.  324  and  Vol.  IV, 
p.  93,  states  that  Samaah  was  not  a 
Qureshi  as  claimed.    Istakhari,  p.  175. 

■ 

Ibn  Asir.  Vol.  VII,  p.  323. 
Sayuti,  Tarikh-Khulfa,   A.S.B.  Calcutta, 
p.  380. 

The  figure  of  deaths  is  a  hyperbolic 
exaggeration.  The  total  population  of  the 
whole  of  Sind  could  not  have  been  more 
than  10  lacs  then.  Bhanbore  now 
accepted  as  Debal  is  within  active  seismic 
zone.  It  could  have  been  destroyed  part- 
ly. An  avalanche  to  the  river  side  is 
also  possible. 


AAHKT,  p.  147. 


190 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Arabic  as  the  court  as  well  as  the  liter- 
ary, language. 

892  A.D.— 279  A.H.  : 

The  author  of  Futuh-Al-Baldan  (The 
Book  of  Conquests),  Ahmed  Ibn  Jabir 
of  Iranian  stock  known  as  Biladhuri 
and  attached  to  the  courts  of  the  two 
Khalifas  Mutawakil  and  Mustaim,  died. 
His  History  contains  a  chapter  on  Sind 
with  a  remarkable  precision,  correcting 
some  errors  of  the  local  history,  Chach- 
nama,  and  also  giving  information  on 
the  Governors  of  Sind. 

May,  896  A.D.-  -Rabi-TI,  283  A.H.  •+ 

Muhammad  Bin  Abi  Shorab  was  appo- 
inted as  Qazi  of  Mansura.  He  died 
after  6  months.  His  descendants  stayed 
in  Mansura  and  one  of  them  'Hamza' 
was  Qazi  of  Mansura  in  300  A.H. 
They  intermarried  in  the  ruling  family. 

Nov.-Dec.,  896  A.D.— 283  A.H.  : 

Qazi  Muhammad  Ibn  Abi  Shorab,  a 
relative  of  the  ruler  of  Mansura  died 
after  having  served  6  months  as  Chief 
Qazi. 

897  AD- 284  A.H.  : 

Birth  of  Abul  Al  Faraj  Ali  Ibn  Hussain 
Ibn  Muhammad  Ibn  Ahmed  at  Isfahan. 
He  wrote  Tarikh-i-Aghani. 

897  A.D.— 284  A.H.  : 

Ahmed  Ibn  Abi  Yaqoob  Ibn  Jafar  Ibn 
Wahab  Ibn  Wadith  al  Katib  al-Abbas, 
died.  His  World  History  known  as 
'Yaqoobi'  extends  upto  259  A.H.  (872 
AD).  He  has  described  many  Arab  Go- 
vernors of  Sind  and  other  incidents  of 
the  period.  The  work  was  completed  in 
284-87  A.H. 


Arabic  text  edited  by  De  Goeje,  published 
from  Leyden  in  two  volumes  in  1866, 
and  a  revised  edition  from  Cairo  was 
issued  in  1901  A.D. 

The  name  of  Biladhuri  is  disputed  by 
many  authorities,  some  call  him  Abu 
Bakar  Ali,  others  name  him  as  Abu 
Jaffar,  but  Abu-al  Hasan  Ahmed  Bin 
Yahya  Bin  Jabir  bin  Daud  Al  Baghdadi 
is  accepted  by  D.  Goeje. 


Masudi,  Vol.  I,  p.  377. 
Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VII,  p.  334. 


■ 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VII,  p.  191  and  Vol.  IJJ, 

p.  185. 

Masudi,  Vol.  I,  p.  142. 


See  entry  356  A.H. 


According  to  S.  S.  Nadvi.  AAHKT, 
p.  98,  he  died  in  287  A.H.  or  900  A.D. 
Yaqoobi  was  printed  from  Leiden  in 
2  volumes  in  1883  A.D.  Beirut  edition  is 
divided  ir^  3  volumes  instead  of  two. 

Recently  a  Cairo  edition  has  been  issued. 


< 


^ 


H ABARI  DYNASTY  OF  S!ND 


191 


897  A.D.— 284  A,H.  : 

Abu  Ubaida  Walid  Bin  Abdul  Bahatari, 
a  renowned  poet  and  contemporary  of 
poet  Abu  Tamim  came  to  Sind, 

900-1000  A.D.: 

Sindhi  language  acquires  its  own  pecu- 
liar features  developing  independently 
from  other  Prakrit  languages. 


900-1000  A.D.: 

Dinar  was  the  only  coin  commonly  used 
throughout  the  countries  bordering 
Indian  Ocean,  including  Sind. 

900-1000  A.D.: 

Persian  wheels  were  used  for  irrigation 
in  Sind. 

902-03  A.D.— 200  A.H.  : 

Multan,  ruled  by  Samaah  Bin  Loi's 
descendants,  calling  themselves  Banu 
Munbah.  They  read  Khutba  in  the 
name  of  the  Abbasid  Khalifa. 

903  A.D.-  290  A.H.  : 

Ibn  Rusta  wrote  Kitab  A!-Allaq-Al- 
Nafisia,  in  which  he  states  that  Banu 
Munbah,  descendants  of  Samaah  Bin 
Loi,  ruled  Multan  independently  and 
read  Khutba  in  the  name  of  the  Khalifa 
of  Baghdad. 


Mujamul-Baldan,  p.  51, 

Bherumal,  Sindhi  Boli.  Basing  on 
Grierson  Literary  History  of  Bengali 
language,  he  has  reached  this  conclusion. 
But  there  is  information  and  evidence  that 
Sindhi  was  at  least  1500  years,  if  not 
more,  older  than  Sanskrit  of  Rigveda, 
which  was  first  known  in  the  Sub- 
continent around  1100-1000  B.C.  Sindhi 
translation  of  the  Holy  Quran  and  other 
religious  works  were  done  in  the  9th 
century.  See  entry  years  883-84  and 
883-87. 

Toussant,  p.  57. 

■  . 
Masudi,  Vol.  II,  p.  80. 

S.S.  Nadvi,  AAHKT,  pp.  306-309;  quoting 
Ibn  Rusta. 

Banu  Munbah  took  over  from  Amanis, 
who  had  established  themselves  in  Multan, 
soon    after    recall    of    Muhammad    bin 

Qasim  as  independent  rulers. 

_ 

Ibn  Rusta  (Leiden),  p.  138  (1892  edition). 
This  statement  is  confirmed  by  Masudi 
who^  saw  descendants  of  Samaah  Bin 
Loi  Bin  Ghalib  ruling  Multan  10  years 
later.  The  ruler  then  was  Abu  Al-Lubab 
Bin    Asad    Qarshi        Saami.       Muruju- 


192 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Multan  and  its  temple  was  also  desert- 
ed. 

906-07  A.D.— 294  A.H.  : 

Possible  date  of  renovation  of  the 
mosque  at  Debal  by  Amir  Muhammad 
Bin  Abdu  (?),  as  per  inscription,  which 
so  far  is  the  earliest  in  Sind. 

At  the  gate  of  mosque  and  elsewhere 
'lingums'  have  been  buried  to  be  trodden 
by  the  Muslims  on  way  to  the  mosque. 
Lingum  worship  seems  to  be  popular 
before  conquest  of  Sind. 

900-10  A.D.— 297  A.H.  : 

The  Fatmid  Caliphate  established  by 
Ubedullah  Bin  Muhammad  Al-Habib 
at  Africa  in  competition  with  the  Persian 
dominated  Abbasid  Caliphate  of 
Baghdad.  Its  head-quarter  was  shifted 
to  Cairo  in  361  A.H.  (971-72  AD). 

912-13  A.D.— 300  A.H.  : 

Buzrig  Bin  Shaharyar,  a  ship  owner, 
who  plied  vessels  from  Persian  Gulf  to 
China  and  Japan  via  the  Indian  coasts 
wrote  his  book  Aja'ibul  Hind  or  Won- 
ders of  India.  It  has  references  on 
Sind. 

He  gives  the  name  of  Habari  ruler  of 
Sind. 

912-13  A.D.-  300  A.H.  : 

Abdullah  Bin  Umar  Habari,  the  second 
independent  ruler  of  Sind  died  at  Man- 
sura  and  his  son  Umar  Bin  Abdullah 
became  the  next  ruler  of  Sind. 
In  303  A.H.  (915-16  A.D.),  Masudi 
found  Umar  Bin  Abdullah  ruling  Man-  % 

sura  and  the  whole  of  Sind  from  A  lore 
to  the  sea.  The  revenue  of  Sind  was  10 
lac  dirhams. 


Zahab  (Paris),    Vol.  I,  pp.  375-76. 
The  date  of  birth  and  death  of  Ibn  Rusta 
is  not  known. 


F.  A.  Khan,  Bhanbhore,  1963,  p.  16.  The 
mosque  was  originally  completed  by 
727-28  A.D. 

The  origin  of  Lingum  worship  goes  back, 
to  Mohenjo-daro,  wherefrom  such 
objects  have  been  un-earthed.  Lingum 
worship  was  practised  at  the  tombs  of 
some  Muslim  saints  by  the  Hindus. 


The  original  text  with  French  translation 
was  printed  from  Leiden  in  1886.  Cairo 
edition  was  published  in  1908.  The  date  of 
birth  and  death  of  the  author  is  not 
known.  A  French  translation  by  J.  Sau- 
vaght   was  published  in  1959.  There  is  a 

Wew  edition  from  Damascus  in  1954. 
A  Russian    translation  by  Eibrich,  R.  I. 
was  published  in  1959. 

Masudi,  Murujul-Zahab,  Vol.  I,  pp.   377- 

142. 

Kitabul-Ikhraj  (Leiden),  p.  242. 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 


V 


^ 

r 


912-13  A.D.— 300  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Persian  born  Abu-Al-Qasim 
Ubaidullah  Bin  Abdullah  Bin  Khurdadba, 
the  author  of  Kitab-Al-Masalik  Wal 
Mamalik  (Book  of  Roads  and  Kingdoms) 
describes  Multan,  Mansura,  Makran, 
Debal,  Nerun,  Alore,  etc.  He  also 
describes  agricultural  products;  truits 
and  distances  between  places. 

912-13  A.D.— 300  A.H.  or  soon 
afterwards: 

Abdullah  bin  Umer  Habari,  the  second 
independent  ruler  of  that  dynasty 
died  at  Mansura  and  his  son  Umer  bin 
Abdullah  became  the  nexl  *  ruler 
of  Sind. 

912-13  A.D.     303  A.H.  : 

Umer  Bin  Abdullah  Bin  Umer  Bin 
Abdul  Aziz  Habari  ruled  Mansura.  The 
languages  spoken  at  Mansura  were 
Sindhi  and  Arabic. 

915-16  A.D.— 303  A.H. 

Abdul  Hassan  Ali  known  as  Masudi, 
a  geographer,  visited  Mansura  finding 
whole  Sind  from  the  sea  to  the  north 
of  Alore  under  the  suzerainty  of  Umer 
Bin  Abdullah  who  ruled  with  pomp  and 
dignity  and  there  was  general  peace.  He 
also  found  judicial  matters  conducted  by 
the  Chief  Qazi  of  Mansura.  The  latter 
was  from  the  family  of  Abu  Shorab 
who  had  died  in  283  A.H.  He  visited 
Multan  and  has  described  it.  This  geo- 
grapher spent  25  years  in  travels  and 
visited  Iraq,  Syria,  Armenia,  Byzantine 
Empire,  Africa,  Sudan,  China,  India,  etc. 
His  "Muruj-ul-Zahab"  or  "Meadows 
of  Gold"  is  an  Encyclopaedia  of  know* 


The  text  has  been  published  from  Leiden, 
1889  A.D. 


Ibn  Haukal,  Muruj-ul-Zahab. 

Masudi,  Vol.  I,  pp.  377—340  (Paris 
edition)  and  also,  Baghdad  edition,  Vol. 
I,  p.  129. 


Text  was  published  from  Iraq  in  1 238  A.D. 
An  earlier  edition  was  issued  from  Paris 
in  1871  A.D.  Masudi,  Muruj-ul-Zahab 
(Paris),  pp.  372,  389,  376  etc. 
English  translation  by  Sprenger,  London, 
1807  and  1841.  The  number  of  villages 
in  Sind  is  complete  exaggeration,  but  all 
the  same  it  reflects  on  high  stage  of 
agricultural  and  irrigational  development. 
From  the  description  it  is  also  clear  that 
Chach's  Sind  of  644  A.D.,  was  now  divid- 
ed in  six  principalities  namely: 
1 .  Mansura,  consisting  of  present  Sind, 
Lasbela,  parts  of  Bahawalpur  Divi- 
sion, ruled  by  Umer  Bin  Abdullah 


Habari. 


194 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


ledge.  He  visited  Sind  in  915-16  A.D. 
and  wrote  his  book  in  943-44  A.D.  in  9 
volumes.  It  has  been  published  many 
times  from  Cairo  and  Paris.  At  Multan 
he  found  Abu-al-Lubab  Manbah  Bin 
Asad  Qarshi  Saami,  descendant  of 
Samaah  Bin  Loi,  ruling.  Mansura  was 
in  constant  war  with  the  Meds  (a  race 
of  Sind),  and  other  tribes  on  the  front- 
iers of  Sind.  He  found  Mansura  a 
strong  kingdom  in  which  the  common 
language  was  Sindhi.  Khutba  was 
still  read  in  the  name  of  the  Abbasid 
Khalifa.  Masudi  describes  Budh  coun- 
try lying  between  Makran,  Mansura 
and  Multan  having  capital  at  Gahdava. 
Budh  approximates  present  Jacobabad, 
Sibi  and  Kachhi  Districts.  There  were 
3  lac  villages  in  Sind  (Mansura  terri- 
tories). Majority  of  Jats  had  become 
Muslims,  but  not  the  Meds. 

916  A.D.  : 

Birth  of  Abu  Zaid  Hassan  of  Siref  an 
Arab   who  compiled  the  text   geogra- 
phical   work    Silsilatul-Tawarikh     of 
Suleman  Merchant  with  additions  by 
him  in  951  A.D. 

920  A.D.— 976  Sambat  :• 

Birth  ofLakoFuIani  from  Ful  Sammars 
marriage  with  Rabari,  a  gipsy  girl  of 
great  beauty  and  remarkable  intelli- 
gence. In  his  manhood  he  quarrelled 
with  his  father  and  left  Sind  forCutch  to 
seek  shelter  with  Chawra  ruler  of 
Anahilapataka  and  gained  fame  as  a 
gallant  soldier  and  astute  politician. 

922-23  A.D.— 310  A.H.  : 

Tabri,  author  of  Tarikh  Al-Tabri  or 
Kitab  Akhbar    Al-Rusul    wal-Muluk. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Multan,  with  capital  at  Jindor  ruled 
by  descendants  of  Samaah  Bin  Loi 
named  Abul-Luhbab  Munbah   Bin 
Asad  Qarshi. 

Makran  with  capital  at    Kej   ruled 
by  Isa  Bin  Ma'adan. 
Budhia,    with   capital    at    Gandava, 
ruled  by  a  Hindu  Raja. 
Turan  with  capital  at  Kaikan  (Khuz- 

dar),  ruled  by  Mughir  Bin  Ahmad. 
Indus  Delta  ruled   by  Jat  and  Med 
tribes,  who  owed  allegiance  to  none. 


■ 


Williams,  pp.  75-7&. 


. 


The  text  has  been  published  from  Leiden 
in  twelve  and  half  volumes.     French  and 


< 


; 


^ 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 


< — 


died.  The  history  .ends  upto  302  A. H. 
(915  A.D.).  He  was  born  in  Tabristan 
(Tran)  in  833  A.D. 

925-926  A.D.— 213  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Ibn  Hi  sham,  the  author  of 
Sirat-al-Nabaviyah  at  Fustat.  This  is 
a  recension  oflbnlshaq's  work  Kitab 
Sirat-al-Rasul  and  gives  information 
on  Mansura  as  well  as  background  of 
Banu  Asad  tribe. 

935-1020  A.D.  : 

Firdausi  Mansur  (?)  Abul  Qasim, 
the  poet  and  composer  of  Shahnama 
lived  then. 

935-36  A.D.  : 

Three  sects  of  Shias  developed.  They 
were  known  as  Qarmatis,  Jsmailis  and 
Mulhids.  Ismailis  first  appeared  in  Africa 
in  296  A.H.  (908-09  A.D.)  and  came  to 
Egypt  in  356  A.H.  (666-77  A.D.).  Hassan 
Bin  Sabah's  group  started  in  Khorasan 
in  483  A.H.  (1090-91  A.D.).  In  361 
A.H.  (971-72  A.D.)  Fatmids  estab- 
lished, in  Egypt.  Fatmid  Dais  came  to 
Sind,  to  preach  as  well  as  to  organise 
rebellion  against  Sunnite  Abbasids  in 
270    AH.  (883A-H.). 

940-996.  A.D.  : 

Rule  of  Mularaja  Chaulakaya  a 
Solan ki  Prince. 

He  attacked  and  killed  Samant  Sing 
Chawra  King  of  Anihilapataka,  his 
own  uncle  and  adopted  father.  At  that 
time  Lakho  Fulani  Samma  was  at  the 
Chawra  court,  who  were  over-lords  of 
his  father.  This  may  have  caused  enemity 
between  Mularaja  and  Lakho  Fulani 
(Samma).  but  latter  finally  must   have 


Urdu  translations  are  available. 


. 


Text  has  been  published  from  Cairo  in 
4  volumes  in  1335  A.H. 


- 

■ 

■ 
; 

- 


196 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


accepted  to  become  former's  Vassal, 
at  least  nominally. 

Lakho  recognised  Ghao  his  half 
brnther's  son  Punvaro  as  heir  after  his 
own  death. 

During  Lakho's  rule,  Raj  Solanki  of 
Gujarat  visited  his  court  and  married 
his  sister  Rayaji  by  whom  she  had  a  son 
named  Rakaich.  In  a  court  function 
over  a  dispute  Lakho  had  Raj  Solanki 
and  his  companions  slain.  Rayaji 
committed  Sati  and  her  son  was  brought 
up  by  Lakho  and  used  as  figure  head 
for  intrigues  against  Mularaj. 

In  979  A.D.  Mularaj  in  order 
to  extendhis  territories  attacked 
Junagadh,  whose  chief  Graha  Pipu, 
was  close  fried  of  Lakha  Fulani. 
Lakho      Fulani    crossed    little   Rann. 

to  aid  his  friend  and  with  him  took 
powerful  army  of  Sindhu  Raja  whose 
kingodom  was  on  the  ocean.  Sindhu 
Raja  is  recognized  as  Samma  chief  of 
Sind  coast.  This  attempt  was  being 
made  to  secure  Anhilwada  for  his  own 
branch  of  Sammas  thereby  gaining 
control  over  the  whole  island,  but  in 
the  battle  with  Mularaja  he  was  killed 
in  Kathiawar. 

941  A.D.—330  A.H.  : 

Ibn  Faqih  Hamad  a  ni  wrote  Kitabul 
Baldan.  He  did  not  visit  Sind,  and  des- 
cribes its  products,  cities,  geography 
and  specially  the  spices,  animals  and 
fruits 

941-42  A.D.-  330  A.H.  : 

Umer  Bin  Abdullah  Habari,  ruler  of 
Sind,  died  and  was  replaced,  by  his  son 


■ 

; 


Williams,  pp.  75-78. 


■ 

- 


The  text  has  been  published  from  Leiden 
in  1885  A.D. 


This  is  an  approximate  date,  adopted  by 
Dr.  Daudpota  in  Masumi. 


5 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 

Muhammad  Bin  Abdullah  Al-Habari. 
Masudi  states  that  Muhammad  Bin 
Umer  and  Ali  Bin  Umer  became  rulers 
of  Mansura  after  Abdullah  Bin  Umer 
Al-Habari. 

He  also  states  that  the  Habari  ruler 
maintained  a  fleet  of  80  elephants  ,and 
each  elephant  was  supported  by  500 
soldiers. 

942-43  A.D.-  331  A.H.  : 

Abu-Dulf  Masar  Bin  Muhalhil  Yan- 
bui,  probably  the  first  Arab  traveller  of 
the  Sub-Continent  who  came  by  land 
via  Central  Asia,  visited  Mulran  and 
Sind.  He  describes  Hindu  temple  of 
Multan  in  great  details  in  his  travels 
called  Hudud-al-Alam. 

942-959  A.D.— 331-358  A.H.  : 

Ibn  Haukal,  a  merchant,  travelled  in 
Asia.  He  came  to  Sind  in  340  A.H. 
(951  AD.),  and  found  an  independent 
Habari  king.  The  Khutba  was  how- 
ever, read  in  the  name  of  the  Abbasid 
Khalifa  in  the  territories  of  Mansura 
(i.e.  from  Alore  to  the  sea).  He  was  the 
first  geographer  who  produced  an  ex- 
clusive map  of  Sind,  which  was  reprint- 
ed by  Elliot  and  Dowson.  He  describes 
Mansura,  Alore,  Debal,  Qandabil 
(Gandara),  Kamhil,  the  people,  etc. 
This  map  of  Sind  is  the  first  map  of  any 
province  of  the  Sub-Continent.  He 
describes  Multan,  Alore,  Nerun, 
Ka'ari,  Khuzdar,  Mansura,  Gandava, 
Kaikan,  the  rivers  of  Sind  and  the 
Punjab,    Makran,  etc.  in  great  details. 

943-44  A.D.-  332  A.H.  : 

Masudi,  a  native  of  Persia  completed 
his  travels  of  Asia,  the  Indo-Pak  Sub- 
Continent   and    the  East   Africa,  and 


197 

■ 


Muruj-ul-Zahab  (Baghdad),    Vol.  I,  p. 
142. 


Extracts  published  from  Berlin  in  1845, 
described  by  Nadvi,  S.S.  in  Arab  wa 
Hind  Ke-Taalluqat,  p.  34. 


• 

■ 

Extracts  of  his  book  Surat-ul-Ardh  in 
Elliot  and  Dowson,  Vol.  I. 
Suratul  Ardh  was  printed  from  Leiden 
in  1938  A.D.  He  saw  Chach's  Sind 
being  ruled  in  the  same  manner  as 
Masudi  saw  25  years  earlier,  i.e.  Sind 
divided  in  6  principalities  of  which  Budhia 
was  ruled  by  a  Hindu  Raja  and  the  rest 
by  same  Muslim  families  as  in  915  A.D. 
He  also  found  Arabic  and  Sindhi  being 
spoken  in  Mansura  and  Multan. 


. 

V 

The  book  was  first  translated  into  English 
in  1807  A.D.  Extracts  have  been 
translated  by  Elliot.     The  text  was  pub- 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


wrote  Muruj-ul-Zahab  or  the  Golden 
Meadows.  He  visited  Sind,  Multan 
and  other  places  and  describes  them  an.1 
names  the  rulers,  etc. 

943-44  A.D.-332  A.H.  : 

Abdul  Jafar  of  Debal  wrote  commentary 

on  the  Holy  Quran. 

Persian-wheels  and  leather  buckets  for 

irrigation  became  quite  popular  in  the 

Sub-Continent. 

950  AD.  : 

Sindhi  was  already  spoken  in  Mansura, 
Multan  and  Sind.  Another  language 
called  Varchada  Upbharnish  by  gra- 
mmarians of  later  period  was  also  used 
and  was  considered  as  the  most  corrupted 
language  and  finally  became  Siraiki  by 
about  1100A.D. 

951  A.D.-340  A.H.  : 

Abu  Ishaq  Al-Istakhri,  a  native  of  Per- 
sepolis  (Iran)  who  wrote  Kitabul-Aqalim 
and  Kitab  Masalik-Al-Mamalik  (Routes 
of  the  Countries),  the  two  treatises  on 
geography.    He  visited  Sind  and  also 
met  Ibn  Haukal  in    Sind  in   the    same 
year.    He   describes  in  details  Multan, 
Mansura,   Alore  and   Indus    and   the 
distances.    The  ruler  of    Multan  then 
was   Qarshi    (Qureshi,  a     descendant 
oPSamaah  Bin  Loi.    Khutba  was  read 
in  the  name  of  the  Abbasid  Khalifa  of 
Baghdad. 

951  A.D.  : 

Completion  of  Suleman  Merchant's 
Silsilatul-Tawarikh  by  Abu  Zaid  Hassan 
of  Siref. 


lished  from  Pans  in  1871.  Its  French 
translation  a'i»o  appeared  from  Paris. 
A  number  of  Arabic  *xts  have  been 
published  from  Cairo. 

?nd'a's   Contribution   to   the   study   of 
Haetith  literature,  by  Muhammad  Ishaque. 
p.  35. 
Epigraphia  Indica.  Yo\  XIX,  p.  182. 

Bherumal,  p.  79.  The  latter  statement  is 
incorrect.  See  entries  900-1000  A.D. 
and  915-16  A.D. 

• 

He  produced  a  map  of  Sind.  His  two 
books  namely  Kitab-ul-Aqa'im  and 
Masalik-Al-Mamalik  were  printed  in 
1839  and  1870  respective.y  from  Leiden. 
Elliot,  Vol.  I,  p.  16. 

The  dates  of  birth  and  death  of  this 
author  are  not  known. 

v 
Text  published  from  Paris  in   1818  A.D. 
Extracts  pertaining  to  the  Sub-Continent 
in  Elliot  and  Dowson,  Vol-  I. 


4 


• 


^ 


• 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  S»ND 


199 


\ 


' 


952-53  A.D.— 341  A.H.  : 

The  date  of  erections  of  Tomb  of 
Khawaja  Khizr  on  an  island  near 
Bakhar. 


954-55  A.D.— 341  A.H.  : 

Ibn  Haukal  wrote  Surat-ul-Ardh,  and 
Kitab  Al-Masalik-wal-Mamalik. 

952-975  A.D.  : 

The  reign  of  Fatmid  Khalifa  Muiz  in 
Egypt.  During  his  reign  Ibn  Al  •Hay- 
tham  was  incharge  of  Qarmati  (Ismaili) 
movement  in  Sind.  He  ultimately 
succeeded  in  establishing  his  power  in 
Multan. 

954-55  A  D.— 343  A.H.  : 

Ahmed  Ibn  Abdullah  Al  Debali,  a 
Sindhi  scholar,  died  at  Nishapur. 

957-58  A.D.— 346  A.H.  : 

Masaudi  a  Persepolian  (Iran)  geogra- 
pher, and  author  of  Muruj-ul-Zahab 
and  Al  Tanbih  Wa-Al-Ashraf,  died  in 
Egypt,  where  he  had  settled  in  345  A.H. 

964-976  A.D.  : 

K.hi-nine,  a  Chinese  pilgrim  with  300 
monks,  left  for  the  Sub-Continent  and 
stayed  12  years,  here.  His  writings  have 
been  lost  except  a  few  pages.  Buddhism 
still  existed  in  Sind  and  it  is  possible  that 
they  visited  it  too. 

966-67  A.D.— 356  A.H.  : 

Beginning  of  the  Ismaili  sect  in  Iraq 
and  the  Persian  Gulf,  and  its  movement 
to  Egypt. 


Raverty,  Notes  on  Afghanistan,  p.  676. 
This  is  also  considered  the  possible  date 
of  change  of  course  of  the  river  Indus, 
through  Bakhar  gorge.  The  date  is 
doubted  by  many  authorities.  Cousens. 

Al-Masalik  has  been  published  from 
Leiden  in  1872  and  Surat-ul-Ardh  from 
Leiden  in  1938.  The  date  of  writing  of 
the  latter  work  is  951  A.D. 


Hoi  lister,  John  Norman,  Shias  of  India. 
Ivanow,  too  has  described  Ismaili 
movement. 


Al-Samani,  pp.  137  and  138. 

The  book  is  also  known  as  Muruj-ul- 
Zahab  wa  Maadan  Al-Jawahir  (Mead- 
ows of  Gold  and  Mine  of  of  Jems).  It  was 
first  translated  into  English  by  Sprenger 
in    1841. 

Stanislas  Julian,  Introduction  to  Hieun 
Tsang's  French  translation. 


200 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF. SIND 


November  20th,  967  A.D.: 
Zil  Hij  14th,  365  A.H.  : 

Persian  born  Abu  Al  Faraj,  the  author 
of  Kitab  al-Aghani  died  at  Baghdad. 
Vol.  XVI  of  it  has  details  of  life  of  a 
Sindhi  poet  Abu  Ata-al-Sindhi. 

968-1171  A.D.  : 

The  Fatmid  Dynasty  established  in 
Egypt  (909-10  A.D.).  They  exercised  a 
great  influence  on  Sind  and  Multan, 
then  known  as  Sind. 


970-71  A.D.—360  A.H.  i 

Muhammad  Bin  Abdullah,  the  fourth 
independent  ruler  of  Sind  belonging  to 
the  local  Arab  tribe  Habari,  died  at 
Mansura,  and  his  nephew  Ali  Bin  Umer 
Al-Habari  took  over  the  kingdom. 

973-1048  A.D.  : 

Al-Beruni,  a  Persian  was  born  in  the 
suburbs  of  Khwarizm  on  the  eastern 
shores  of  the  Caspian  sea. 

973-1171  AID.  : 

Fatmid  Khalifas  rule  in  Egypt.  They 
controlled  northern  Africa,  Syria  and 
Mediterranean  islands.  During  the  same 
period  Hasan  bin  Sabah's  Nizari  group 
spread  from  Khorasan  to  Seistan,  and 
Druze  sect  of  Ismailis  developed  in 
Syria.  Druzians  are  the  followers  of  6th 
Fatmid  Khalifa  of  Egypt,  Hakim  Bin 
Amarullah  and  their  beliefs  are  cross 
between  Christianity  and  Islam.  Druze 
was  started  in  470  A.H.  (1077-78  A.D.), 
when  above  Khalifa  declared  that  he  had 
direct  talks  with  the  God.    Druze  also- 


Text  printed  from  Leiden  in  1885  in  20 
volumes. 


Ismaili  sect  was  born  in  Africa  in  297A.H. 
They  shifted  their  capital  from  Africa  to 
Cairo  in  361  A.H.  (971-72  A.D.).  This 
was  the  beginning  of  the  confflct  of 
Abbasid  and  prorFatmid  states.  It  finally 
caused  sacking  of  Multan,  Sind  and 
Khuzdar  by  Mahmud  of  Ghazni. 


Ahsan-ul-Taqaseem , 


■ 


■ 
■ 


i 


i 

J 


"*% 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 


201 


* 


.    I 


r 


developed  in  Lebanon  where  today 
they  number  about  300,000. 

973-74  A.D— 363A.H.  : 

Translator  of  Tabri's  Tarikh  Al-Rasul 
wal-Muluk  or  Tarikh-i-Tabri  into 
Persian.  Abu  All  Muhammad  Bilummi, 
Vazier  of  Mansur  Bin  Nuh  Samani  died. 

- 
976-77  A.D.— 366  A.H.  : 
Ibn     Haukal     completed     his     work 
Kitabul  Masalik  wal-Mamalik  in  con- 
nection with  his  travels  331-358  A.H. 
(943-968  A.D.).    The  book  also  called 
Ashkalul-Bilad,  is  an  account  of  his 
travels  in  India  and  Asia.    He  was  the 
first  to  have  produced  a  map  of  Sind 
and  this  was  the   first   map   of  any 
province  in  the  Sub-Continent. 
During  the  same  year  Subkatgin  sub- 
dued Khuzdar. 

977-78  AD.—3ff7  A.H.  : 

The  Habaris  still  ruled  Mansura, 
though  the  Khutba  was  read  in  the 
name  of  the  Khalifa  of  Baghdad. 

979  AD.  : 

Death  of  Ful  (a  Samma  of  Sind),  the 
ruler  of  Cutch  in  the  battle  of  Alkot 
in  Kathiawar  against  Chawras. 

982-983  A.D.—372  AH.  : 

An  unknown  geographer  wrote  Hudud- 
al-Alam  in  Arabic.  It  describes  Sind 
and  Multan  and  states  that  Banu 
Munbah  ruled  Multan. 


This  was  the  period  when  Arabic  was 
giving  its  place  to  Persian  in  the  Courts 
as  well  as  literature. 

Text  published    by  Brill,  Leiden,    1872 
A.D.  Elliot,  Vol.  I,  pp.  32  and  33. 
See  entries,  942-43;  942-959   and  954-55 
AD. 

■ 


Ibn  Asir,  Vol.  VHI,  p.  504. 
Elliot,  Vol.  I,  pp.  32-35. 


Williams,  p.  76 


. 


The  book  has  been  published  in  1352  Sh. 
from  Tehran.  Its  Urdu  translation  by 
Farooqi  has  been  published  from  India, 
under  the  title:  Islam i  Dunya  Dasween 
Sadi  Hijri  Meen. 

English  translation  by  Chauba  Ramkumar 
has  been  published  from  India. 


I 


202 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


982-83  A.D.— 372  A.H.  : 

Multan  was  captured  by  the  Qarmatis 
(Ismailis),   under  Jalam  Ibn  Shahban. 
TheKhutba  was  read  in  the  name  of 
the  Fatmid  Khalifa  of  Egypt.  The  popu- 
lation was  Shiite. 

Ismaili  Imam  Aziz  Billah  sent  Jalam 
with  troops  to  capture  Sind  and  Multan. 
He  most  probably  came  via  Khurasan, 
an  Islamili  strong-hold  and  destroyed 
the  temple  of  Multan. 

985-88  A.D.— 375  A.H.  : 

The  approximate  date  of  the  death  of 
Ali  Bin  Umer  Al-Habari,  and  succession 
of  his  son  as  the  next  ruler. 

985  A.D. : 

A  sect  known  as  Mulhida,   after  their 
overthrow  from   Iraq,  Bahrein  and  Al- 
Hasan,  came  to  Sind  in  large  numbers. 

985  AD.: 

On  the  death  of  Punvro  the  Samma, 
Ahivanraj  Chawra,  the  grandson  of 
Samant  Sing  destroyed  the  Cutchi  capi- 
tal town  Padhragah  to  break  the  power 
of  Sindhi  Sammas  settled  in  Cutch,  and 
established  an  independent  principality 
with  the  help  of  his  Chawra  kinsfolk.  In 
this  action  he  was  so  successful  that  the 
rule  of  first  Samma  dynasty  of  Cutch 
disappeared  entirely,  until  the  establish- 
ment of  the  second  Samma  Dynasty  130 


years  later. 


985-86  A.D.— 375  A.H.  : 

Bashari  Muqaddisi,who  had  earlier  visit- 
ed Sind  in  350  A.H.  (961-62  A.D.),  wrote 


Beruni's  India,  p.  56.  Muqaddisi,  p.  485, 
corroborates  this  statement  but  in  the 
year  375  A.H.  The  Khutba  was  read 
in  the  name  of  the  Fatmid  Khalifa  of 
Egypt,  p.  485.  Also  see  entry,  985-86  A.D. 
Ibn  Haukal  who  had  visited  Multan  only 
8  years  earlier  does  not  mention  Karmati 
rule.  The  Karmatis  must  have  establish- 
ed themselves  between  367  and  375  A.H. 
or  977-986  A.D. 

Tabqat-i-Nasiri  (Calcutta),  p.  8.  Jalam 
also  closed  down  the  Mosque  built  by 
Muhammad  Bin  Qasim,  as  is  also  re- 
ported in  "India"  of  Al-Beruni. 

g 
Siddiq  Namah  by  Brigadier  Nazir  Ali  Shah- 

Ahsan  ul-Taqaseem  Fi  Ma'arfat  Al-Aqalim* 
of  Muqaddisi  Bashari,  pp.  485  &  479-485. 


i 

1 


1 


1 


fer 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 


203 


? 


Ahsau-ul-Taqaseem  Fi  Ma'arfat  Al- 
Aqalim.  According  to  him  the  Habaris 
ruled  Sind  independently.  They  were  dis- 
ciples of  Abu  Daud  Tahir  Muhadis,  but 
the  Shiite  influence  which  had  reached 
via  Baluchistan  had  also  spread  in  Sind 
considerably.  Then  Khutba  was  still 
read  in  the  name  of  the  Khalifa  of  Bagh- 
dad, though  sometimes  it  was  also  read 
in  the  name  of  Azdul-Daula,  the  Buwahid 
Prince  of  Shiraz.  Muqaddisi  had  also  met 
the  envoy  of  Sind  at  Shiraz,  showing 
the  Shia  influence.  The  city  of  Mansura 
as  seen  by  him,  approximately  1  mile 
long  and  2  miles  wide  was  surrounded 
by  the  river  and  had  a  fort  having  4 
gates.  It  was  the  capital  city  of  the 
country. 

Ali  Bin  Umer  Habari,  the  fifth  ruler 
of  that  dynasty  died  at  Mansura 
during  that  year.  He  was  replaced  by 
his  son,  whose  name  has  not  been  ascer- 
tained. 

At  Multan  the  Khutba  was  read  in  the 
name  of  the  Fatmid  Khalifa  of  Egypt, 
showing  that  they  had  turned  Qarmatis. 
Multan  became  Fatmid  between  366 
and  375  A.H.  The  Ismailis  established 
power  in  Egypt  in  358  A.H. 


987-88  AD.- -377  A.H.: 

Muhammad  Bin  Ishaque  also  known 
as  Ibn  Nadeem  was  a  Librarian  at 
Baghdad  and  wrote  his  book  Al-Fihrist. 
He  states  that  Sindhis  have  many  langu- 
ages (dialects),  religions  and  100  differ- 
ent alphabets.  He  also  describes 
numerical  systems.  He  died  at  Bagh- 
dad in  375  A.H.  (985-86  A.D.). 


This  description  tallies  with  the  present 

ruins  of  Bahmanabad. 

Mujamul   Baldan,    Vol.      VIII,   p.    201 

(Cairo  edition). 

Bashari  found  Chach's  Sind  divided  in  5 

principalities,  somewhat  different     from 

what    Masudi     and   Ibn     Haukal    saw 

in  915  and  942  A.D.  respectively. 

1.  Multan  was  ruled  by  a  Fatmid  ruler. 

2.  Mansura  was  ruled  by  Habaris  and 
was  on  way  to  switching  over  from 
Sunnism  to  Fatmid  Ismailism. 

3.  Budhia  was  still  ruled  by  a  Hindu 
Raja. 

4.  Makran  had  turned  Fatmid  and  had 
annexed  Las  Bela. 

5.  Khuzdar,  capital  of  Turan  was  ruled 
by  an  independent  Arab  tribe. 

6.  Indus  Delta  is  not  mentioned. 

His  book  was  printed  from  Leiden 
in  1886  A.D.  and  the  last 
chapter  of  it  pertains  to  Sind.  He 
describes  Vahand,  Mansura,  Multan, 
Turan  etc.  He  describes  the  Idol 
at  Multan,  which  Muslims  always  threat- 
ened to  destroy  in  case  of  threat  of 
attack  from  neighbouring  Hindu  rulers. 
This  is  confirmed  by  Istakhri  as  well  as 
Yaqoobi. 

The  text  was  printed  from  Leiden  in 
1877  and  1900A.D. 

Al-Fihrist  edited  by  Fluedgel,  Leipzig, 
1871.  The  text  was  also  published 
from  Cairo  in  1348  A.H.  (1930-31  A.D.). 
This  large  number  of  alphabets  was 
used  by  different  Hindu  businessmen 
until  1947  and  even  to-day  their  alphabets 
differv  from  district  to  district.  These 
are  used  for  account  purposes  only. 
Captain  Stack  has  described  some  such 
alphabets. 


204 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


995  A.D.— 385  A.H.: 

Death  of  Ibn  Nadeem. 


996  AD.: 

Nagarparkar  and  Amarkot  then,  were 
under  the  possession  of  Raja  of 
Marwar. 

996-1021  A.D.—386-411  A.H.  : 

Birth  of  Druze,  a  Shia  sect,  close  to 
Israailis  and  Mulhid  or  Batinia  sect. 

997-98  A.D.— 387  A.H.: 

Sultan  Subaktgin  died  and    Mahmood 
of  Ghazni  succeeded  him. 

1000-1100  A.D.: 

Ramayana  translated  into  Sindhi 
language. 


Thar  Meen  Meeran  Ja  Qilla  by  Sarup- 
chand  'Shad',  Mihran,  No.  2,  1959,  pp. 
139-150,  Nos.  1    and  2,    1958,    pp.  140- 
162. 


1000  A.D.: 

The  Eastern  Branch  of  the  Indus  was 
still  discharging  into  Koree  Creek 
since  519  B.C.  Cutch  was  an  island 
with  close  connection  with  Sind. 

1000  A.D.  : 

Solanki  Chaulkayas  ruled  Cutch. 

1000  A.D.— -soon  afterwards: 

Little  Rann  south  of  Cutch  dried  up 
cutting  of  Kathiawar  from  Cutch  due 
to  marshy  land.  Water  cf  Hakra  re- 
duced. The  Eastern  Branch  of  river 
Indus  also  took  less  supplies  of  water 
resulting  into  difficulties  of  navigation 
of  Rann  of  Cutch.  The  situation  con- 
tinued in  the  11th  and  12th  century 
when  river  Indus  desei ted  its  eastern 
bed  and  shifted  westwards. 


HCIP,  Vol.  V. 

Bherumal,  p.  72,  reports  that  during 
this  century  Sindhi  and  Hindi  separated 
from  Prakrit.  This  statemont  is  wrong. 
The  Holy  Quran  and  other  books  were 
translated  into  Sindhi  in  the  ninth 
century. 

■ 


HABARI  DYNASTY  OF  SIND 


205 


- 


\ 


Rann  then  was  getting  water  from  the 
sea  and  Luni  river. 

1000-1300  A.D.: 

From  750  A.D.  to  1000  A.D.  Western 
or  Sauraseni  Apabhramsa  came  in  use, 
from  which  between  1000  A.D.  to  1300 
A.D.  Punjabi,  Sindhi,  Bengali  and  all 
other  Vernaculars  of  Northern  India 
and  also  Marhati  evolved. 

1003  A.D.  : 

Mahmud  ofGhazni  took  by  assault 
Bhatia,  a  very  strong  place  that  offered 
obstinate  resistance  and  in  which  its 
king  Raja  Biji  Rai  was  killed. " 
The  reason  for  assault  on  Bhatia  was 
that  Biji  Rai  of  Bhatia,  Rajpal  of  Lahore 
and  Daud  of  Multan  had  formed  a  trio 
against  Mahmud  and  all  the  three  had 
to  be  reduced. 

1005  A.D.  (Winter)— 396  A.H.: 

To  avenge  plundering  of  his  baggage  in 
Summer  1005  A.D.  Mahmud  of  Ghazni 
marched  against  Abdul-Fath  Daud, 
ruler  of  Multan.  Daud  offered  a  yearly 
tribute  of  2,00,000  golden  dirhams  and 
abjuration  of  Ismaili  faith.  The  terms 
were  accepted  due  to  invasion  of  Turks 
of  Transoxiana  by  Abdul  Hussain  of 
Bokhara,  which  necessitated  Mahmud's 
early  return. 

Mahmud  also  exacted  2  million  dir- 
hams from  the  population  of  Multan  by 
force. 


1009-10  A.D.—400  A.H.  : 

Al-Beruni  during  his  visit  to  Multan 
found  the  Hindu  temple  non-existing. 


HCIP,  Vol.  V,  p.  351. 

This  statement  which  is  based  on  Hem- 

chandra  (1088-1172  A.D.)  is     incorrect 

because      Sindhi     was   a     spoken    and 

written  language    before  1000  A.D.    as 

reported    by    Arab     geographers     and 

travellers. 

Firishta  (Bombay),  Vol.  I,  p.  33. 
Firishta  (Naval  Kishore),  Vol.  I,  p.  36. 
Bhatia  has  beon  recognized  as  Bhatinda, 
a  place  midway  between  Sind  and  Multan, 
now  in  Indian  Republic. 
S.  S.  Nadvi,  AAHKT,  pp.  217-32. 


Zainul-Akhbar,  pp.  65-66  and  70. 

Firishta  (Naval  Kishore),  Vol.  I,  pp.  24-25. 

Utbi  states  that  annual  tribute  fixed  was 

2  crore  dirhams  and  not  2  lac  dirhams 

as  is  reported  by  Gardaizi.    Tuhfat-ul- 

Kiram     reports    it     as    one     hundred 

thousand  dirhams. 

The  main  reason  for  attacking  Multan 

was  the  formation  of   Anangpal-Bajra- 

Daud  trio  against    Mahmud  since  1002 

A.D. 

It  was  his  first  expedition  against  Multan. 

Reason  given  for  it  was  that  its  ruler  and 

population    had    become    Qarmatis    or 

Ismailis.     S.    S.     Nadvi,  AAHKT,    pp. 

217-231. 
v 

Since  Bashari  Muqaddisi  saw  it  in  315 

A.H.  (985-86  A.D.),  it  may  have  been 

destroyed  by  Mahmud  of  Ghazni. 


206 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S1ND 


1009-10  A.D.— 400  A.H.  : 

Completion  of  Shah  Nama  by  Firdausi 
at  the  age  of  80  years.  The  work  must 
have  started  in  367  A.H.  (977-78  A.D.). 
This  puts  his  birth  date  around  322 
A.H.  (934  A.D.)  and  beginning  of  Shah- 
nama  at  the  age  of  45  years.  He  reach- 
ed the  court  of  Mahmud  of  Ghazni  in 
397  A.H.  (1006-07  A.D.)  and  in  next 
3  years  revised  the  work.  Its  first 
edition  was  dedicated  to  Amin  Ahmed 
Bin  Abi  Bakar  Khan  Lanjan  in 
389  A.H.   (999  A.D.). 

1010-11  A.D.-«401  A.H.: 

In  spite  of  the  treaty  of  1005  A.D. 
Mahmud  of  Ghazni  made  a  second 
expedition  against  the  Ismailis  of 
Multan  in  which  he  arrested  the  Qarmati 
ruler  of  Multan  named  Abdul  Fateh 
Daud.  He  was  released  on  denounc- 
ing of  the  Ismaili  faith  and  acceptance 
of  Sunnism. 

Masumi  states  that  Mahmud  deputed 
General  Abdul  Razaq  to  subdue  Sind, 
but  this  is  mis-statement  as  none  of  the 
generals  or  Vaziers  of  Mahmud  was 
named  Abdul  Razaq. 


Firishta,  Vol.  I,  pp.  24-27.  Zainul-Akhbar 
(Naval  Kishore),  pp.  67-68.  Nadvi 
thinks  that  Abdul  Zafar  Fateh  Daud  and 
his  predecessor  had  joined  the  Hindu 
rulers  of  Bhatia  and  Punjab  against 
Subkatgin,  Alaptagin  and  Mahmud 
and,  therefore,  subjugation  of  Multan 
had  become  a  necessity.  AAHRT, 
pp.  217-231. 
Masumi,  p.  32. 
Mira'at-i-Masudi   confirms  this. 

■ 
■ 


v 


I! 


' 


I 


■ 


- 


BEGINNING  OF  SOOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


1010-1011  A.D.— 401  A.H.  : 

Last  Habari  ruler,  the  son  of  Ali  Bin 
Umer,  the  fifth  Habari  king  of  Sind, 
died  at  Mansura.  Khafif  became  next 
ruler.  (It  seems  that  Khafif  Soomro  the 
founder  of  Soomro  Dynasty  took  over 
the  kingdom  peacefully). 

• 


Soomra  Dynasty— 1011-1351  A.D.  : 

The  Soomras  originally  were  a  local 
Hindu  tribe  who  had  accepted  Islam 
soon  after  the  Arab  conquest  of  Sind. 
Even  after  conversion  they  retained  their 
old  Hindu  customs. 

Ibn  Batuta  saw  them  settled  on  the 
banks  of  the  Indus  and  in  the  big  beauti- 
ful cities  of  Janani  and.Sehwan.  Masumi 
who  is  quite  un-reliable  on  the  Soomra 
and  Samma  periods,  states  that  they  had 
intermarried  with  local  Arab  land- 
owners and  thus  had  acquired  groat 
influence  and  power. 

Daudpota  on  the  authority  of  Tarikh- 
i-Mubarak  Shahi,  calculates  Janani  to 
be  three  miles  south  of  Sehwan  towards 
Thatta.  This  city  must  have  been  ero- 
ded by  the  river  Indus. 

Syed  Suleman  Nadvi  quoting  Druze 
instance  of  425  A.H.  (1033  A.D.)  thinks 


Firishta  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  pp.  313-14. 
Farrukhi,  p.  74,  mentions  the  name, 
but  does  not  mention  whether  Khafif  was 
a  Soomro.  It  appears  that  on  the  fall  of 
Multan  and  massacre  of  its  population 
by  Mahmud  of  Ghazni,  the  people  mig- 
rated to  Mansura  and  helped  Khafif  in 
overthrowing  Habaris.  Mira'at-i-Masudi 
clearly  states  that  on  the  fall  of  Multan, 
many  courtiers  moved  to  Uch.  Zainul- 
Akhbar  (Tehran),  p.  132.  Asir,  Vol.  II, 
p.  243. 

Rehla,  Vol.  II,  pp.  4-6. 

« 

Masumi,  p.  289. 
Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  43. 

AAHKT,  pp.  325-26. 


208 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


that  they  were  Qarmatis.  His  version 
is  incorrect  as  Muqtana  of  Syria  had 
been  inviting  Shaikh  Ibn  Soomar,  Raja 
Bal  of  Multan,  to  accept  Druzism.  It 
is,  therefore,  apparent  that  they  belong- 
ed to  the  Ismaili  sect  organized  -by  the 
Fatmid  Khalifas  of  Egypt,  Imam  Zahir 
and  Mustansir.  The  Qarmati  dissenti- 
ent movement  or  the  early  Ismaili  sect 
had  never  gained  ground  in  Sind,  but 
somehow  most  of  the  early  Sunni 
writers  considered  Ismailis  as  Qarmatis. 

The  Soomras  practised  a  lot  of  Hindu 
customs  in  1471  A.D.,  when  Mahmud 
of  Begra  tried  to  suppress  them  and 
convert  them  to  Islam  i.e.  Sunnism. 
Ibn  Batuta  states  that  they  were 
of  Arab  stock  and  descendants  of  Hajjaj 
Bin  Yousif  Al-Thaqafi.  This  is  incor- 
rect. 

The  early  Soomra  rulers  were  'Fatmid' 
Ismailis.    They    owed    allegiance    to 
Fatmid  Khalifas  of  Cairo,  sent  them 
presents  and  read  their  name  in  the 
Friday  Khutba.     On  the  death  of  Imam 
Mustansir  at  Cairo  in  487  A.H.  (1094 
A.D.),  the  Fatmid  Dawa  had  been  divid- 
ed    in  two    sections.    The    first  one 
Mustalian  Dawa  had  headquarters  at 
Yaman  in  the  beginning,    and  later  on 
in  Gujrat;  the  other  one  called  Nizari 
Ismaili  Dawa  had  headquarters  at  Al- 
mut  in  Persia  under  Hasan  bin  Sabbah 
and  it  supported  the  cause  of  Imam 
Nizar  bin  Mustansir  and  his  descend- 
ants.   The  Soomras  drifted  away  from 
these  two  rival   Dawas.    Ismailis  got 
great  set  back  between  1171-1187  A.D., 
starting  with  the  fall  of  their  Caliphate 
in  Cario  at  the  hands  of  Sultan  Salah- 
uddin  Ayubi,  then  in  Iraq  at  the  hands 


Mira'at-i-Ahmedi,  English  translation,  by 
Syed  Nawab  Ali  and  C.N.  Seddon, 
Baroda,  1924. 


Abbas,  H.  Al-Hamdani,  pp.  15-16. 
Al-Beruni  writing     in  about  424  A.H. 
(1032  A.D.)  states  that  Qarmati  (Tsmaili) 
sect  arose  100  years  before  his  times  i.e. 
around  930  A.D. 


™ 


J 


J 


BEGINNING  OF  SOOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


[ 


of  Saljuqi  Turks,  and  in  Multan  by 
Mohammad  Ghori's  campaigns. 
According  to  Hamdani,  Yamanite  or 
Gujarati  Dawa  exercised  heavy  Arab 
influence,  which  is  apparent  in  the 
names  of  people  as  well  as  Arabic  litera- 
ture. The  Soomras  in  general  had 
local  Sindhi  names  and  therefore  they 
could  not  have  originally  belonged  to 
this  sect  of  Ismailis.  The  Ismailis  of 
Gujarat  who  attached  themselves  to 
Yamanite  and  Gujarati  Dawa  are 
known  as  Bohris. 

The  Nizari  sect  was  active  in  the  North- 
ern Sub-Continent.  Pir  Shams  "Sabz- 
wari,  looking  like  a  Jogi,  came  to 
Multan,  where  he  got  considerable  fol- 
lowing. He  may  have  b^3n  active  in 
Sind,  but  as  he  came  during  the  time  of 
Imam  Qasim  Shah  1310-1369  A.D.  and 
in  the  last  days  of  the  Soomra  rule,  it 
becomesdoubtful  if  they  could  be  Nizari 
Ismailis  too.  Pir  Sadruddin  who  died 
near  Uch  in  876  A.H./1471  A.D.  was 
also  a  Nizari  missionary  and  there  is 
evidence  that  he  exercised  influence  in 
Sind.  Nizaris  got  set  back  in  Iraq  when 
Halaku's  forces  in  the  mid  13th  century 
destroyed  their  strong-hold  in  Alburz 
mountains. 

Mir  Masum  basing  on  hearsay,  con- 
siders the  Soomras  of  Hindu  origin. 
Tarikh-i-Tahiri  clearly  mentions  that 
the  Soomras  were  of  Hindu  origin,  but 
all  the  same  they  ate  buffalo  meat.  Mun- 
takbab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Mohammad 
Yousif  agrees  with  Masumi  but  gives 
some  additional  names  of  their  rulers 
and  some  of  these  appear  to  be  Muslim 
names.  Tuhfat-ul-Kiram's  statement 
that  they  were  from  the  Arab  stock  of 
Samira  and  came  to  Sind  in  8th  century 


. 


- 


Masumi,  pp.  31-33. 
Tuhfat-ul-Kiram,  pp.  67-68. 
Tahiri,  pp.  32-35. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,Vol.  II,  pp.  512,  quoting 
Bahadur-Shahi. 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  260-262, 
has  given  word  by  word  the  same  des- 
cription of  the  Soomras  as    by  Masumi. 


210 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


A.D.  is  incorrect.  Tarikh-i-Tabqat-i- 
Bahadur  Shahi  states  that  they  were  des- 
cendants of  Tamim  Ansari.  This  is  also 
a  mis-statement. 

TheSindhi  historians  are  also  largely  unre-. 
liable  on  the  Soomra  period  of  the  history 
of  Sind.    All  of  these  were  written  in 
the  17jh  century  except  Tuhfat-ul-Kiram 
which  was  written  in  18th  century.  Their 
information  is  based  on  hearsay  and 
folk-lore  rather  than  on  any  earlier  writ- 
ings.   The   ballads   based   on   Dodo- 
Chanesar  conflict  and  Allauddin  Khilji's 
intervention  are  considered  a  true  his- 
tory by  Dr.  Daudpota.      Dr.   Balooh 
also  considers  all  ballads  and  folk-lore 
of  Samma-Soomra  period  a   true  his- 
tory.     Dodo-Chanesar  folk-lores  are 
eulogies  of  the  same  genre  as  those  of 
Gujarati  and  Rajput  works  of  16th 
century.   The  latter  works  too  describe 
the  valiant  fight  put  up  by    Kanhan- 
dev  of  Jalor  against  Allauddin.   Ham- 
mir  Raso  describes  a  similar  story  of 
Hammir  of  Ranthombore's  resistance 
to  Allauddin.  Mandalik  Karaya  gives 
another  similar  story  ot  resistance  offer- 
ed  by   Raja    Mandalik  ot    Junagadh 
against  Sultan  Mahmud  of  Begra  in  the 
15ta  century.  Even  the  Cutchi  Charans 
sing  ballads  about  the  rescuing  of  Royal 
ladies    of   Soomras    from  Allauddin's 
forces.  Such  stories  have  to  be  taken 
more  as  folk-lore  than  historic  data. 

The  Soomra  Dynasty  started  with  a 
definite  and  rigid  law  ot  succession,  un- 
like the  contemporary  Ghazni  and 
Delhi  Sultanates  which  always  faced 
trouble  and  where  sword  was  the  natural 
method  of  deciding  the  right  of  succes- 
sion.   The  Soomra  rule,  therefore  con- 


Dr.  U.  M.  Dandpota.  Dark  Period  in 
the  History  of  Sind,  Pakistan  Historical 

Record  and  Archives  Commission,  1954 

and  1957  A.D. 

Baloch,  Dr.  N.  A.,  Sindhi  Lok    Adab, 

40  volumes.  Sindhi  Adabi  Board, 
Hyderabad     (Sind).     Panhwar      M.H., 

'Source  Material  on  Sind',  pp.  436-437. ' 


Firishta,  pp.  609,  610  and  613,  accepts 

similar  views  as  Ibn  Batuta. 

Folio  ving  contemporary  Sultans  of  Delhi 

were  remoyed  by  force: 

Aram    Shah,    1210    A.D. 

Rukunuddin  Ferozshah,  1235-1236  A.D. 

Razia  Sultana,  1236-39  A.D. 


BBGINNING  OF  SOOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


211 


? 


tinued  uninterrupted  for  about  350  years 
and  their  territories  were  never  annexed 
though  they  acted  as  the  vassals  of  Delhi 
for  some  time. 

1011-12  A.D.— 402  A.H.  : 

Mahmud's  third  expedition  against 
Multan,  in  which  Abul  Fateh  Daud  Bin 
Nasir,  the  ruler  was  arrested  and  impri- 
soned in  the  Fort  of  Ghaur  (Ghorak), 
where  he  died.  The  Qarmatis  were 
severely  punished.  The  reason  given  was 
that  they  had  again  turned  Qarmatis, 
but  the  actual  reason  was  the  Anangpal- 
Bajra-Daud  trio. 

Mahmud  re-opened  Mohammad  Bin 
Qasim's  mosque  and  closed  down 
Jalam  Bin  Shaban's  mosque. 

1012-13  A.D.— 403  A.H.  : 

On  hearing  of  the  fall  of  the  pro-Fatmid 
(the  Qarmatis)  kingdom  of  Multan  at 
the  hands  of  Mahmud,  Hakim  Abu 
Ali  Mansur,  the  Fatmid  Khalifa  of 
Egypt,  sent  an  envoy  to  Mahmud  of 
Ghazni.  The  latter  considering  him 
as  an  impostor  had  him  arrested  and 
killed. 

1019-20  A.D.—410  A.H.  : 

Al-Beruni  visited  northern  India.  His 
Kitab-ul-Hind  (Sachau,  Al-Beruni's 
India),  describes  the  Indus  and  some 
geographical  names  of  Sind.  His 
works  give  a  number  of  Sindhi  words 
pertaining  to  sea-faring,  medicine  and 
other  trades. 

1020  AD.  : 

Death  of  Firdausi  (Mansur?)  Abul 
Qasim,  the  poet  and  composer  of 
Shahnama. 


Muizzuddin  Bahram,  1239-1241  A.D. 
AUauddin  Masud,  1241-1264  A.D. 
Muizzuddin  Kaiquabad,  1287-1290  A.D. 
Jalaluddin  Feroz-II,  1290-1295  A.D. 
Ghiasuddin  Tughlaq,  1320-1325  A.D. 


Zainul-Akhbar,  (Naval  Kishore),  pp.  66 
-70.  Zainul-Akhbar,  (Berlin),  pp.  67-68. 
lbnAsir  (Leiden),  Vol.  XT,  p.   132. 
S.S.  Nadvi,  AAHKT,  pp.  217-235. 
Firishta,  pp.  25-27. 


Zainul-Akhbar,  (Berlin),  p.  71. 


The  book  along  with  its  English  transla- 
tion was  first  published  by  Sachau  from 
London  in  1888.  It  has  been  reprinted 
from  New  Delhi  and  Lahore. 


212 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1020-21  AD.- 411  A.H.  : 
Abu  Nasar  Muhammad  Bin  Abdul 
Jabar  Utbi,  courtier  of  Mahmud 
of  Ghazni  wrote  Tarikh-i-Utbi  or 
Tarikh-i-Yamini  in  Arabic,  which  des- 
cribes events  of  Subaktgin. 
It  was  contemporarily  translated  into 
Persian. 

1024  AD.  (end).  : 

Mahmud  of  Ghazni  marched  through 
Bahawalpur  and  Rahimyar  Khan  dis- 
tricts, on  his  way  to  Sind,  and  Somnath, 
and  crossed  the  Sutlej  near  Uch. 


1025  A.D.: 

Fall  of  Somnath. 

1025  A  D.  : 

Mahmud  left  Somnath  within  a  fort- 
night of  its  conquest  as  Bhima,  the 
Chaulkaya  King  made  preparations  for 
war.  He  returned  via  Mansuraandnot 
via  desert  as  Paramdeva  a  Hindu  King, 
stood  in  the  way.  He  went  to  Multan 
via  Mansura  sacking  the  latter,  and  also 
punishing  the  Jats  of  the  Upper  Sind 
who  came  in  his  way.  Many  of  his 
soldiers  lost  lives  due  to  lack  of  water 
and  opposition  of  these  Jats  of  Sind. 


Text  printed  from  Delhi  in  1847  A.D.  by 
Sprenger.  Its  German  translation  was 
published  from  Vienna  in  1857  A.D.  and 
Persian  translation  published  from  Tehran 
in  1272  Sh.  Renal's  English  translation 
appeared  in    1858  A.D. 


Siddiq  Namah  by  Brigadier  Nazeer  Ali 
Shah.  This  statement  is  only  partially 
correct.  He  marched  through  Bahawal- 
pur to  Somnath  via  the  Indian  desert 
and  not  Sind.  He  did  not  enter  Rahimyar 
Khan  district.  Only  on  his  return  from 
Somnath,  he  marched  through  Sind, 
Rahimyar  Khan  and  Bahawalpur  districts. 

■ 

Firishta    states  that  Mahmud  returned 

via  Anahilapataka. 

Abul  Fazal  records  the  same  story  in 

Ain-i-Akbari,  Vol.  II,  p.  268. 

Mirat-i-Ahmadi  accepts  the  same  version 

(Bailey's    English    translation,  p.    33). 

Jackson  and  Indraji  reject  this  version 

(Bombay    Gazetteer,     Vol.    I,    Part   i. 

p.  168,  f.n.z.). 

Hodivala  agrees  with  the  last  two  in  his 

studies  in  Indo-*Muslim  History,  Vol.  I, 

pp.  238-39. 

Indian    Historical    Quarterly,  Vol.    IX, 

pp.  941-42  describes  the  return  route  via 

Mansura. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  Vol.  I,  p.  82,  states  that 

on   his   return,  having   been   forced  to 

accept  an  Indian  as  guide,  he  was  led  to 

waterless  desert,  where  his  army  suffered. 

From  there  his  army  was  harassed    in 


i 


s 


BEGINNING  OF  SOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


213 


r 


1025  A.D.—416  A.H.  : 

The  rulers  of  Sind  who  were  Sunnis  in 
375  A.H.  (985-86  A.D.),  had  become 
Qarmatis  during  the  intervening  period. 

1025  A.D.  (beginning)  : 

The  fall  of  Somnath  to  Mahmud  Ghazni. 

1025  A.D.— 416  A.H.    : 

Mahmud  of  Ghazni  on  return  from 
Somnath  attacked  Mansura  as  its  ruler 

• 

had  given  up  Islam  (Sunnism  and  had 
become    Shiite    or    Ismaili).    On  ap- 
proach of  Mahmud  its     ruler  Khafif 
escaped  to  forests.  Mahmud  chased  him 
and    many  of  latter's  men  were  killed 
and  others  were  drowned  in  water.  The 
Jats  and  Meds  of  Sind  attacked  him  at 
the  instigation  of  Sind's  ruler. 
Mansura,  the  capital,  is  said  to  have 
b32n  destroyed  by  an  earthquake  in  the 
mid-lOth  century.    This  is   untrue.    It 
seems  to  have  b33n  sacked  by  Mahmud 
of  Ghazni. 

During  mid-December  same  year  he 
reached  Multan,  after  throwing  out  the 
Governor  of  Al-Qadir  Billah  from  Uch. 
This  statement  itself  shows  that  Sind 
was  not  subdued  in  401  A.H.  or  1010- 
101 1  A.D.  as  stated  earlier. 
Ibn  Asir  clearly  states  the  massacre  of  its 
populace  and  drowning  of  others  who 
tried  to  swim  across  the  river. 
That  Sultan  took  the  Rann  of  Cutch  and 
Mansura  route,  while  returning  from 
Somnath  was  to  avoid  conflict  with 
Parmadcva  of  Abu  is  confirmed  by 
entry  1026  A.D 


the  rear  by  the  Jats  till  he   reached  Mul- 
tan, and  on  2nd  April,  1026  A.D.  (10th 
Safar,  417  A.H.)  he  reached  Ghazni. 
Nazimuddin  does  not  seem  to  have  access 
on  original  sources  of  this  incident.' 

Ibn  Ask-,  Vol.  IX,  p.  243.  Also  see  entry 
375  A.H. 


Masumi,  p.  31. 

Ibn  Asir,  Leiden.  Vol.  IX,  p.  243. 

Ibn  Khaldun,  (Cairo),  Vol.  II,  p.  327, 
asserts  the  end  of  Arab  Kingdom  of 
Mansura  by  Mahmud.  It  appears 
plausible  that  he  destroyed  Mansura  as 
its  population  had  turned  Qarmatis 
(Ismaili).  Diwan-i-Farrukhi,  p.  74  gives  the 
name  of  Sind's  ruler  as  Khafif.  He  was 
also  founder  of  Soomra  Dynasty.  It  is 
possible  that  b3tween  335  A.H.  (985-86 
A.D.),  and  396  A.H.  (1005-6  A.D.),  after 
the  arrest  of  Shaikh  Abdul-Al-Fateh  Daud 
Bin  Nasar,  the  Soomras  overthrew 
Habaris  and  established  themselves  at 
Mansura. 

Farrukhi  states  that  in  a  naval  battle  (in 
which  Jats  helped),  Khafif  was 
drowned  in  tne  river.  (Kabul  edition, 
p.  74).  Cousens  suspected  Mansura 's  des- 
truction at  the  hands  of  Hindu  con- 
querors and  Muslim  historians  deliberate- 
ly not  recording  it.  Raverty's  Tabaqat-i- 
Nasiri,  p.  82,  confirms  that  Mahmud 
took  %a  route  via  Sind  and  Mansura. 
Gardaizi,  p.  87,  and  Bombay  Gazetteer 
Vol.  I,  part  I,  clearly  state  that  the  des- 
truction  of  the  idol    of  Somnath    had 


< 


214  CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

agitated  the  Hindus  and  Raja  Paramdeva 
of  Abu  and  oth-r  Hindu  chiefs  decided 
to  give  Mahmud  a  batile  and  therefore 
he  took  an  easterly  route  through  Cutch 
and  Sind.  Farrukhi  confirms  the  same. 
Tarikh-i-Behaqi  (Tehran),  1342 

Sh,  p.  218,  also  states  that  he  returned 
to  Ghazni  via  Sind  and  Mansura.  Asir, 
(  al-Kamil— fit— Tarikh,  Tornberg  ), 
p.  243.  and  Zainul-Akhbar  (Tehran), 
p.  132  also  state  that  he  came  via  Sind 
and  Mansura.  That  he  safely  reached 
Sind  via  Rann  of  Cutch  (a  shallow  sea 
creek  then),  is  reported  by  Farrukhi. 
Tabaqat-Nasiri  (Calcutta),  p.  82,  Futuh- 
•  al — Salatin,      and    Bombay     Gazetteer, 

Vol.  V;  p.  14,  agree  with  this  view. 
The  only  exception  is  Firishta  (written 
600  years  later),  which  takes  Sultan  via 
Anhilwara  and  Rajistan  desert  as  re- 
ported in  Vol.  L,  on  p.  33,  (Bombay) 
and  Vol.  I,  p.    36,   (Naval  Kishore). 

That  Sultan  marched  on  Mansura,  and 
its  Qarmati  (actually  Ismaili  but  wrongly 
called  Qarmatis  by  most  Sunni  historians) 
ruler  Khafif  (possibly  Khafif  Soomro) 
fled  across  the  river  and  took  refuge  in  a 
date  palm  forest  is  reported  by  Farrukhi. 
He  is  the  only  author  to  report  the  name 
of  ruler  of  Mansura.  Asir,  p.  242, 
also  confirms  his  expedition  on  Mansura, 
and  sending  his  officers  after  its  ruler  and 
putting  many  of  his  followers  (Ismailis) 
to  death.  Gardaizi,  pp.  87-88,  further 
states  that  from  here  Sultan  marched  to 
Multan  along  the  river  Indus,  where  he 
was  attacked  by  Jats  inhabiting  that 
area,  losing  many  of  his  men,  baggage 
and  animals.  He  reached  Ghazni  on  10th 
Safar  417  A.H.  (2nd  April,  1026  A.D.), 
as  is  reported  by  Asir,  p.  243. 


■■< 


BEGINNING  OF  SOOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


215 


• 


.  : 


. 


■  '  • 


■ 


■ 


r 

• 

• 

• 

• 

i 

. 

•                    .-'"■. 

• 

V. 

' 


• 


Al-Beruni  (Sachau,  Vol.  n,  p.  104), 
states  that  thase  Jats  were  worshippers 
of  Lingam.  Elliot  and  Dowson,  Vol.  II, 
p.  477,  state  that  they  were  inhabitants  of 
Salt  Range.  This  statement  is  incorrect 
as  they  inhabited  area  between  Mansura 
and  Multan.  The  shortest  route  to  Ghazni 
from  Multan  would  be  via  Bolan  Pass 
and  not  Khybar  Pass.  Burgess  (Archaeo- 
logical Survey  of  Western  India,  Vol.  II, 
p.  194),  states  that  they  were  Bhatias 
of  Bhatnair  (possibly  Bhatinda  or  Bhatia 
of  the  Arab  geographers),  who  had 
migrated  to  Sind. 

This  leaves  us  beyond  any  doubt  about 
the  sacking  of  Mansura  by  Mahmud 
of  Ghazni. 

A  large  number  of  'Alid'  community  was 
settled  in  Mansura  as  is  reported  by  Ma- 
sudi  (Entry  300  A.H.).  It  is  likely  that 
Mansura  had  become  centre  of  Ismaili 
activity  after  Multan  was  sacked  by 
Mahmud  of  Ghazni.  (Entries,  1005, 
1010-1 1,  and  101 1-12  A.D.).  They  con- 
centrated in  Mansura,  and  may  even  have 
helped  in  overthrow  of  Habari  ruler 
and  his  replacement  by  Khafif  Soomro. 
Cousens  clearly  states  that  from 
scattered  copper  coins  and  lack  of 
precious  metals  it  is  clear  that  the  city  was 
sacked,  looted  and  its  populace  put  to 
sword.  At  his  time  above  facts  were 
not  known,  so  he  thought  that  some 
Hindus  had  destroyed  Mansura. 

Ibn  Khaldun,  Vol.  H,  p.  327  (Cairo  edi- 
tion), basing  on  hearsay  states  that 
Mabmud  sacked  the  last  Habari  ruler, 
and  the  statement  is  being  used  to  sup- 
port the  view  that  Khafif  was  Habari  but 
the  same  is  obviously  incorrect. 


2 1 6  CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

Multan  and  Sind  were  not  the  only  two 
Muslim  (though  Ismaili)  countries  sacked 
by  Mahmud.  He  sacked  following 
other  Muslim  states : 

March  998  A.D. 

Ismail,  ruler  of  Ghazna. 


May  6th,  999  A.D. 

Defeat  of  Abdul  Malik  at   Marv  and 
occupation  of  Khurasan. 


1015  A.D. 

Attack  on  Khwabin. 

1015-16  A.D. 

Attack  on  B?lkh. 


J 


December  999  A.D. 

Investment  of  fort  of  Ispahbud. 

November  1000  A.D. 

Capturing  of  some  forts  near  Lamaghan. 

1001  A.D. 

Wathiqi  captured  and  imprisoned. 

1001  A.D. 

Defeat  of  Muntasir  by  Nasar,  a  General 
of  Mahmnd. 

1002  A.D. 

Fall  of  Seistan  and  taking  of  Khalaf  as 
a  prisoner. 

1003  A.D. 


Defeat  of  rebels  of  Seistan. 

1011  A.D. 

Attack  on  Ghur  and  taking  Ibn  Suri  as 
prisoner. 

1011  A.D. 

Attack  on  Qusdar  and  submission  of  its 
ruler. 


BEGINNING  OF  SOOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWEL 


217 


•    ' 


■ 


1025-26  A.D.— 416  A.H.  : 

Beruni  wrote  Kitab-ul-Hind. 

1026  A.D.  or  soon  afterwards: 

The  Soomra  tribe  of  the  Lower  Sind 
collected  at  Tharri  (in  M atli  Taluka)  and 
nominated  Soomar  as  the  independent 
king  of  Sind.  (Mansura  was  no  longer 
in  existence  and  Tharri  was  the  new  ca- 
pital). He  may  have  been  Soomar-I, 
who  was  the  father  of  Shaikh  Rajpal  to 
whom  Muqtana  addressed  a  letter  in 
1033  A.D.  Rajpal  had  died  without 
issue,  and  for  succession  nomination 
had  to  be  made. 


1017  A.D. 

Defeat  of  army  of  Khwarizm. 

1019  A.D. 
March  on  Afghans. 

1020  A.D. 

Sacking  of  valleys  of  rivers  of  Nur  and 
Qirat. 

1020  A.D. 

March  on  Tabin  Ghur  and  submission 
of  its  ruler. 

1025  A.D. 

Israil  bin  Seljuk  defeated  and  imprisoned. 
Syed  Suleman  Nadvi  in  AAHKT,  pp. 
255-257,  states  that  his  victims  included 
more  Muslims  than  non-Muslims.  Of 
the  35  expeditions,  17  were  against 
Muslim  states  of  Central  Asia  and  Iran, 
3  against  Multan,  2  against  Sind  and  13 
against  non-Muslim  Hindus  of  the  Sub- 
continent. 

Sachau,  AI- Beruni 's  India,  London,  1887. 

Elliot,  Vol.  I,  p.  344. 
Masumi,  pp.  33-34. 
See  entry  1033  A.D. 

Tuhfat-ul-Kiram,  pp.  95-96,  basing  on 
Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif  assigns  the  year  445  A.H.  (1053 
A.D.),  as  the  beginning  of  Soomra  rule. 
Masumi  assigns  it  during  the  rule  of 
Sultan  Abul  Rashid  Bin  Mahmud  of 
Ghazni  (441-44  A.H.  or  1047-1053  A.D.). 


. 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


(1026—1051  A.D.) 


1026-1351  A.D.  or  later: 

The  Soomras  ruled  as  an  independent 
power  in  the  Lower  Sind.  The  Delhi  Sul- 
tanate's rule  was  confined  to  the  Upper 
Sind  only  and  that  also  intermittently. 
After  1351  A.D.,  Soomras  were  over- 
thrown by  another  tribe,  the  Sammas. 

W26A.D.: 

Bhima,  the  Chaulkaya  king  of  Gujarat, 
who  had  made  preparations  to  fight  Sul- 
tan Mahmud  of  Ghazni  after  the  fall  of 
Somnath,  probably  following  Mahmud's 
retreating  army,  marched  on  Sind.  Ac- 
cording to  Hemachandra,  Hammuka 
the  king  of  Sindhu  was  a  mighty  mon- 
arch, who  had  defeated  king  of  Sivasana, 
and  instead  of  proclaiming  Bhima's 
fame  had  defamed  him.  On  hearing  of 
Bhima's  advancing  army  and  his  cross- 
ing the  river  Indus  by  a  stone  bridge, 
Hammuka  offered  him  a  battle,  in  which 
the  latter  lost  and  had  to  submit  to 
Bhima. 

The  people  of  Sind  who  came  in  contact 
with  the  Kachcha  forces  were  not  angry, 
but  brought  them  horses  and  bulls. 

Hammuka  may  have  been  a  Soomra 
chief  of  some  part  of  Sind  or  he  may 
have  been  the  chief  of  a  small  Hindu 
principality  in  Upper  Sind,  which  was 
sacked  by  Bhima.  In  either  case  the 
route  of  Bhima  must  have  been  through 
the  Indian  desert,  rather  than  the  Rann 
of  Cutch  and  Sind. 


Jamini     Mohan    Banerjee,    History    of 
Feroz  Shah  Tughlaq,  p.  36. 


Dvyasrayakpva  of  Hemachandra,  Vol. 
VIII,  V,  pp.  40,  49,  52,  58,  66,  63,  72,  74, 
97-108  and  1 17-124,  quoted  by  Mujumdar 
in  "Chaulukayas  of  Gujrat",  pp.  47-49. 
Merutunga's  Prabandhachintamani  trans- 
lated by  Tawney,  p.  32,  gives  the  same 
version.  Ray,  H.C.,  in  Dynastic  History 
of  Northern  India,  p.  591,  also  repeats 
the  same  incident.  But  there  is  another 
version  that  the  country  was  not  Sind 
but  the  Western  Kathiawar,  ruled  by  the 
Saindhara  family  up  to  919  A.D.,  and 
Bhim  a  probably  subdued  Hammuka  and 
the  chief  of  this  family.  This  is  doubted 
as  Saindharas  ruled  100  years  before 
Bhima.  A.S.  Alterkar,  Six  copper  plates 
of  Saindhara,  tpigraphia  Indica,  Vol. 
XXVI,  pp.  185-226. 

Dryasraya,  quoted  by  Indian  Antiquary, 
Vol.  IV,  p.  72. 


i 


-4 


BEGINNING  OF  SGOMttlAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


219 


> 


i. 


1026  A.D.  or  afterwards : 

Bhima  made  a  second  attempt  to  con- 
quer Sind. 


1026  A.D.— 117  A.H.  : 

Mahmud  of  Ghazni  deputed  his  vazier, 
Abdul  Razaq  to  conquer  Sind.  He 
sacked  Bakhar,  Sehwan  (Siwistan),  and 
Mansura  (Text  put  it  as  Thatta  which 
then  did  not  exist)  and  expelled  majority 
ol  Arabs  from  Sind. 


1026  A.D.-  417  AH.  : 

Abul  Hassan  Al«  Bin  Muhammad  Al- 
Jil,  translated  an  old  Sanskrit  history 
in  Persian  and  named  it  Majma- 
ut-Tawarikh. 

1027-28  A.D.-418  A.H.  : 

To  avenge  on  Jats  of  Sind,  who  had 
made  guerilla  attacks  on  him  during  his 
march  to  Multan  after  the  conquest  of 
Mansura  in  416  A.H.  (1025-26  A.D.) 
and  had  helped  Khafif,  Mahmud 
Ghaznavi  reached  Multan,  ordered  to 
build  1400  boats  with  steel  spears  and 
knives  on  the  front  and  sides.  He  then 
put  20  soldiers  with  bows,  arrows  and 
shields  in  each  boat  and  advanced  on 
the  Jats  by  the  river  Indus.  His  main 
body  of  troops  marched  along  both  the 
right  and  left  banks  of  the  river.  The 
Jats  put  their  families  on  island  and 
faced  Mahmud  with  4000-8000  boats. 
Mahmud  set  their  boats  to  fire    with 


'Mujumdar*  in  Chaulukayas  of  Gujrat, 
p.  52,  quoting  Prabandhachintamani  of 
Merutunga  (Edited  by  Janarijaya  Muni), 
p.  32,  describes  this  incident  in  the  words, 
"Sindhudesa  rijaya  Vyaprite  Sri  Bhima". 

Masumi,  p.  31,  gives  the  year  as  401  A.H. 
Nazim,  p.  120,  thinks  it  was  416  A.H.  and 
the  Qarmati  ruler  Khafif  Soomro  after 
crossing  the  river  hid  himself  into  a  date 
palm  forest.  The  troops  of  the  Sultan 
chased  him  and  killed  many  of  his  officers. 
There  was  no  General  named  Abdul 
Razaq  in  the  army  of  Mahmud  Ghazni. 
This  fact  falsifies  Masumi's  version.  It  was 
he  himself  who  came  and  sacked  the  Upper 
Sind  in  1027-28  A.D.  Refer  that  entry. 

Elliot,  Vol.  1,  p.  100. 

Zainul-Akhbar,  pp.  88-89. 
Taqbaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  I,  pp.  17-18. 
Behaqi,  Vol.  I  (Tehran),  pp.  275-76, 
299  and  371. 

Mahmud  of  Ghazni  had  a  fast  cavalry 
which  was  ^able  to  overpower  clumsy 
elephants  on  the  land,  in  all  his  battles 
of  the  Sub-Continent.  The  ingenuity 
shown  in  this  naval  battle  is  remarkable. 
Masumi,  p.  31,  states  that  Mahmud  set 
right  the  affairs  of  the  Jats  of  Bakhar. 

v 


220 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


the  help  of  oil  immersed  fire-arrows. 
Boats  of  Jats  were  also  destroyed  by 
spears  fitted  in  Mahmud's  boats. 
Those  who  swam  to  the  shore,  were  kill- 
ed by  Mahmud's  land  forces.  Finally 
he  laid  hands  on  the  families  of  the  Jats 
in  the  island  (possibly  Bakhar)  and  took 
them  as  prisoners. 

418  A.H.  (end): 

Mahmud  returned  to  Ghazni  from  the 
Sind  expedition. 

1039  A.D.-420  A.H.  : 

Al-Beruni  left  India  and  later  on,  died  in 
Ghaani  in  1048  A.D. 

1030-31  A.D.-<421  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Mahmud  of  Ghazni  died  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Sultan  Masud. 
The  latter  blinded  his  brother  Muham- 
mad. Uch  where  many  Amirs  and 
richmen  of  Multan  had  settled  after  its 
fall  in  1010-11  A.D.  was  attacked  by 
Salar  Masud  Ghazi  and  looted.  Its 
ruler  was  Anand  Pal.  He  may  have 
been  a  Soomra,  a  relative  of  Shaikh 
Ibn  Soomar  Raja  Bal,  an  Ismaili. 

1031-35  A.D.  : 

Al-Beruni       wrote    Qanoon-i-Masudi. 

1032  A.D.—423  A.H.  : 

Shaikh  Ibn  Soomar  Raja  Bal,  a  Qar- 
mati  (actually  an  Ismaili),  was  ruling 
Multan  showing  that  Mahmud  Ghazni 
had  failed  to  subdue  Ismailis  of 
Multan  or  Sind  completely.  It  also 
shows  that  Soomra-I  had  died  before 
423  A.H.  Raja  Bal  may  be  Raj  Pal  and 
Anang  Pal  ot  entry  421  A.H.,  may  also 
have  been  a  Soomra. 


Fiiishta,  Vol.  I,  pp.  36-38. 


Masumi,  pp.  31-32. 

Mara'at-i-Masudi.  See  entry  1033  A.D. 
Raverty  in  Nasiri,  p.  88,  states  that  tho- 
ugh the  coins  of  Mahmud  show  Ghazni, 
Zabulistan,  Khurasan,  Khwarizm,  Chag- 
hanian,  Tabristan,  Isphahan,  Kanauj, 
Multan,  Naharwala,  Somnath,  Umman, 
Kuzdar,  Sind  as  far  as  Siwistan,  Kirman, 
Kij  and  Makran  as  parts  of  his  Empire, 
his  authority  in  good  many  of  these 
places  must  have  been  just  nominal. 


Elliot,  Vol.  I,  p.  491. 

Nadvi,  S.  S.,  AAHKT,  pp.  325-26. 


* 


. 


BEGINNING  OF  SOOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


221 


i 


1033  A.D.-—425  A.H.  : 

Muqtana  of  Syria  invited  Raja  Bal 
(Rajpal),  son  of  Shaikh  Soomar  of 
Multan,  to  accept  Druzism  and  also 
help  in  expansion  of  it. 

1033  A.D.— 425  A.H.  : 

Kutch  and  Kathiawar  became  great 
shelters  for  sea  pirates. 

1036  AD. 

Abu  Nasar  Muhammad  bin  Muham- 
mad Al-Jabar,  Al-Utbi,  the  Historian 
living  in  the  court  of  Ghaznavis  in  Af- 
ghanistan and  writer  of  Al-Kitab-al- 
Yamini  (Arabic),  died.  It  is  an  import- 
ant source  of  Ghaznavids  and  Mahmud's 
expeditions  to  Sind  and  Multan.  The 
book  was  written  in  427  A.H.  (1035 
A.D.). 

1037-38  A.D.— 429  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Abul  Hasan  Ali  Bin  Jalagh 
Farrukhi,  the  poet  who  mentions 
Mahmud  of  Ghazni's  attack  on  Sind 
and  Khafif's  escape. 

1038-39  A.D.— 430  A.H.  : 

Beruni  worte  Qanoon-i-Masudi.  It 
has  information  on  religion,  philosophy 
literature,  geography,  chronology,  as- 
tronomy, astrology  etc.,  of  the  Sub- 
continent and  describes  Sind  too.  Some 
Sindhi  words  also  have  been  noted  in 
his  book. 


S.  S.  Nadvi,  AAHKT,  pp.  325-26. 


. 
Sachau,  Al-Beruni's  India,  p.  120.    The 
Cutch  population  was  drawn  from  Sind. 
They  belonged  to  Samma  tribes. 

The  book  edited  by  Sprenger  was  publish- 
ed from  Delhi  in  1847  and  from  Cairo 
in  1870.  Its  Persian  translation  of  582 
A.H.  by  Abul  Sharaf  Nasih  of  Jabar- 
dican  appeared  from  Tehran  in  1272  Sh; 
and  English  translation  of  Persian  version 
done  by  Reynolds  was  published  from 
London  in  1857  A.D.,  and  reprinted, 
Lahore,  1977. 


1040  AD.  : 

Sultan  Masud  having  been  defeated  by 
the  Saljuks,  retired  towards  India.  His 
blind  brother  Muhammad,  who  then 
was  restored  to  the  throne  pardoned 


Masumi,  p.  32,  puts  it  as  433  A.H.  (1041- 

42  A.D)). 

Lane  Poole  puts  it  as  432  A.H.  (1040-41 

A.D.). 


222 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Masud,  but  soon  afterwards,  Ahmed, 
son  of  Muhammad,  put  Masud  to  death. 

1040-48  A.D.— 432-40  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Masud's  son  Maudud  having 
occupied  Ghazni,  sent  Abu  Nasar  Bin 
Muhammad  Bin  Ahmed  as  Governor  of 
Lahore.  The  latter  took  an  expedition 
against  Sind,  but  on  his  return  Sind 
and  Multan  revolted. 

1048-49  A.D.-  440  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Maudud  of  Ghazni  appointed  his 
son  Abul-Qasim  Mahmud  as  Governor 
of  Punjab  and  Sind  and  sent  him  to 
Lahore.  The  same  year  his  Kotwal 
Abu  Ali  crushed  rebellions  in  Sind,  Mul- 
tan, Peshawar  and  Kashmir.  Abul 
Hasan,  a  general  seneschal  of  Ghazni  was 
sent  to  subdue  Mathila  and  Bhatia,  the 
ruler  of  which,  Ahannin,  took  to  flight. 

1048-49  A.D.— 440  A.H.  : 

Abu  Saeed  Abdul  Hayee  Gardaizi  wrote 
Zainul-Akhbar.  It  deals  with  Ghaznavi 
— Sind  relations. 

1049  A.D.,  22nd  December  : 

Maudud  died  and  in  accordance  with 
his  will  his  son  Masud,  aged  three,  was 
nominated  as  the  king,  but  Maudud's 
brother  Ali  Abul  Hassan  deposed  the 
infant  and  became  Sultan. 

1050  A.D.  : 

Conquest  of  Baghdad  by  the  Seljuk 
Turks.  Since  then,  Abbasid  Caliph's 
power  was  limited  to  a  small  area 
around  Baghdad  and  he  was  reduced  to 
nominal  religious  head-ship  for  the 
purposes  of  Khutba  and  issue  of  Sanads. 


The  statement  shows  that  Sind  was  not 
subdued  after  Mahmud's  expeditions  of 
1025  and  1026  A.D. 


It  simply  shows  that  Ghazni's  control 
over  Sind  since  the  sacking  of  Mansura 
in  1025  A.D.  had  not  been  enforced  and 
the  expeditions  of  Masud  and  Maudud 
were  simply  raids  of  no  consequence. 


Text  published  from  London,  in  1928. 


■ 


i 


^> 


I 


BEGINNING  OF  SOOMRAS  RISE  TO  POWER 


223 


1050  A.D.  : 

Abdul  Hayee-Bin-Al-Dahhak-Bin-Mah- 
mood  Gardaizi,  the  Persian  geographer, 
wrote  his  book  Zainul-Akhbar  "The 
jewel  of  Histories".  It  has  references 
pertaining  to  Sind  specially  Jayratha,, 
the  Rai  Dynasty,  Persia — Sind  .conflicts 
and  also  Ghaznavid  raids. 


The  date  of  its  writing  is  some  where 
between  1049-1053  A.D.  The  text  was 
published  from  Berlin  in  1928,  the  Iranian 
edition  has  been  issued  from  Tehran  in 
1342  Sh. 


• 

' 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


1051  A.D.— 443  A.H.  or  soon 
afterwards: 

Sultan  Abdul  Rashid  Ghaznavi  appoint- 
ed Navishtagin  Kharki  as  the  Governor 
of  his  territories  in  India  (the  Punjab 
&  NVVFP).  Sind  enjoyed  complete  in- 
dependence under  the  Soomras,  after 
its  fall  to  Mahmud  of  Ghaznavi  in  1025 
A.D.  The  Soomras  seem  to  have  ruled 
independently  for  another  200  years, 
until  the  raids  of  Altatmash  who  sub- 
dued them  and  made  them  vassals. 

Uch  and  part  of  Northern  Sind,  how- 
ever, had  come  under  Delhi's  control 
during  Qutubuddin's  rule,  when 
Qabacha  conquered  these  areas. 


Sind,  which  had  evaded  paying  tribute 
regularly  to  Ghazni  since  Mahmud's 
conquest  in  416  A.H.,  was  virtually  in 
dependent  although  Ghaznavids    kept 


According  to  Masumi,  p.  59;  in  the 
beginning  of  the  rule  of  Sultan  Abdul 
Rashid  bin  Masud,  a  weak  and  in- 
efficient ruler,  the  Soomras  assembled 
at  Tharri  and  nominated  Soomra  as 
independent  king  of  Sind.  This  Soomra 
married  the  daughter  of  a  powerful  Arab 
rich  chieftain  Sa'ad  and  thus  over-came 
opposition.  Bhoongar  was  born  out  of 
this  wedlock. 

Masumi's  information  can  only  be  con- 
sidered partially  correct  as  Ghaznavids 
had  virtually  no  control  over  Sind  since 
the  sacking  of  Mansura  and  suppressing 
of  the  Jats  in  1025  and  1026  A.D.  res- 
pectively. Their  governors  at  Lahore 
had  never  attempted  to  control  Sind 
except  possibly  undertaking  raids  a 
couple  of  times. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  95-96  puts  year  of 
Soomra's  independent  rule  from  446  A.H. 
or  1054  A.D.  but  Tuhfat-ul-Karam  is 
equally  undefendable  on  Soomra  period. 

Khafif  Soomra  had  already  established 
his  rule  over  the  whole  of  Sind  since 
401  A.H.  (1010-1011  A.D.)  which  was 
interrupted  only  for  a  short  while  by 
Mahmud. 

Masumi,  pp.  31-33. 

Masumi  has  tried  in  vain  to  show 
that  Sind  formed  part  of  the  Ghaznavid 
Empire.    It  is  therefore  fair,  to  assume 


1011-1351/52  AD. 
SOOMRA5  OF   SIND  AND  THEIR  CONTEMPORARIES 


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mi-  us* 

Soomras   of  Sind  and  Multan  -^     -"-  --= 

Choulukayos  and  their  dependend        -Y/'/'jfi/zi 


Jareja  sammos  of   Cutch 


It ' ' ;  i '  i ; ..  i  :i. 


Abbasid   khalifs 

Fatmids 

Gnaznavids 


N  D  E  X 

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Maadans 


I.;,. 


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Pratiharas  of    Molwa 
Knayvarirn    a«ih-  - 


Ghon    and  delhi    sultans    and    their  dependencies 


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95.  Coin  of  Mahmood  of  Gazni  having  in 
Dev-Nagri  script  *'  Abyaktamek  • 
Muhammad  Avatar  Nripti  Mahmud " 
( The  Invisible  one,  Muhammad  incar- 
nation. King  Mahmud  ).  The  margin  is 
in  the  same  script  stating  "  In  the  name 
if  Invisible  this  Tanka  struck  at 
Mahmoodpur  Samavt  418  ".  Reverse  has 
legend  in  Arabic  as  well  as  Hijri  year. 
Bilingual  coins  existed  in  Scythian, 
Parthian  and  Kushan  .Era  too.  (  From 
Thomas :  Pathan   Kings  of  Delhi ), 


96.  Coin  of  Masud  of  Ghazni,  showing  a 
cavalryman  and  king's  name  in  Kufic 
script  ( From  Thomas:  Pathan  Kings 
of  Delhi  ). 


97.  Muhammad  Bin  Sam's  coin  struck  at  Kanauj.  Obverse:  copy  of  Kanauj  coins  having  the  goddess 
Lakshmi  seated.  Reverse:  Sri  Muhammad  Bin  Sam  in  Dev-Nagri  script.  These  coins  may  have 
been  struck  for  local  use  in  their  most  acceptable  form,  to  the  newly  conquered  public.  (  From 
Thomas :  Pathan  Kings  of  Delhi  ). 


98.     608  A.  D.     Gold  Coin  of  Altalmish 

Obverse  :     Cavalryman  above  and  (  Muhammad  )   Rasul-u-Allah  in  the  margin. 
Reverse  :     Al-Sultan,  Al-Muizam  Shamul-Duniy   wa   Din  Abu  Al-Muzafaral  Shans  Al-Qutbi 
Bazaman  Amir-ul-Mummin, 
From  :     Thomas  Pathan   Kings  of  Delhi. 


99.     680  A.  H.     Gold  Coin  of  Giasuddin  Balban 
From     Thomas   Pathan   Kings  of  Delhi. 


100.     729  A.  H.   Gold   Coin  of  Muhammad  Bin  Tughlaq  (From  Thomas:   Pathan  Kings  of  Delhi). 


101.      Brass   Coin  of  Muhammad   Tughlaq 
(  Forced   Currency.from  Thomas  ). 


102.  Soomro  period  clay  vessel  with  engraved  patterns.  Similar  engraving  work  on 
copper  vessels  was  common  upto  m'dfiftees  of  this  century  (Courtesy  of 
Institute  of  Sindhology  ). 


f 


1 


103.     Soomra  period.  9-wick  oil  lamp.  (Courtesy  Sind   Museum   Hyderabad). 


. 


SOCMRA  DYNASTY 


225 


. 


claiming  it  as  part  of  their  empire  for  the        that  the  Soomras  ruled  un-interrupted 
next  130  years.  since  Khafif  s  taking  over  Sind  in  1010-1 1 

A.D. 


1052  A.D.: 

As  Ali  Abul  Hassan  was  a  weak  ruler, 
Mahmud  of  Ghazni's  sixth  brother 
Rashid,  till  then  in  prison,  was  released 
by  the  courtiers.  He  deposed  his 
nephew  and  became  Sultan. 

There  is  no  evidence  that  between  1028- 

1052  A.D.,  the  Ghaznavids  or  their  Pun- 
jab Governors  exercised  any  influence 
in  Sind.  The  tribute,  if  paid,  must 
have  been  irregular.  There  were  a  few 
raids  on  Sind  between  1040  and  1049 
A.D. 

1053  A.D.: 

The  Ghaznavids  lost  hold  on  Upper  Sind 
(Uch,  Bhatia  and  Multan).  Probably, 
the  Ismailis  (Qarmatis  of  historians)  had 
again  established  themselves  as  Muha- 
mmad Ghori  had  to  subdue  them  in 
Multan,  Uch  and  Bhatia  in  1175  A.D. 


. 


• 

. 

-• 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  116.  Tabaqat-i-Ak- 
bari,  Vol.  I,  p.  16.  Ghaznavids  never  had 
any  hold  on  Sind  except  the  four  raids 
in  1025,  1026,  1040-1048  and  1048-49 
A.D.,  which  they  carried. 


1054-55  A.D-* 446  A.H.  : 

Boongar  Soomro  ascended  the  throne  Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 

after  the  death  of  Soomra  and  ruled  for  Yousif,  quoted  by    Hussamuddin,  T.K., 

15  years  upto  461  A.H.  (1068-69  A.D.).  pp.  95  and^484-486. 


* 


Daulat-i-Alviya  gives  his  name  as  Asim- 
uddin  Boongar  and  assigns  the  date  of 
his  rule  from  448  A.H.  or  1064-65  A.D. 
The  authority  of  this  work  is  doubtful. 

Daulat-i-Alviya  written  in  Sindhi  in  1929 
A.D.  by  Maulvi  Abdullah  Shaiq  is  based 
on  some  Soomra  family  genealogies  and 
Maulvi  Abdul  Rahim  Soomra's  history, 
Gulzar-i-Sind.  It  is  an  unreliable  piece 
of  history.    The  names     of  the    rulers 


226 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


8 

1066-67  A.D.  to  1070  A.D.  : 

Billhana,  the  great  Kashmirian  court 
poet  of  Vikramaditya-VI,  who  for  some 
time  resided  in  the  court  of  the  Chau- 
lukaya  ruler  Karana  of  Gujarat,  and 
wrote  his  drama  "Karnasundari",  men- 
tions in  it  that  Kama  conquered  Sind 
and  had  romantic  marriage  with  a 
princess  Mayanalladevi.  This  story 
though  a  fiction,  reflects  on  the  condi- 
tions in  Sind  then. 

1067  A.H.: 

The  visit  of  Ismaili  missionary  Abdullah 
to  Sind. 

1068-69  A.D.— 461  A.H.  : 

Boongar    Soomro    died   and    Dodo-I 
ascended  the  throne. 


given  in  this  history  appear  to  be  oriented 
with  Delhi  rulers  names,  usually  ending 
with  ud-Din  and  appear  to  be  forged. 

Mujamdar,  Chaulkayas  of  Gujarat,  p.  60. 
This  story  is  now  considered  as  pure# 

fiction  and  not  a  historical  fact. 

■ 


' 


Arnold,  Preachings  of  Islam. 


Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.K., 
pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 

Daulat-i-Alviya  names  the  latter  as  Asam- 
ud-Daula  Doda,  and  states  that  he  abdi 
cated  in  481  A.H.  (1088-89  A.D).,  and 
lived  a  retired  life.  His  daughter 
(Zenab)  Tari  ruled  on  behalf  of  her  minor 
brother  and  handed  over  the  rule  to  the 
latter  (Sanghar)  in  491  A.H.  (1098  A.D.). 


According  to  Masumi,  Dodo-I  extended 
his  domain  upto  Nasarpur,  and  died 
when  still  young.  This  statement  is 
unacceptable  due  to  22  years  rule  o 
Dodo-I.  The  extension  of  territories 
upto  Nasarpur  is  equally  doubtful  as 
Tharri  and  Nasarpur  would  hardly  be 
30  miles  ap^rt.  By  the  time  of  Dodo-I, 
there  was  no  power  strong  enough  to 
stop  Soomra  expansion  to  the  whole  of 
Sind,  right  upto  Uch,  specially  in  view 


• 

SOOMRA   DYNASTY 


227 


\/ 


1070  A.D.— 462  A.H.: 

Death  of  Qazi  Saeed  Andlusi,  who 
wrote  that  Sindhis  were  extremely  sharp 
in  Mathematics. 

1070  A.D.— 462  A.H.  : 

Qazi  Rashid  Bin  Zubair  wrote  Kitab 
Al-Zakhair  wa  al-Tuhf. 

The  book  gives  some  information  on 
Arab  governors  of  Sind,  namely :  Junaid, 
Musa  bin  Amar  bin  Abul  Aziz  (271 
A.H.),  Hashim  bin  Amro  Taghlibi,  Imra 
bin  Musa  bin  Yahya  bin  Khalid  etc. 

1071  A.D.  Sept.-463  A.H.  Zil-Haj  ; 

Death  of  Hafiz  Abi  Bakar  Ahmed  Ibn 
Ali  Ibn  Thabit  Ibn  Mahdi  al-Katib  al- 
Baghdadi.  He  wrote  Tarikh-i-Baghdad 
which  gives  information  on  Sindhi  scho- 
lars settled  in  Baghdad. 

1072  A.D.: 

Death  of  Ali-bin-Usman-al-Hujwairi, 
founder  of  Sufi  cult  in  the  Sub-conti- 
nent. He  is  also  known  as  Data  Ganj 
Bakhsh  and  his  tomb  is  at  Lahore.  His 
book  Kashf-al-Mahjub  is  a  popular 
text  for  Sufis  of  Sind  and  the  rest  of  the 
Sub-continent. 

1077-78  A.D.— 470  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Abul  Fazal-bin-Hassan  Behaqi 
who  wrote  the  history  of  Ghaznavis  also 
called  Tarikh-i-Behaqi.  It  describes 
Ghaznavi  adventures  in  Sind,  including 
Mahmud's  expedition  against  the  Jats 
of  the  Upper  Sind.  The  book  was 
known  as  Tarikh-i-Sabktagin  to  Minbaj 
Siraj,  and  Hamadullah  Mustavafi  and 
Rieu  call  it  Tarikh-i-Masudi. 


of  the  fact  that  as  early  as  1032  A.D. 
Soomra  Rajpal  Shaikh  ruled  Multan. 


He  lived  in  court  of  Fatmids  of  Egypt. 


The  author  was  born  on  3rd  Jamadi-al- 
Sani,  392  A.H.  i.e.  1002  A.D. 


The    book   has    been    published   from 
Tehran  in  1342  Sh.The  earlier  edition  was 
published  by  A.S.B.   Calcutta,  in  1892 
A.D.  An  earlier  Tehran  edition  came  out 
in  1313  Sh. 

Behaqi  was  born  in  390  A.H.,  and  came 
tovGhaznavid  court  in  412  A.H..  at  the 
age  of  22  years.  He  worked  as  Diwan- 
i-Risalat  for    29  years  and  was  removed 


228 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1077-1126  A.D.  : 

Vikramaditya-VI  ruled  Gujarat  and 
Deccan  and  is  said  to  have  conquered 
Gujarat,  Dahla^  Abhira  (Thar  desert  of 
Sind),  Nepal,  Sindhu  and  Kashmir,  etc., 
as  shown  by  the  inscriptions. 

These  may  have  been  raids  or  mere 
panegyrics  rather  than  conquests,  as  the 
Soomra  line  ruled  the  Lower  Sind  un- 
interrupted during  this  period. 

1079-80  A.D.— 462  A.H.  : 

Syed  Nooruddin  Satgur  Noor,  an  Ismaili 
preacher,  came  to  Sind  under  the  orders 
of  Shah  Mustansir  Billah  (18th  Imam) 
and  preached  in  poetry.  He  is  reported 
to  have  studied  Hindi,  Gujarati,  Sindhi, 
Multani  and  Bahawalpuri  languages  and 
dialects  and  composed  his  poetry  in 
those  languages.  His  Hindi  poetry  has 
survived  and  resembles  Sindhi  in  many 
respects. 

1088-1172  A.D.: 

Hemchandra  who  lived  during  the 
period  wrote  Kumarapala-Charita,  a 
grammar  of  Prakrit  dialects  like  Saura- 
seni,  Magadhi  Paisachi  and  Apa- 
bhramsa.  He  lived  in  Maharashtra  and 
had  no  contacts  with  Sind  or  Sindhi 
language  but  remarked  that  one  of  the 
Prakrit  languages  was  Apbhramasa,  a 
language  of  Abhira  (those  who  raise 
cattle)  and  Sind's  Abhiras  sang  songs 
and  composed  poetry  in  that  language. 
This  statement  is  totally  doubtful  as 
Sindhi  was  already  a  spoken  and  written 
language  by  about  850  A.D.  as  reported 
by  the  Arab  sources. 


by  Ibrahim  Bin  Masud   (451-492    A.H. 
or  1059>1099  A.D.). 

Mujamdar,   H.C.I.P.,   Vol.    V,    p.   167, 
Ganguly,  H.C.I.P.,  Vol.  V,  p.  177. 


. 


-^ 


DeLacy  O'Leary,  A  short  History  of 
Fatmid  Caliphate,  (Kegan  Paul,  London, 
1923),  p.  203. 


Abhiras  occupied  the  Thar  desert  of  the 
Eastern  Sind. 

Bherumal,  pp.  56-58,  has  wrongly  accept- 
ed Hemchandra's  version. 


• 


v 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


229 


t 


1088  A.D.  : 

Raja  Kesar  Dev  who  ruled  a  part  of 
Kirati  Garh  in  the  Eastern  Sind 
(Desert),  having  been  defeated  by 
Soomra  ruler  of  Sind  fled  to  Cutch,  and 
from  there  his  descendants  Harpal  Deva 
went  to  Gujarat,  whose  ruler  Raja 
Karan  Deva  assigned  lands  to  him  in 
Patri.  He  gained  power  and  established 
independent  State.  Mangu  and  Sodho 
were  important  rulers  of  this  family. 

1090-91  A.D.— 483  A.H.  : 

Hasan-bin-Sabah  established  the  Ismaili 
sect  called  Nizari  in  Khurasan.  This 
sect  did  not  spread  to  Sind  immediately, 
but  in  the  13th  century  it  exercised 
great  influence  in  Sind.  The  Soomras 
were  Ismailis  from  the  beginning,  but 
accepted  Nizari 's  sect  of  the  Ismailis 
in  the  end  of  the  13th  century  or 
probably  early  14th  century. 

The  Nizaris  in  general  allowed  their 
followers  to  maintain  some  of  the  old 
customs  and  names,  and  this  is  true 
about  the  Soomras,  whose  names  have 
been  Arabianized  by  Daulat-i-Alviya, 
probably  a  forged  work. 

1092  A.D.— 485  A.H.  : 

Dodo-I,  Soomra  died  and  his  sister  Tari 
ruled  on  behalf  of  her  minor  brother. 
She  ruled  well  and  handed  over  to 
Sanghar  when  he  came  of  age.  Daulat-i- 
Alviya  states  that  (Zenab)  Tari  handed 
over  the  rule  to  her  brother  Sanghar  in 
491  A.H.  (1098  A.D.).  It  further  states 
that  Dodo-I  had  abdicated  in  481  A.H. 
(1088-1089  A.D.).  to  live  a  retired  life. 
She  ruled  for  10  years  and  in  491  A.H. 
handed  over  to  her  brother  (Shahab- 
uddin)  Sanghar. 


Jhala  Vanish  Yardh  Kara  of  Nathu 
Ram,  quoted  by  Gangaram  Samrat, 
Sindhology,  January  1973,  p.  68. 


Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 

Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.  K., 

pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 

H.C.I.P.,  Vol.  VI,    p.    222,   accepts  this 

version. 

The    names    Zenab    and    Shahabuddin 

appear  for  the  first  time  in   Daulat-i- 

Alviya  and  may  have  been  forged. 


230 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


This  version  is  more  acceptable.  It 
puts  Dodo-I's  rule  to  12  years  and  also 
supports  Masumi's  version  of  early 
death  of  Dodo-I. 

Sanghar  was  a  brave  ruler  like  his  father. 
He  extended  his  domain  to  Makran; 
and  to  Nanakani  according  to  Tuhfat- 
ul-Karam,  and  to  Halakandi  accord- 
ing to  Masumi. 


1094  A.D.—487  A.H.: 

Abi  Abid  Abdullah  bin  Abdul  Aziz 
wrote  Al-Mujam  Md'a-ist-Ajam  a  book 
that  has  references  about  Debaland  Sind. 

1099  A.D.: 

Birth  of  Idrisi,  the  Indonesian  geogra- 
pher, who  settled  in  Cordova  and  com- 
pleted his  geographical  work  Nuzhatul 
Mushtak  Fi  Ikhti  (Enjoyment  for  the 
Seeker)  in  1154  A.D.,  in  the  court  of 
Roger-II,  the  Norman  king  of  Sicily. 
For  this  king,  he  also  made  a  round 
table  out  of  silver,  on  which  he  engraved 
the  map  of  the  world  as  was  known 
then. 


1100-1200  A.D. 


A  major  change  took  place  in  the  course 
of  river  Indus  through  Bakhar  Gorge, 
but  part  of  the  river  water  still  passed 
through  Sind  Dhoro,  Ruk  and  Lahano 
Dhoro.  Complete  waters  of  river  passed 
through  Bakhar  by  about  1250  A.D.  The 
year  952  A.D.  assigned  to  this  change  is 
now  discarded.  In  addition  to  this 
change,  seismic  activity  in  Cutch  as  well 
as  in  the  Rann,  which  surrounds  it  to 
the    north,    east      and    south     raised 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  68.  Masumi,  p.  60. 
Masumi's  statement  is  doubtful,  as  there 
was  no  power  in  the  Northern  Sind  to 
stop  their  expansion  upto  the  present 
Sind  border  and  beyond  during  this 
period. 

Masumi  was  under  the  misconcept  that 
Ghaznavis  held  most  of  Sind  during  the 
period. 


Translation  of  text  pertaining  to  the  Sub- 
continent by  Dr.  Maqbool  Ahmed  has 
been  published  from  Leiden  in  1961.  It 
describes  Sind.  Some  authorities  assign 
1150-51  A.D.  to  the  writing  of  this  work. 


K 


~ 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


231 


^** 


> 


. 


" 


the  bed  of  Rann  making  it  difficult 
and  treacherous  to  be  crossed.  Thus 
Cutch  was  cut  off  from  Sind,  Kathiawar 
and  Gujarat  with  whom  it  was 
connected  for  many  milleniums.  The 
influence  of  Sind  which  is  clear  from  a 
number  of  pre  and  post  Indus  sites  in 
Cutch  and  Kathiawar  decreased  con- 
siderably. However  communications 
between  the  people  of  middle  and  lower 
classes  continued  un-interrupted  until  a 
decade  back.  Even  today  Jats  of  Sind 
have  common  chief  or  Malik  and  un- 
authorised seasonal  migration  and  trade 
between  the  two  countries  has  survived. 
Cutchi  language  itself  is  a  dialect  of 
Sindhi.  In  Kathiawar  there  is  substantial 
population  speaking  the  Cutchi  or 
Memoni  language. 

1106-7  A.D.— 500  A.H.  : 

Sanghar  Soomro  died  without  a  heir 
and  Khafif-II,  brother  of  his  wife,  as- 
cended the  throne.  During  his  rule 
Khafif  conquered  a  part  of  Cutch. 


H.C.I.P.,  Vol.  VI,  p.  22  states  that  he 
was  succeeded  by  his  wife  Hamun. 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  pp.  95- 
96  and  484-486. 

Masumi,  p.  60  agrees  with  H.C.I.P. 
Masumi  states  that  his  wife  Hamafe.  ruled 
from  Wagha  Fort  and  her  two  brothers 
from  Muhammad  Tur  and  Tharri.  This 
statement  is  unacceptable  as  the  three 
Soomra  capitals  rose  due  to  hydrological 
changes  in  the  river  Indus  and  could  not 
have  existed  simultaneously.  The  ruins 
of  these  sites  have  not  been  explored  and 
dated. 

Daulat-i-AIviya   puts    the   date    of  the 
death  of  (Shahabuddin)  Sanghar  as  503 
A.  H.  (1 109-10  A.D.).    The  same  autho- 
rity states  that  Sanghar  was  replaced  by 


232 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1116-17  A.D.— 510  A.H.  : 

Ibn  Balkhi  wrote  Faras  Nama. 

1116-17  A.D.— 510  A.H.,  22nd  MuWam: 

Syed  Muhammad  Maki  bin  Muhammad 
Shuja  bin  Abi  Al-Qasim  bin  AH  Al- 
Mukarram  Muhammad  bin  Al-Saghir 
presently  buried  in  Shah  Maki  Fort, 
Hyderabad,  was  born. 

Between  1126—1138  A.D.  : 

Jayasimha  Siddharaja  defeated  Sindha- 
raja,  who  has  been  identified  with  a 
Soomra  chief  (not  the  king). 

Somesvera  has  described  the  same  in- 
cident stating  that  Siddharaja  defeated 
the  Lord  of  Sindhu  and  captured  him. 

Merutunga  has  described  that  the  am- 
bassador from  Malechcha  king  (Muslim 
ruler  of  Sind)  arrived  (probably  to  ask 
for  explanation  of  the  above  expedi- 
tion), but  Siddharaja  seems  to  have 
avoided  retaliation  of  the  Soomra  ruler 
showing  to  these  ambassadors,  that  he 
had  the  support  of  all  the  Chaulkaya 
and  other  kings  and  had  made  adequate 
preparation  for  retaliation.  The  am- 
bassadors perceiving  this  gave  suitable 
presents  and  retired  to  their  country. 


(Fakhurul  Malak)  brother  of  Hamun, 
and  he  ruled  for  one  year.  The  latter 
was  succeeded  by  Sirajuddin  Fateh  Khan 
who  died  in  511  A.H.  (1117-18  A.D.). 
Fateh  Khan  was  succeeded  by  Imam- 
uddin  Khafif  who  died  in  536  A.H. 
(1141-42  A.D.).  This  date  of  the  daeth 
of  Khafif  is  accepted  by  Tuhfat-ul 
Karam.  The  names  Fakhurul  Malak, 
Sirajuddin  Fateh  Khan  and  Imam- 
uddin  have  been  reported  for  the  first 
time  by  Daulat-i-Alviya. 


Mihran,  No.  3,  1963,  pp.  132-147. 


Ray,  H.  C,  Dynastic  History  of  Nor- 
thern India,  Vol.  II,  p.  972,  basing  on 
Dohad  inscription. 


Hemchandra  in  Devyastrayakava  des- 
cribes the  same  incident  adding  fiction  to 
it  as  quoted  by*Mujamdar  in  'Chaulkayas 
of  Gujarat',  pp.  81  and  446.  In  historical 
facts  Hemchandra  is  very  un-reliab!e 
specially  in  case  of  his  masters  (Chaul- 
kayas) vis-a-vis  others. 


v 


S 


J 


< 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


233 


Ganguly  has  identified  Sindharaja  with 
Parmar  king  of  Malwa.  Ray  identifies 
him  with  one  of  the  successors  of  Habari 
Dynasty  of  Mansura  (i.e.  Soomras). 
The  possibility  of  his  being  Sindhi  is 
greater  as  Sind  fcrmed  the  western 
boundary  of  the  Chaulkaya's  Empire 
and  there  was  hostility  between  the  two 
since  Ghamandaraja's  rule  (1053-1086 
A.D.). 

1114-42  A.D.— 536  A.H.  : 

Khafif  died  and  was  succeeded  by  his 
brother  Umer-I,  who  died  in  1180-81 
or  576  A.  H. 

Daulat-i-AIviya  gives  a  different  chro- 
nology for  this  period. 

(Jalaluddin)  Umer:  536-556  A.H.  1  Hi- 
ll 60  A.D. 

(Salahuddin)  Huju  :  556-570  A.H.  1160- 
1174A.D. 


(Ghiasuddin    Daud) 
1174-1203  A.D. 


570-600    A.H. 


The  folklore  of  Umer  and  Marvi  is 
associated  with  this  king  and  is  nothing 
more  than  a  fiction.  His  capital  was 
Tharri  in  Matli  Taluka  and  not  Umer- 
kot,  which  was  known  as  Amarkot  then. 


1143-44  A.D.  to  1252  A.D.  : 
538-650  A.H.  : 

Usman     Marandi     or     Lai 
Marandi  lived  then. 


Shahbaz 


He  was  from  Marand,  a  place  in  Azar- 
baijan  and  left  it  in  624  A.H.  or  1226 
A.D.,  when  Ali  Ashrafi  conquered  it. 

Khwarizm  Shah's  governor  Shafarul 
Malak  soon  reconquered  it  and  killed 


Dr.  Ganguly,  Parmara,  pp.  79-80.  Ray, 
Dr.,  H.  C,  Vol.  II,  p.  429. 

.- 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muham- 
mad Yousif,  quoted  in  Tuhfat-ul  Karam, 
by  Hussamuddin,  pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 
The  names  of  the  rulers  in  the  brackets 
are  not  mentioned  by  any  of  the  his- 
torians, except  Daulat-i-Alviya  and  ap- 
pear to  be  forged. 


■ 


• 


Professor  Muhammad  Shafi,  p.  20  and 
Gazetteer  of  the  Larkana  District, 
pp.  46-52. 

He  is  called  Raja  Bhartari  by  the  Hindus. 
Tod  supports  this  theory.  His  contempo- 
rary Pir  Patho  is  called  Raja  Gopichand. 
by  the  Hindus. 


234 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


many  people.  Usman  must  have  left 
Marand  then. 

1145-1234  A.D.  : 

Shaikh  Shahabuddin  Umer  Suharwardi, 
the  founder  of  Suharwardi  sect  of  Sufism 
lived. 

1147-1948  A.D.  : 

Cutch  ruled  by  second  Samma  Dynasty 
of  Sind.  They  are  called  Jareja  Sammas. 

1150  A.D.  or  earlier  : 

Destruction  of  Ghazni  by  the  Ghoris 
and  the  migration  of  the  Iranian  Blue 
(Kashi)  tile  to  Sind,  the  earlist  evidence 
of  which  comes  from  the  tomb  of  Shah 
Yousuf  Gardezi.  d.    1 152  A.D. 

1150  A.D.— 549  A.H.  : 

Idrisi  wrote  Nuzhatul  Mushtaq  Fi 
Akhtarul  Aafaq  (The  delight  of  those 
who  seek  to  wander  through  the  regions 
of  the  world).  It  describes  Sind,  its 
cities,  rivers,  ports,  trade  routes,  etc. 

1160  A.D.  : 

Ibn-al-Asir,  the  historian  and  writer  of 
Tarikh-i-Kamil  was  born  in  Iraq. 

It  was  originally  written  in  Arabic  and 
later  on  rendered  into  Persian.  It  des- 
cribes the  Arab  Governors  of  Sind, 
Mahmud  Ghaznavi's  conquest  of  Man- 
sura  after  return  from  Somnath  and 
many  other  incidents  from  the  history 
of  Sind.  The  book  covers  incidents 
upto  1230  A.D. 

1165-66  A.D.— 561  A.H.: 

The  probable  date  of  birth  of  Qalandar 
Shahbaz  (Muhammad  Usman  Mar- 
andi). 


The  text  edited  by  Dr.  Maqbool  Ahmed 
has  been  published  by  the  Aligarh  Uni- 
versity. Portions  pertaining  to  the  Sub- 
continent, translated  in  English  by  the 
same  author,  have  been  published  from 
Leiden. 

The  Arabic  Text  has  been  published  from 
Leiden  and  Cairo.  The  Persian  transla- 
tion has  been  published  from  Tehran. 


• 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi. 

There  is  not   sufficient  evidence   of  his 


^> 


> 


1 


. 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


235 


He  died  in  673  A.H.  at  the  age  of  1 12 
years  which  makes  his  birth  date  as 
561  A.H. 

Ibn  Batuta  saw  his  Khanqah  at  Sehwan 
in  1333-34  A.D.  He  was  probably  at 
Multan,  when  in  1237  A.D.  the 
Ismailis  of  Sind,  Punjab  and  North 
India  collected  at  Delhi  and  massacred 
a  Friday  congregation,  though  the  date 
assigned  to  his  arrival  in  Multan  given 
by  Tuhfat-ul-Karam  is  1264  A.D.  when 
he  was  99  (solar)  years  old. 

1166-67  A.D.-562  A.H. : 

Samani  wrote  Kitab-al-Ansab. 

1175  A.D.  : 

Lakho,  a  Jareja  Samma  of  Sind  captured 
Kanthkot,  capital  of  Wagad  in  Eastern 
Cutch.  The  whole  Cutch  was 
united  and  ruled  by  this  dynasty,  which 
continued  its  rule  of  this  province  upto 
June  1948. 

1175-1215  A.D.  : 

After  his  father  Lakho's  death  Cutch 
was  ruled  by  Rayadhan  Jareja  Samma. 
He  enlarged  his  territories  to  embrace 
whole  island  of  Cutch  as  well  as  the 
islands  to  the  north.  He  also  subdued 
Muslim  Jats  (of  the  Lower  Sind),  who 
had  migrated  from  Sind  to  Cutch.  As 
per  local  tradition,  the  Rann  of  Cutch 
dried  up  during  his  regime;  a 
process  caused  by  seismic  activity 
on  the  one  hand  (rising  level  of  the  bed 
of  Gulf  of  Cutch),  and  by  drying  up 
of  Hakra  (Sarswati-Wahind-Hakra 
system)  on  the  other  hand. 

1175  A.D.  : 

Muhammad  Ghori  married  a  Hindu 
princess  of  Uch.the  ruler  of  which  was 


being  at  Multan  in  1235  A.D.  But  he 
could  not  have  come  to  Multan  at  the 
age  of  99  years  in  662  A.H. 

There  is  a  conjecture  that  he  may  have 
been  connected  with  Ismaili  preachers. 


Williams,  p.  94. 


Williams,  pp.  94-95.  Rayadhan  appears 
to  be  a  typical  Samma  name.  Cutch  had 
two  other  Rayadhan  rulers,  who  ruled 
from  1666-1698  and,  1778-1785  A.D. 
The  Sind  Rayadhan  ruled  from  1454 
to  1461  A.D. 


• 


■ 
v 

CHI,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  38. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  5  mentions  Ghori's 


236 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


i 


a  petty  Raja  of  Bhatti  tribe.  Uch  and 
Multan  like  Sind,  were  the  Ismaili 
(Qarmati)  strong-holds. 

It  appears  that  there  were  a  number  of 
Hindu  principalities  near  Uch  and 
Multan  which  Muhammad  Ghori  had 
reduced. 

1175-76  A.D.— 571  A.H. : 

Sultan  Shahab-ud-Din  Muhammad  bin 
Sam  Ghori  attacked  Bhatia. 

1175-76  A.D.—571  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Shahab-ud-Din  (Muizz-al-Din) 
bin  Sam  Muhammad  Ghori  during  the 
rule  of  his  elder  brother  Ghiasuddin 
(569  A.H.— 599  A.H.  or  1173-1202 
A.D.),  reduced  Sind  (by  Sind,  Upper 
Sind  with  capital  at  Uch  is  meant). 


He  appointed  general  Ali  Kirmakh  to 
look  after  Multan  and  Uch  and  crush 
Ismailis.    The  rulers  of  Sind  and  Mul- 
tan then  were  Ismailis  or  Qarmatis  as 
some  historians  call  them. 
Hearing  of  this  Muhammad  Bin  Ali,  the 
ruler  of  Almut,the  Paradise  of  assassins, 
asked  Bhim  Dev  Solanki-II       (1179- 
1242  A.D.)  of  Gujarat  to  attack  Sind 
(meaning  thereby  Ali  Kirmakb's  terri- 
tory in  the  Upper  Sind).  As  a  consequ- 
ence Muizzuddin  Ghori  attacked  Debal 
in  575  A.H.  (1179-80  A.D.),  to  cut  off 


conquest  of  Uch,  Thatta  and  Multan  in 
569  A.H.  (1173-74  A.D).  The  state- 
ment is  incorrect  as  Thatta  did  not  exist 
then  and  also  for  the  next  160  years.  The 
conquest  may  have  been  limited  to  Uch, 
which  was  capital  of  the  Upper  Sind. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  6  puts  Thatta  instead 
of  Bhatia  which  is  not  correct  as  Thatta 
did  not  exist  in  1175  A.D. 

Masumi,  pp.  33-34,  assigns  year  591  A.H. 
to  it,  which  is  wrong.  It  further  states  that 
Muhammad  Ghori  conquered  Multan 
and  Uch,  while  Sind  was  sacked  by  Qut  b- 
ud-Din  Aibak  in  three  months.  The  latter 
appointed  Sailul-Maluk  to  look  after 
Sind's  affairs.  The  statement  is  doubtful 
as  Qutubuddin  was  not  one  of  the 
generals  of  Shahabuddin  then  and 
Saiful-Maluk  is  also  not  mentioned  in 
other  histories. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  116. 

- 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari,    Vol.  I,  p.  16. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  5  and  6. 

The  statements  shows  that  the   Qarmatis 
were  not  completely      suppressed       by 
Mahmud  of  Ghazni. 
CHI,  Vol.  II,  p.  523. 


x 


. 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


237 


Soomras  from  Bhim  Dev  and  also  to 
cut  off  the  sea  route  of  the  Fidais  of 
Almut  who  were  coming  via  the  Persian 
Gulf  to  join  Bhim  Dev. 

1175-76  AD.: 

Muizzuddin  Ghori  wrested  Multan  and 
Uch  from  the  Ismaili  (Qarmati)  rulers. 

He  came  via  the  Gomal  Pass  which  was 
an  easier  route  and  sacked  the  nearest 
kingdoms.  He  avoided  the  Khyber  Pass 
which  besides  being  a  difficult  route  was 
bound  to  be  vehemently  contested  by 
the  Ghaznavis  and  the  Hindus. 


Abbas,  H.  al-Hamdani,  in  the  Beginnings 
of  the   Ismaili  Dawa  in  Northern  India', 
p.  12  states  that  it  is  likely   that  of  the 
Soomra    brothers,  Khafif  or  Umer  may 
have  been  ruling  Multan  then.    Basing 
on  Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  95-96,  that  Do- 
da-II  on  assuming  the  leadership  of  Soom- 
ra s  from  his  fortress  of  Wagha  marched 
against    the  brothers  and  killed  them, 
Hamdani  assumes  that  the  remnants  of 
the   ruling   Soomra   tribes  (then   being 
defeated  at  Multan,  Uch  and  elsewhere 
by  advancement  of  Muhammad  Ghori) 
gathered  at  Debal  and  elected  Doda-II 
as  their  next  ruler.    But  Ghori  occupied 
Debal  in  578  A.H.  and  swept  through 
Sind. 

Hamdani's  statement  is  a  conjecture. 
Ghori  raided  Debal  and  the  coastal  area 
(probably  Makran  coast)  and  returned 
back,  without  substantial  results  as  the 
Soomras  continued  to  rule  most  of  Sind. 

Masumi,  p.  34  states  that  his  military 
commander  Qutubuddin  Aibak  subdued 
Sind  in  three*  months. 

Masumi's  statement  about  the  conquest 
of  Sind  by  Qutubuddin  Aibak  (whose 
name  first  appears  in  Ghori's  conquests 
in  488  A.H.  or  988  A.D.)  is  incorrect. 

However  Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  I,  p.  117 
states  that  Shahabuddin  Ghori  took  an 
expedition  towards  Debal  and  having 
conquered  the  coastal  areas  returned  to 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1175-76  A.D.-571  A.H.  : 

The  Ismailism  survived  in  Multan  in 
spite  of  Mahmud  of  Ghazni's  sacking  it 
thrice.  Sultan  Muizzuddin  Ghori  if 
reported  to  have  delivered  Multan  from 
the  hands  of  the  Qarmatis  (actually 
Ismailis  but  wrongly  called  Qarmatis 
by  most  of  the  Sunni  Muslim  historians). 

1175-76  A.D.— 571  A.H.  : 

The  Sankuran  tribe  raised  rebellion 
against  Sultan  Muizzuddin  Ghori.  The 
latter  attacked  them  in  572  A.H.  and 
put  large  number  of  them  to  sword. 

1077-1166  A.D.  : 

Shaikh  Mohiyuddin  Abdul  Qadir  of 
Gilan  lived  and  founded  the  Qadiri  sect 
of  Sufism. 

1178  A.D.  : 

Mulraj-II,  the  Chaulkaya  king  of 
Gujarat,  defeated  a  minor  expedition  of 
Muslims  (Turushkas). 

There  are  conjectures  that  this  may  have 
been  a  Soomra  expedition,  but  is  im- 
probable as  during  the  same  years  Muiz- 
uddin  Ghori  was  threatening  their 
northern  frontiers  of  Uch  and  Multan, 
in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  Chaulkayas 
of  Anahilvada  were  frequently  in 
conflict  with  the  rulers  of  Sind. 


Ghazni  with  a  large  booty.  Even  this 
statement  does  not  prov  esubduing  of 
independent  rulers  of  Sind,  i.e.  the 
Soomras. 

Also  refer  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  120  and 
129. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  I,  p.  38  and 
Tarikh-i-Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  10. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  Calcutta  edition  1864, 
pp.  116  and  189. 


According  to  Mirat-i-Jahan  Numa  quoted 
by  Raverty  (Nasiri,  pp.  450-51),  the  above 
was  the  Bhatti  tribe,  whose  Raja  held 
large  parts  of  Upper  Sind. 


Reported  by  Somevera  in  Kitikanmudi, 
Vol.  II,  pp.  47-48  and  also  quoted  by 
Mujamdar  in  Chaulkayas  of  Gujarat, 
pp.  131-133. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  6  mentions  Ghoris 
expedition  on  Gujarat  and  defeat  of  Raja 
Bhim  Dev.  The  statement  is  incorrect  as 
Bhim  Dev  was  contemporary  of  Mahmud 
of  phazni  and  not  of  Ghori.  Mubarak 
Shahi  is  not  a  contemporary  history  and 
for  this  period  it  is  only  a  secondary  and 
less  reliable  source. 


1 


- 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


1 


It  could  not  have  been  the  main  army  of 
Muizzuddin  Ghori,  as  firstly  he  was  very 
well  organized,  secondly  no  records 
mention  his  expedition  to  those  remote 
areas,  when  he  had  not  been  satisfied 
with  raids  on  Debal  and  the  sea  coast. 
The  other  possibility  is  that  raiders  be- 
ing Turushkas  (Turks)  could  mean  a 
small  army  of  Muizzuddin  Ghori  under 
a  minor  officer. 

1178  A.D.  or  soon  afterwards  : 

The  Soomra  chief  Pithu  of  Nagar  Parkar 
conquered  the  whole  of  Cutch  and 
reached  the  city  of  Bhadresvara,  which 
he  destroyed  and  returned  back  to 
Nagar  Parkar 

In  retaliation,  the  Chaulkaya  King, 
Bhim  Dev-II  (1178-1241  A.D.),  sent  an 
expedition  against  Pithu  who  fled. 

1180-81  A.D.— 576  A.H.  : 

Umer  Soomro  died,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Doda-II  who  continued  to  rule  upto 
590  A.H.  (1194-1195  A.D). 

Mir  Masum  does  not  mention  the  rule 
of  Khafif-II,  but  instead  that  of  Hamun, 
and  according  to  the  same  source  she 
was  succeeded  by  Phatu.  This  may 
simply  be  a  conjecture. 


G.  Buhler,  Indian  Studies,  Vol.  I,  basing 
on  Jagaducharita,  Vol.  V,  pp.  3-41,  gives 
the  name  of  Parkar  ruler  as  Pithadeva 
and  Buhler  identifies  this  with  Pithu. 

The  Sind  historians  writing  450  years 
later  assign  this  period  to  the  rule  of 
Umer  Soomro  in  Sind. 


Masumi,  p.  60. 


The  Indian  sources  mention  Pithu  or 
Phatu,  a  Soomra  chief  of  Nagar  Parkar. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  69  and  486  men- 
tions the  rule  of  Phatu  after  the  death  of 
Dodo  in  590  A.H.  (1 194  A.D.)  and  lasting 

upto  623  A.H.  (1226  A.D.). 

• 

The  two  Phatus  can  be  different  persons 
or  this  Phatu  could  be  a  grandson  of 
Phatu,  the  chief  of  Nagar  Parkar. 

Boongar-II  was  a  successor  of  Doda-II. 
From  the  above  chronology  it  is  clear  that 
Dodo-II  ruled  when  Ghori  attacked 
Upper  Sind  and  Debal.  Since  Dodo-II 
was  not  contemporary  of  Allauddin,  the 
Sindhi  folklore  may  be     pertaining    to 


240 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1181  A.D.— 577  A.H.: 

Sultan  Shahabuddin  Ghori  marched  on 
Debal  and  after  capturing  areas  along 
the  sea  coast,  returned  to  Ghazni  with 
a  large  booty. 

1182  A.D.— 578  A.H.  : 

The  birth  of  Shaikh-ul-Islara  Zakariya 
Multani. 

1186  A.D.— 582  A.H.  : 

Rendering  into  Persian  of  Utbi's  Kitab- 
al-Yamini  by  Abul  Sharaf  of  Jabardican. 

1193  A.D.: 

The  birth  of  historian  Minhaj  Siraj  at 
Ferozkoh.  His  history  'Tabaqat-i-Nasiri' 
covers  the  period  upto  1258  A.D. 

1194-1199  A.D.— 590-595  A.H.  : 

Writing  of  Imam  Saghani's  travels  in 
the  Sub-continent  including  Sind.  He 
visited  the  Sub-continent  again  from 
606-610  A.H.  (1209/10-1213  A.D.)  and 
613  to  615  A.H.  (1216/17-1218-19  A.D.). 
Khalifa  Naziruddin  sent  him  as  an  amba- 
ssador to  the  court  of  Altatmash  in  616 
A.H.  (1219/20  A.D.).  He  died  in  650 
A.H.  (1252/53  A.D.),  while  writing  his 
book,"  Al-AbabAl-Zakhir  Wa  Al-Lu- 
babal  Fakhir"  in  which  he  describes 
Sind  and  the  pirates  of  Debal  who  paid 
regular  tribute  to  the  amirs  and  rulers 
of  Debal  for  their  protection. 


Ghori-Soomra  conflict  rather  than  Alla- 
uddin-Dodo  conflict. 

Daulat-i-Alviya  does  not  mention  Dodo's 
name  during  this  period  but  it  is  con- 
sidered a  forged  piece  of  history. 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  120-129. 


This  is  more  probable  than  controversial 
statements  of  Masumi  for  the  years  571 
and  575  A.H.  It  seems  to  be  simply  an 
organized  raid  on  Sind  and  Makran 
coasts.    Also  refer  entry  1175 — 76  A.D. 


See  entry  1036  A.D. 

See  entry  1258  A.D. 

■ 
Journal  Ma'arif,    No.  3,  Vol.  83,  p.  222. 


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■ 


XiVT*r 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


241 


i 


r 


1194  A.D.— 590  AjH.  : 

Boongar-II,  Soomro,  a  descendant  of 
Podo-I  became  king  of  Sind  in  place  of 
Dodo-JI  who  died. 


1200-1206  A.D.: 

Sultan  Qutubuddin  Aibak  captured  the 
fort  of  Kanthkot  in  Anhilvada.most 
probably  from  Rayadhan  Jareja, 
Samma  ruler  of  Cutch.  The  success  must 
have  been  temporary  as  the  Central  and 
the  Western  Cutch  remained  in  Samma 
hands  and  on  Aibak's  death  in  1210 
A.D.,  civil  strife  arose  between  Qaba- 
cha  and  Altatmash  resulting  into  re- 
capture of  Eastern  Cutch  by  the  Samma 
Jareja  s. 

1200-1229  A.D.: 

Kumarapala  ruled  Gujarat.  His  empire 


included 
Cutch 


Sambhar,     Saurashtra    and 


Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.K., 
pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 

Tuhfat-ui-Karam  states  that  Dodo-II 
was  succeeded  by  Phatu  (Fateh  Khan). 

Daulat-i-Alviya  does  not  mention  Dodo- 
II  and  instead  gives  the  rule  of  Ghiasuddin 
Daud  from  570-600  A.H.  or  1 174-1203/04 
A.D.   and    Daud    being    succeeded    by 
Allauddin  Khairo  Ghunero. 

• 


Williams,  p.  94. 

Mujamdar,  Chaulkayas  of  Gujarat,  p.  1 17. 

This  is  an  exaggerated  account  of  the 
extent  of  his  empire  by  Hemchandra  in 
Kumarapalacharia  or  Prakrit  Devyasraya, 
that  the  king  of  Sindhu  (Soomro)  devoted 
himself  to  the  service  of  Kumarapala  and 
kings  of  Uwa,  Vanarasi,  Maghadha 
Gauda,  etc.,  sent  him  horses,  elephants, 
gems  and  waited  on  him.  All  this  is  in 
fact  an  eulogy  to  please  the  masters  in 
whose  service  Hemchandra  remained 
and  npt  a  historical  fact.  Reliability  of 
his  grammar  of  Prakrit  languages  would 
be  equally  good. 


242 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1203-04  A.D.-600  A.H.  : 

The  birth  of  Zakariya  Qazwini,  author  of 
Athar-al-Bilad-wa-Akhbar-al-Ibad  or 
'An  account  of  cities  and  ports  of  the 
world.' 

1201  A.D.-598  A.H.  : 

Pir  Shamsuddin  Sabzwari,  an  Ismaili 
preacher  and  a  well-known  poet,  came 
to  Sind  and  continued  his  preaching  for 
the  next  76  years  upto  675  A.H.  or  1267 
A.D.  in  Multan.  He  composed  his  prea- 
chings in  Multani  as  well  as  in  Sindhi 
languages. 

1205-6  A.D.-602  A.H.: 
Hassan  Nizami  commenced  the  writing 
of  Taj-ul-Maasir,  "A  History  of  Qutub- 
uddin  Aibak".  It  describes  Qabacha's 
death  at  Bakhar  while  Altatmash's 
forces  laid  siege  to  it. 

1206  A.D.— 602  A.H.,  3rd  Shaban  : 

Muhmmad  Ghori  was  assassinated  by 
an  Ismaili  Khokarat  Demak  in  District 
Jhelam.  His  nephew  Mahmud  pro- 
claimed himself  as  the  successor.  How- 
ever, his  three  generals  Qutubuddin, 
Nasiruddin  Qabacha  and  Yalduz,  as- 
sumed independent  power  in  Delhi, 
Sind,  Multan  and  Uch,  and  Ghazni 
respectively. 


Mahmood,  who  was  enthroned  in 
Ferozkoh,  sent  Khilat  to  Qutubuddin 
Aibak  making  him  the  ruler  of  all  Ghori 
territories  in  the  Sub-continent.  Ac- 
cordingly Aibak  was  enthroned  in  Zil- 
Qad  602  A.H.  or  1207  A.D. 


See  entry  683  A.H.  Portions  pertaining 
to  Sind  have  been  translated  in  Elliot  and 
Dowson,  Vol.  I,  pp.  93-99. 


Ghulam  AH  Allana,  Soomran  Jay  Daur 
Ji  Sindhi  Sha'ari,  Mihran  No.  1  and  2, 
1960,  pp.  130  and  51. 


It  contradicts  Masumi's  statement,  pp. 
33-34  that  Qutubuddin,  the  general  of 
Muhammad  Shahabuddin  Ghori  had 
subdued  Sind. 


Masumi,  p.  34. 

Lane  Poole,  p.  294. 

Raverty,  Nasiri,  p.  403,  states  that  on 
the  death  of  Muizzuddin,  the  Ghori  s 
became  vassals  of  Khwarizm  sovereigns 
who  annexed  the  whole  of  Ghoris' 
territory  as  far  as  the  Indus  and  Jhelam. 
It  was  this  claim,  that  brought  Jalaluddin 
Khwarizm  Shah  to  Lahore  and  Uch 
in  1221  A.D. ,  after  his  defeat  at  the  hands 
of  Changiz  Khan. 

Firishta,  Vol.  II,  pp.  609-10. 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


243 


r 


Qabacha  nominally  accepted  the  suze- 
rainty of  Aibak,  his  father-in-law.  He 
occasionally  visited  Delhi  court  too. 

1205-1215/16  A.D.— 602-612  A.H.  : 

Sadardin  Munmmad  Bin  Hasan 
Nizami  Nishapuri  wrote  history  of 
Qutubuddin  Aibak  known  as  Tajul- 
Ma'athir. 

1210  A.D— 607  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Qutubuddin  Aibak  died.  His 
son  Aram  Shah,  the  new  Sultan,  was  a 
weak  ruler.  Taking  advantage  of  this, 
Qabacha  after  the  conquest  of  the  rest 
of  Upper  Sind  and  Multan,  declared 
independence  and  issued  his  own  coins. 

Tajuddin  Yalduz,  the  ruler  of  Ghazni, 
made  several  expeditions  against  Qaba- 
cha and  succeeded  in  occupying  Multan 
and  Uch  for  a  short  time  after  taking 
possession  of  Lahore.  Soon  after- 
wards Altatmash  defeated,  imprisoned 
and  killed  Yalduz  and  became  Sultan  of 
Delhi.  This  gave  Qabacha  a  chance  to 
recover  the  lost  territories. 

• 

1215  A.D.  : 

Death  of  Rayadhan  Samma  Jareja,  ruler 
of  Cutch  whose  father  had  migrated 
from  Sind  and  established  a  kingdom. 
On  his  death  the  kingdom  was  divided 
between  his  four  sons  Dadar,  Otha, 
Gajan  and  Hotha  who  got  Wagad,  Lak- 
hiarvira,  Bara  and  Punar  respectively. 

1216  A.D  — 613  A.H.  : 

AH  bin  Hamid  bin  Abu  Bakar  Kufi 
started  translation  of  an  Arabic  work 


Qabacha  had  married  two  daughters  of 
Aibak,  one  after  the  other.  The  third 
daughter  was  married  to  Altatmash, 
Governor  of  Badaun. 

This  history  shows  that  Sind  was  not 
conquered  by  Aibak. 


Firishta,  Vol.  II,  pp.  609-10. 
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  56-57. 

Masumi,  pp.  34  and  532. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri  states  that  Qabacha  con- 
quered Sind  upto  Debal.  This  may  not  be 
correct  as  the  Soomras  ruled  the  Lower 
Sind  un-interrupted  for  these  years. 
The  Soomras  surrendered  only  to  Sultan 
Balban  (1265-1287  A.D.).  Mubarak 
Shahi,  p.  16  confirms  his  conquest  of  the 
Upper  Sind  upto  Sehwan. 

Tabqaat-i-Akbari,  pp.  142-143  states  ttha 
Qabacha  conquered  Multan,  Uch,  Bakhar 
and  Sewistan  (Sehwan).  There  is  no 
mention  of  the  Lower  Sind. 


Williams,  pp.  98-99. 


Daudpota,  Chachnama,  p.  3. 


244 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


into  Persian  and  called  it  Chachnama. 
It  was  dedicated  to  Sardar-i-Jahan 
Ain-ul-Mulk  Hussain,  Vazier  of  Nasir- 
uddin  Qabacha,  the  ruler  of  Upper  Sind 
(Uch  and  Bakhar).  During  the*  same 
year  (1216  A.D.),  Kufi  visited  Bakhar 
and  Alore  to  collect  material  on  the 
Arab  conquest  of  Sind. 


1216-1296  A.D. : 

The  first  three  sons  of  Rayadhan  who 
were  assigned  Wagad  (capital  at  Kanth- 
kot)  areas  surrounding  Lakhiarvira 
and  Bara  near  Tera  in  Western  Cutch 
and  their  descendants  ruled  independent- 
ly of  each  other,  but  joined  hands  to 
drive  Kathis  (a  clan  of  Sind  who  had 
migrated  to  Cutch)  to  area  now 
named  after  them  as  Kathiawar. 
His  fourth  son  Hotha  from  another 
wife  who  was  given  twelve  villages  near 
Punariwas  reduced  to  the  level  of  a  big 
Zamindar  and  not  a  ruler.  The  descend- 
ants of  Dadar,  Otha  and  Gajan  ruled 
up  to  1510  A.D.,  when  Khengar,  des- 
cendant of  Otha  subdued  whole  the 
Cutch  and  started  a  new  dynasty. 

1217-18  A.D.— 614  A.H.  : 

Nasiruddin  Qabacha,  the  ruler  ofMul- 
tan,  Uch  and  Northern  Sind,  captured 
Lahore  and  the  present  N.  W.  F.  P.,  but 
soon  was  defeated  by  Altatmash  and 
retreated  to  Multan.  Lahore  and 
N.  W.  F.  P.  were  under  Tajuddin 
Yalduz,  who  was  defeated  by  Altatmash 


Professor  Hardy  thinks  that  Chachnama 
was  translated  and  re-shaped  to  advice 
Delhi  Sultans  and  their  Amirs,  how  to 
govern  India  and,  therefore,  has 
a  lot  of  additions  and  alterations  to  the 
original  Arabic  text. 

Hardy,  'Chachnama'.  An  article  read 
in  the  seminar,  Sind  Through  the  Cen- 
turies, Karachi,  1975. 

Ain-ul-Mulk  Fakhr-ud-Daula-wa-Din, 
Hussain,  Vazier  of  Qabacha  was  son  of 
Sharaful  Mulk  who  also  was  Vazier  of 
Qabacha. 


Williams,  pp.  100-114. 


• 


• 


Firishta,  Vol.  II,  pp.  609-10. 


. 


. 


» 


• 


•• 


SOOMRA   DYNASTY 


245 


\ 


i 


in  1210-11  A.D.  (607  A.H.)  and  impri- 
soned in  Badayun,  where  he  died. 

Raverty  states  that  Qabacha  had  appro- 
priated Multan,  Upper  Sind,  Bakhar, 
Siwistan  and  areas  north  east  as  far  as 
Sursuti  and  Khuram.  He  made  Uch  as 
his  capital;  to  be  more  secure  than  at 
Multan. 

Raverty  further  states  that  afterwards 
Qabacha  extended  his  domain  upto 
Debal  and  the  sea  coast.  But  this  is 
disproved  by  the  fact  that  Chanesar 
Soomro  continued  to  rule  Debal  when 
in  1221  A.D.  Khwarizm  Shah  attacked 
it. 

Yahya  Sirhandi  states  that  on  the  death 
of  Qutubuddin,  Qabacha  occupied  Mul- 
tan, Uch  and  Bakhar. 

This  shows  that  the  Lower  Sind  was  not 
subdued  by  either  Muhammad  Ghori 
or  Qutubuddin  Aibak. 

1221  A.D.-618  A.H.  : 

Jalaluddin  Khwarizm  Shah  having 
been  defeated  by  Chengiz  Khan  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  Indus,  crossed  the  river 
and  sought  help  from  Altatmash  and 
Qabacha  both  of  whom  refused.  He 
reached  Lahore,  collected  10,000  of  his 
dispersed  troops,  defeated  the  Khokars 
of  Salt  Range  and  then  married  the 
daughter  of  their  ruler  Rai  Khokar 
Sangeen,  an  enemy  of  Qabacha,  and 
sent  7,000  troops  after  the  latter,  who 
was  defeated  near  Uch  and  escaped  and 
took  shelter  in  the  Bakhar  fort.  Uzbek 
Tai,  Jalaluddin's  general  who  had  de- 
feated Qabacha's  20,000  troops  near 
Uch,  reached  the  camp  and  captured 
some  of  the  latter's  soldiers.    Qabacha 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  529  and  532. 
Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  16  confirms  Qabacha's 
conquest  of  Sind  upto  Sehwan,  but  not 
the  Lower  Sind. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  16. 


. 


Firishta,  Vol.  II,  pp.  604-605  and  614. 

Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  Vol.  I,  p.  294. 

Tarikh-i-Jehan  Gusha  Juwaini,  Vol.  II, 
pp.  146-148  and  143. 

The  statement  about  Debal  is  incorrect. 
The  mosque  was  built  by  the  Arabs  and 
this  city  was  burnt  by  Jalaluddin 
Khwarizm  Shah. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam  mentions  the  rule  of 
Fathu'from  590-623  A.H.  (1194-1226 
A.D.),   which  is  incorrect  in   view   of 

Juwaini's  statement  that  Chanesar  was 

ruling  Sind  then. 


246 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


escaped  to  Multan,  while  the  Shah  came 
and  camped  near  Uch  and  sent  envoy 
to  Qabacha  to  return  the  son  and 
daughter  of  Malik  Amin  who  had  es- 
caped in  the  battle  of  the  Indus  with 
Chengiz.  They  were  returned  and  a 
request  was  made  that  the  Shah  would 
not  destroy  the  country-side.  Later  on 
due  to  non-payment  of  tribute  by  Qaba- 
cha, Khwarizm  Shah  attacked  Uch  and 
burnt  it.  He  also  attacked  Sehwan.  Its 
governor  Fakhur  Salari  surrendered  and 
asked  for  peace  which  was  granted.  The 
Shah  then  moved  to  Debal  and  Darmil- 

la.  The  ruler  of  the  Lower  Sind,  Chane- 

• 

sar  escaped  in  a  boat  to  the  sea.  The 
Shah  built  a  mosque  on  the  site  of  a 
temple  at  Debal.  His  general  Khasi 
Khan  attacked  Naharwallah  and  cap- 
tured many  camels.  During  the  expedi- 
tion most  of  the  towns  and  countryside 
of  Sind  was  burnt. 

1222-23  A.D.— 619-20  A.H.  : 

In  order  to  stop  entry  of  Sultan  Jalal- 
uddin  Khwarizm  Shah  Mangbarni 
into  Iran,  Chengiz  Khan  deputed  his  son 
Uktae  towards  Ghor.  The  latter  fixed 
his  camp  between  Feroz  Koh  and 
Ghazni  and  sent  out  bodies  of  forces  to- 
wards Kich  (Makran)  and  Sind  to  devast 
those  countries. 


Uktae  could  not  encounter  Jalaluddin 
who  moved  from  Sind  in  621  A.H.  (1224 
A.D.)  so  he  returned  to  Ghazni  after 
marching  through  the  valley  of  the 
Indus  (from  Makran  to  the  Lower  Sind 
and  then  via  the  Upper  Sind  and  the 
Bolan  Pass  to  Ghazni). 

No  details  are  available  but  it  is  certain 
that  most  of  the  cities  of  Sind  must  have 


Daulat-i-Alviya  states  that  Gunero  was 
ruling  Sind  then,  but  the  version  of 
Juwaini  is  more  authentic.  It  would 
therefore,  appear  that  chronologies  of 
Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Daulat-i-Alviya  and 
Masumi  are  not  reliable. 


Raverty  in  Nasiri,  p.  290  states  that 
Jalaluddin  being  too  weak  before  Chengiz 
set  out  for  the  Punjab  and  Sind  because 
he  laid  claim  on  these  territories  as  the 
successor  of  Shahabuddin  Ghori,  whose 
possessions  were  annexed  to  their  Em- 
pire. 


■ 


* 

Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  1073-1075. 

Khwarizm  Shah  Dynasty  had  ruled 
Persia  from  490  A.H.— 628  A.H. 
(1097-1231  A.D.). 


. 


■ 


*1 


* 


f 

I 
r 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


been  destroyed  both  by  Jalaluddin  and 
Uktae  in  succession. 

1223-24  A.D.  : 

Bhanbhore  (Debal)  settlement  came  to 
a  sudden  end  by  violent  disturbances 
in  the  12th  or  13th  century.  (The  city 
was  actually  burnt  by  Khwarizm 
Shah  in  1223-24  A.D.  after  a  bitter 
fight  into  streets  as  shown  by  archaeo- 
logical excavations). 

1224  A.D. : 


Jalaluddin    Khwarizm  Shah  after  des- 
troying Debal  left  for  Kirman.       • 

• 
Jalaluddin  also  devasted  Pari  Nagar  and 

some  areas  of  Northern  Gujarat  before 

leaving  for    Kirman;    thus   amassing 

treasures  sufficiently  big   to  reach  Iraq 

and  re-establish  himself. 


Khwarizm  Shah  who  set  out  for  Iraq 
from  Sind  via  Makran  reached  there, 
but  like  Alexander  before  him,  lost  a 
number  of  his  followers  due  to  un- 
healthiness  of  climate  and  lack  of  water. 

1224-26  A.D.  : 

After  the  departure  of  Khwarizm  Shah 
Mangbarni  from  Debal  via  Makran,  he 
left  two  of  his  officers  Hassan  Qarlugh 
and  Uzbek  Pai  who  having  been  pressed 
inexorably  by  the  Mongols  from  west 
steadily  fell  back  on  central  Sind 
(Sehwan  territories),  a  thorn  in  Qaba- 
cha's  side. 


247 

■ 

F.   A.   Khan,   Bhanbhore   Excavation; 
1963. 


. 

■ 

Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  539-40. 

Juwaini,  Tarikh-i-Jehan  Gusha,  Vol.  n, 
p.  140. 

Howorth,  History  of  Mongols,  Vol.  I, 
p.  90. 

Nessawi,  Sirat-i-Jalaluddin    Mangbarni, 
edited  by    Scheffer,  pp.  83-84. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  Asiatic  Society  Bengal, 
p.  144. 

See  entry  1226  A.D.,  for  Pari  Nagar. 
Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  295. 

. 

Nessawai,  Sirat-i- Jalaluddin,  Mangbarni 
(edited  by  Scheffer),  pp.  83-84. 

Habibullah,  Foundations  of  Muslim  Rule 
in  India,  pp.  191-97. 
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  171  and  293. 


248 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SINI* 


1224-25  A.D.— 621  A.H.  : 

Yaqoot  Hamavi  born  of  Greek  parents, 
wrote  Mu'ajamul  Baldan  (Encyclopaedia 
of  Geography).  Born  in  1179  A.D.  in 
Eastern  Roman  Empire  he  was  taken  as 
prisoner  in  a  war  and  sold  in  Baghdad. 
He  wrore  this  Encyclopaedia  at  Merv, 
after  failure  in  a  love  affair.  The  book 
gives  information  on  Sind.  He  died  in 
1229  A.D. 

1225  A.D— 622  A.H.  : 

Syed  Usman  Marandi  Qalandar   Shah 

Baz  came  to  M ultan. 


1225-1293  A.D.  : 

Juwaini,  the  historian  and  governor  of 
Almut,  the  Paradise  of  Assassins,  since 
its  fall  at  the  hands  of  Haiaku  in  1256, 
lived  and  wrote  the  history  of  the  World 
Conqueror  (Tarikh-i-Jehan  Gusha-i- 
Juwaini).  It  describes  Khwarizm  Shah's 
defeat,  his  flight  to  Sind,  Chanesar 
Soomro's  panic  and  former's  sacking  of 
Debal.  It  also  throws  light  on  the 
Ismaili  Smites,  Fatmids  and  terrorist 
assassins. 

1226  A.D.— 623  A.H.  : 

Boongar-II  died  and  Gunero  ascend- 
ed the  throne.  He  was  descendant  of 
Dodo-I. 

Juwaini  names  the  ruler  as  Chanesar 
(Chanitar)  during  this  period;  and  this 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  (Sindhi),  p.  249.  Had 
he  been  a  colleague  of  Syed  Jalaluddin 
Makhdoom  Jehanian  of  Uch,  who  lived 
in  Feroz  Tughlaq's  time  some  75  years 
later,  he  would  not  have  come  to  Multan 
then.  However  his  presence  in  Multan 
after  1265  A.D.  is  confirmed  by  Rami 
and  therefore  he  could  not  be  a  colleague 
of  Makhdoom  Jahanian.  Also  see  entry 
1165-66  A.D. 

The  work  has  been  published  by  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society,  London  in  3 
Volumes  in  1912,  1916  and  1936.  Its 
English  translation  by  Boyle  has  also  been 
published  from  London. 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.  K., 
pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 

Tuhfatul-Karam  mentions  Phatu's  (prob- 
ably Fateh    Khan's)  rule  from  1194  to 


\ 


] 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


249 


is  a  more  reliable  statement.  Incident- 
ally. Juwaini  was  also  born  in  1226  A.D. 
or  623  A.H. 


1226-27  A.D.— 623  A.H.  : 

Khilji  tribes  under  Malik  Khan  of  Khilji 
took  shelter  in  Sehwan.  They  were 
Khilji  Turks  who  were  settled  in  Ghazni, 
a  province  of  Khwarizmi  State  and 
after  its  fall  to  the  Mongols,  had  taken 
flight  to  Sind  for  shelter  where  their 
Sultan  Khwarizm  Shah  had  spent  some 
months.  Their  route  was  via  Bolan 
pass  to  Siwistan  Sarkar. 

1226  A  D.—523  A.H.  : 

Malik  Khanan  Khilji,  one  of  the  Gene- 
rals of  Khwarizm  Shah,  captured  the 
Pargana  of  Siwistan  (Sehwan).  Nasir- 
uddin  Qabacha  gave  him  a  battle  in 
which  the  Malik  was  killed,  but  the  rest 
of  the  Khiljis  fled  to  Delhi,  and  sought 
protection  of  Altatmash,  the  rival  of 
Qabacha.  Altatmash  making  Khilji 
cause  as  an  excuse  asked  Qabacha  to 
pay  a  tribute  failing  which  Altatmash 
attacked  Qabacha  in  1228  A.D. 

1226  AD.  : 

Destruction  of  Pari  Nagar  (Established 
in  512  B.C.). 


1226  A.D.  Both  the  sources  agree  that 
the  successor  was  Gunero. 

Jehan    Gusha-i-Juwaini,    Vol.    II,    pp. 


146-148. 


Boyle's  translation  of  Juwaini,  p.  416,  and 
for  his  life  Vol.  I,  p.  xxiii.  See  entry 
1221  A.D. 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  143. 
Raverty,  Afghanistan,  pp.  573-74. 


Firishta  states  that  Altatmash  with  the 
help  of  these  Khiljis  defeated   Qabacha. 


Masumi,  p.  35. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  56-57. 

Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  Vol.  I,  p.  539. 

He  is  also  known  as  Malik  Khilji  Khan 
Khilji. 


Sobhraj,  J.  S.  H.  S.,  Vol.  V,  p.  136,  thinks 
that  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Delhi  troops. 
There  is  a  strong  possibility  of  its  des- 
truction in  1223-24  A.D.,  by  Khwarizm 
Shal^  who  looted  Sind  and  Kathiawar 
coast  to  collect  wealth. 

It  may  have  been  weakened  due  to  drying 
up  of  Hakra  about  that  time.  The  Delhi 


250 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1226-27  A.D.— 624  A.H.  Jamadi-I  : 

Minhaj  Siraj,  the  author  of  Tabaqat-i- 
Nasiri  who  came  from  Khorasan  due 
to  Mongol  invasions  and  reached  Uch 
in  April  1227  A.D.  was  made  incharge 
of  Firoei  College  of  Uch  by  Qabacha. 

1228  A.D.— 625  A.H.  Rabi-II  : 

Jalaluddin  Khwarizm  Shah's  and  later 
on,  Uktae's  expeditions  into  Sind  and 
the  burning  of  its  cities  and  the  country- 
side weakened  Qabacha's  hold  on  his 
territories.  Altatmash  attacked  Qaba- 
cha's possessions.  Qabacha  removed  all 
treasures  from  Uch  to  the  Bakhar  fort 
under  his  Vazier  Ain-ul-Malik.    Altat- 
mash occupied  Uch,  and  sent  his  Vazier, 
Nizam-ul-Mulk  Muhammad  Bin  Asad 
to  lay  siege  on  the  Bakhar  fort,  where 
Qabacha  had  taken  shelter.    On  ap- 
proach  of    Nizam-ul-Mulk,    Qabacha 
committed  suicide  by  jumping  into  the 
river  Indus  from  the  Bakhar  fort  on  the 
22nd  Jamadi-I.  Nizam-ul-Mulk  sent  all 
treasures  of  Qabacha  to  Altatmash  and 
deputed  his  lieutenants  to  subdue  the 
rest  of  Sind  right  upto  Debal.  Qabacha 
had  ruled  the  Upper  Sind  for  22  years. 

Raverty  mentions  that  Malik  Sana- 
uddin  Habash  (Chanesar)  who  ruled 
(Lower)  Sind  and  Debal  that  time,  ac- 
cepted to  actas  the  Vassal  of  Altatmash. 
According  to  Dr.  Daudpota,  Chanesar 
accompanied  Nizam-ul-Mulk  Junaydi 
to  Delhi.  This  is  the  first  time  that  the 
Soomras  of  the  Lower  Sind  became 
Vassals  of  Delhi. 


troops  had  not  reached  the  Lower  Sind 
until  then  as  is  discussed  by  M.H, 
Panhwar  in  Ground  Water,  p.  35. 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  143. 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  84. 
Firishta,  Vol.  H,  p.  614. 

Masumi,  p.  634,  puts  the  year  as  624  A.H., 
which  is  incorrect. 


Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  123. 

Daudpota,  'Dark  period  in  history  of 
Sind',  Pakistan  Historical  Conference, 
Peshawar,  1953. 

Tuhfat-ui-Karam,  pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 

Taj-ul-Ma'asir  states  that  12  strong 
forts  between  Sehwan  and  Luk  (Laki?) 


r. 


• 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


-• 


According  to  Daulat-i-Alviya,  Saifuddin 
Tai  Soomro  was  the  ruler  of  Sind  from 
619  to  638  A.H.  (1222-1241  A.D.), 
which  apparently  is  incorrect. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam  states  that  the  ruler  of 
Sind  from  623  A.H.— 639  A.H.  was 
Gunero.  The  last  two  sources  are  not 
reliable. 

May,  1228  A.D.  : 

Jamadi-II-19th,  625  A.H.  : 

Sind's  ruler  Sanauddin  Chanesar  per- 
sonally paid  homage  to  the  court  of 
Altatmash.  • 

Kazlaq  Khan  was  given  Uch  under  his 
governor-ship,  until  his  death  in  629 
A.H.  (1232-33  A.D.).  After  his  death, 
Saifuddin  Aibak  was  appointed  the 
Governor  of  Uch  in  629  A.H. 

Sind  certainly  continued  to  be  ruled  by 
Soomras  possibly  by  paying  some  tri- 
bute. Tabaqat-i-Nasiri  puts  the  name 
of  the  ruler  of  Sind  as  Jashan  instead 
of  Janesar  (or  Chanesar). 

A  detailed  chronology  of  Altatmash's 
campaign  against  Qabacha  is  as  under: 

a.  1st  Rabi-I,  625     Altatmash  reached 
A.H.  (1227  A.D.).  the  walls  of  the 

fort  of  Uch. 

b.  28th  Jamadi-I,       The  Uch  fort  sur- 
Tuesday,  625  A.H.  rendered. 


c.  22nd  Jamadi-I. 


Suicide  of 
Qabacha. 


November  1228  A.D.— 625  A.H.  end  : 

After  the  fall  of  Bakhar  and  Sind, 
Altatmash  appointed  Malik  Kazlak 
Khan  as  the  Governor  of  Uch  and  the 


and  the  sea  which  had  never  been  acquired 
before  (by  Qabacha    and   Ghori)  were 
taken.     This  proves  that  Soomras  were 
definitely  independent  upto  this  period. 


Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  123. 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  237. 


Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  610-615, 


Raverty's  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  232-233. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


surroundings.  The  Lower  Sind  remained 
under  the  rule  of  Chanesar  Soomro. 

Ain-ul-Mulk  Hussaini,  the  Vazier  of 
Altatmash  was  pardoned  and  made 
Vazier  of  his  son  Rukunuddin  Feroz  at 
Badaun. 

1228  A.D.— 625  A.H.  : 

Junaydi,  the  general  of  Altatmash 
attacked  the  Lower  Sind,  which  hitherto 
had  maintained  independence,  but  was 
weakened  by  expeditions  of  Khwarizm 
Shah  and  Uktae. 

• 
Malik   Sinanuddin   Chanesar   Soomro 
submitted  to  Junaydi,  became  a  vassal 
of  the  Delhi  Sultan  and  was  allowed  to 
retain  his  territories. 

1228  A.D.— 625  A.H.  : 

Altatmash  ordered  his  Vazier,  now 
Governor  of  Uch  and  the  Upper  Sind 
(possibly  upto  Sehwan)  to  shift  his  capi- 
tal from  Uch  to  Bakhar,  which  was  a 
more  central  place. 

1228  A.D.  : 

Nooruddin  Muhammad  Ufi,  the  his- 
torian wrote  Jami-ul-Hikayat  in  the 
reign  of  Sultan  Shamsuddin  Altatmash, 
(1210-1236  A.D.).  It  gives  a  detailed 
description  of  Qabacha's  suicide  by 
jumping  from  the  Bakhar  fort  into  the 
river  Indus  in  1228  A.D.  and  removes 
all  misunderstandings  created  by  other 
historians  as  he  was  present  at  Bakhar 
then. 

1228  A.D.  : 

Syed  Muhammad  Maki  Bakhri  reached 
Bakhar. 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,p.  123. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  95-96  and  484-486 
puts  the  rule  of  Gunero  from  623-639 
A.H.  (1226-1242  A.D.),  and  Daulat-i- 
Alviya  that  of  Saifuddin  Tai  from  619-638 
A.H.  (1222-1241/42  A.D.)  These  two 
sources  are  incorrect. 


K 


: 


I 


" 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


1229  A.D. : 

Death  of  Sam'ani  who  wrote  a  geo- 
graphical work  Kitab-al-Ansab  in  which 
he  describes  Sind  and  also  Debal.  He 
was  born  in  1179.  A.D. 

1229  A.D.— 626  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Yaqoot  Hamavi,  author  of 
Mu'jam-ul-Baldan,  a  geographical  work, 
which  has  references  on  Sind  in  its 
volumes  IV,  VIII,  and  IX. 

1229-30  A.D.— 627  A.H.  : 

A  Khilat  from  Abbasi  Khalifa  Mustan- 
sir  arrived  in  Delhi.  Decorative.doors 
and  niches  (Mihrabs)  were  erected  in 
town  to  celebrate  the  occasion. 

1230-31  A.D.—628  A.H.  : 

Ibn  Asir  completed  his  History  Kitab- 
al-Kamil-fi-al-Tarikh. 


1230-1398  A.D.  : 

The  Mongol  raids  between  1230  A.D. 
to  1398  A.D.  Most  of  the  early  raids 
were  not  via  the  Khybar  Pass  but  via  the 
Bolan  and  Gomal  Passes  resulting  into 
direct  attacks  on  Multan  and  Uch. 
Later  on,  they  came  via  the  Khybar 
Pass  too,  and  raided  Lahore.  No  year 
passed  when  they  did  not  come  and 
plunder  villages  and  cities. 

This  situation  left  Delhi's  outpost  of 
Uch  in  a  precarious  condition  and  stop- 
ped further    expansion  of  the  Delhi 


The  text  was  published  from  Cairo  in 
1324  A.H.  (1906-07  A.D.). 


Mubarak-Shahi,  p.  19.  Muhammad 
Tughluq  borrowed  the  idea  of  celebra- 
tion from  this  incident. 

The  original  Arabic  text  has  been  printed 
from  London  and  its  Persian  translation 
from  Tehran. 

The  Cairo  edition  was  published  in 
1301  A.H. 

The  book  has  been  published  by  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society,  London  under  the 
Gibb  Memorial  Series. 


Barni,  pp.  50-51. 

Tabaqat-i-Na§iri  uses  the  word  Mongol. 
Barni  (pp.  532-36)  called  them  as  Mughul, 
meaning  thereby  the  unclean  warriors 
of  the  Chengizi  stock. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari  has  chosen  the  word 
Maghul  and  discarded  the  term  Mughul 
(Vol.  1,  p.  225). 

Badauni  (Vol.  I,  p.  243)  used  the  word 
Maghul  as  well  as  Mughul. 


254 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


empire  south  of  the  Uch  province  result- 
ing in  the  Soomras  ruling  free  from 
interference  and  virtual  independence, 
except  for  short  periods  during  the 
rule  of  Altatmash  and  Balban  and  pos- 
sibly Allauddin  Khilji  when  the  Soomras 
were  made  to  pay  some  tribute. 

1231-33  A.D.— 629  A.H.  : 

Malik  Tajud-Din  Sangar  or  Malik 
Kazlak  Khan,  governor  of  Uch  died. 
Altatmash  appointed  Saifuddin  Aibak 
as  the  next  Governor. 

1232-32  A.D.— 630  A.H.  : 

Nizam-ul-Mulk,  then  Governor  of  the 
Upper  Sind  was  recalled  from  Sind  and 
Noor-ud-Din  Mahmood  was  appointed 
as  the  next  Governor. 

1234  A.D.-630  A.H.  : 

Ibn  Asir,  author  of  Kftab-al-Kamil-fi- 
al-Tarikh,  died  at  the  age  of  74  years. 

1235-36  A.D.— 633  A.H.  : 

Nizam-ul-Mulk,  Governor  of  Sind 
having  put  Sind  (Upper  Sind  upto 
Sehwan  as  the  Lower  Sind  was  con- 
trolled by  the  Soomras)  under  order, 
handed  over  the  administration  to 
Nooruddin  Muhammad  and  returned  to 
Delhi. 

■ 
1236  A.D.  April  : 

633  A.H.  Shaban-26,  Monday.  : 

Altatmash  died  and  his  son  Rukunuddin 
Feroz  Shah  became  the  next  Sultan  but 
due  to  mal-administration  was  made  to 
abdicate  and  was  replaced  by  his 
daughter  Razia  as  Sultana. 


The  Mongol  raided  every  year,  however 
the  more  important  expeditions  occurred 
in  1221,  1241,  1246,  1260,  1291,  1298, 
1304,  1317,  1341,  1358,  1396,  1429,  1520 
and  1524  A.D.  All  these  attacks  were  on 
the  Punjab,  which  as  a  result  got  depopu- 
lated except  the  fortified  military 
garrisons. 

Raverty's    Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  617-18 
and  727-728. 


Masumi,  p.  36. 
Barni,  pp.  50-51. 


Masumi,  p.  36,  assigns  Shaban  26th,- 
633  ^\.H.  to  her  accession.    Mubarak 

Shahi,  p.  23  assigns  18th  Rabi-I,  634  to 
accession  of  Razia  Sultana  and  8th 
Ramzan,  637  A.H.  to  the  accession  of 
Sultan  Muizuddin. 


- 


" 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


255 


_ 


Altatmash  was  the  greatest  of  all  the 
slave  kings.  Debal  and  Sind  coasts  were 
run  over  earlier  by  Shahabuddin  Ghori 
but  control  on  them  was  never  organi- 
zed. Soomras  in  the  Lower  Sind  were 
virtually  independent  until  Altatmash 
made  them  vassals. 

1235-1295  A.D. : 

The  rule  of  Bhima-II  and  Tribhuvana- 
pala.  During  the  rule  of  Bhima-II, 
Cutch  was  invaded  by  Pithadeva  of  Para 
(Nagar  Parkar)  who  destroyed  the  whole 
country,  occupied  Bhadrevar  for  some 
time  and  demolished  its  ramparts,  before 
returning  back  to  Sind. 

Jagadu,  a  merchant  from  Bhadrevar, 
complained  to  the  Chaulkya  king  of 
Lavanaprasada  of  Anahilapataka,  who 
sent  army  under  Jagadu  and  defeated 
Pithadeva. 

1236  A.D.  : 

The  Governors  of  Sind  (Uch  and  pos- 
sibly Sehwan)  voluntarily  tendered  their 
allegiance  to  Queen  Razia. 

It  is  not  certain  whether  the  Soomras 
of  the  Lower  Sind  also  tendered  their 
allegiance  then,  but  if  they  did,   they 
must  have  declared  independence  after 
rebellion  of  Ayaz  in  1239  A.D. 

1237  A.D.— 5th  March,  Friday  : 

Under  the  influence  of  the  teachings  of 
Nuruddin,a  Turk,  the  Ismailis,  mostly 
from  Sind  and  Gujarat  and  also  from  the 
banks  of  the  Ganges  and  the  Jamuna, 
collected  at  Delhi  and  fell  on  a  congre- 
gation of  Friday  prayers.  Many  fell  to 
their  swords  and  the  others  were  killed 
by  pressure  of  those  who  attempted  to 
escape. 


Mujamdar,    "Chaulkyas    of    Gujarat", 
pp.  160  and  462-63. 

Pithadeva  has  been  identified  by  Buhler 
with  the  Soomro  chief  Pithu,  Pattu  or 
more  probably  Phatu,  and  Para  has  been 
identified  with  Parkar. 


Some  authorities  state  that  it  was  Jalal- 
uddin  Khwarizm  Shah  Mangbarni's 
raid,  but  this  is  improbable,  as  that  took 
place  in  1224  A.D.  before  Bhima-II. 


CHI,  Vol.  m,  p.  58. 
Raverty,  Nasiri,  p.  641. 


CHI,  Vol.  HI,  p.  59. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  Calcutta,  pp.    116  and 
189. 


256 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND, 


Meantime  the  Turkish  nobles  assembled 
their  troops  and  helped  many  of  their 
co-religionists,  who  had  reached  the 
roof  of  the  mosque.  Then  alone  the 
Ismailis  were  slaughtered  to  the  last 
man. 

The  Soomras  of  Sind  were  Ismailis  and 
the  participation  of  Sindhis  in  this  type 
of  terrorist  movement  shows  that  the 
Soomras  may  have  inspired  them  and 
given  up  allegiance  to  L»elhi  after 
Altatmash's  death. 

1239  A.D.— 637  A.H.  : 

Kabir  Khan-i-Ayaz  was  removed  as 
fief  of  Lahore  by  Razia  Sultana  when  he 
was  at  Multan.  He  declared  independ- 
ence and  extended  territories  upto  Uch, 
which  he  governed  independently  upto 
his  death  in  1241-42  A.D.,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son. 

Tajuddin  Abu  Bakar  brought  under  his 
authority  Sind  (possibly  Uch  to  Bakhar) 
in  639  A.H.  or  1241-42  A.D.,  and  several 
times  attacked  Multan.  Uch  could  not 
be  subdued  by  the  Delhi  Sultanate  until 
after  the  death  to  Tajuddin  in  643  A.H.,. 
when  it  surrendered  to  Balban  more 
than  25  years  later. 

Since  Uch  was  independent,  the  Delhi 
Sultanate  could  not  have  controlled 
Sind  and  the  Soomras  must  have  been 
independent. 

1239-40  A.D.— 637  A.H.  : 

Sultana  Razia,  having  been  defeated  by 
rebel  leaders,  was  sent  as  a  captive  to 
Malik-al-Tunia.  She  married  the  latter, 
raised  an  army  of  Hindu  Jatts  and 
Gaghars  to  capture  Delhi,  where  her 
brother  Bahram  Shah  was  made  the  new 


■ 


Raverty,  Nasiri,  pp.  657  and  668. 


, 


Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  647-48. 

v 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  29,  assigns   Rabi-I 
25th,  638  A.H.  to  her  death. 


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105.  Nth-  14th  century.  Floral-geometrical  pattern  on  clay  tiles.  The  patterns  were  engraved  on 
wet  clay  tiles  by  a  sharp  tool  and  repitative  floral  patterns  stampped  in  between.  These  were 
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* 


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I 


A       — 


I 


r 

• 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


' 


257 


Sultan,  but  was  defeated  near  Khethal. 
She  made  a  bid  to  escape  but  on  the  way 
she  and  Malik-al-Tunia  were  killed  by 
villagers. 

1241-42  A.D.--639  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Tur  Soomro  ascended  the 
throne  on  the  death  of  Gunero.  He 
probably  was  son  of  Gunero. 


1241-1246  A.D.  : 

The  Soomras  shifted  their  capital  from 
Than  to  Mohammad  Tur,  or  Mohatam 
Tur,  or  Shah  Kapur,  the  ruins  of  which 
are  in  the  Taluka  Bathoro  on  the  Gun- 
ghro,  an  old  branch  of  the  river  Indus, 
and  5  miles  away  from  Jati  town. 

This  happened  due  to  change  of  course 
of  the  river  Indus  from  Thari  west- 
wards. 

1242  A.D.— 639  A.H.,  Zil-Qad  18  : 

Sultan  Bahram  Shah  (Muizuddin)  was 
assassinated   and    Rukunuddin   Feroz 
Shah's  son  Allauddin,  who  until  then 
was  in  prison,  was  made  the  new  Sultan. 

Ghiasuddin  Balban,  a  courtier,  wanted 
to  capture  Delhi.    To  please  him,  Mar- 


' 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  pp.  95- 
96  and  484-486. 

Daulat-i-Alviya  does  not  mention  his 
rule  from  639-654  A.H.  (1241-1256  A.D.) 
but  instead  puts  the  rule  of  Shamsuddin 
Bhoongar-n  from  638-676  A.H.  (1240- 
1279  A.D.)  after  the  death  of  Saifuddin 
Tai.  The  author  eliminates  the  rule  of 
Muhammad  Tur  in  whose  name  a  new 
capital  was  built  on  the  Gunghro  Channel 
of  the  river  Indus,  after  the  decay  of 
Tharri  and  Wighia-kot  due  to  hydrolo- 
gical  changes.  This  version,  therefore, 
is  not  acceptable. 

Tahiri,  p.  289,  puts  the  year  as  700  A.H. 
or  1300  A.D. 

According  to  Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, 
Muhammad  Tur  ruled  from  639-654  A.H. 
(1241-1256  A.D.)  and  therefore,  this 
date  of  Tahiri  is  not  acceptable. 


Ain-i-Haqiqat  Nama,  Vol.  I. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  p.  27  and  p.  468 
assigns  Saturday,  the  13th  Zil-Qad  to  his 
assassination. 

By  Sind,  the   historians  of  this   period 
mean  the  Upper  Sind. 


258 


war,  Ajmer  and  Sind  were  given  in  his 

Jagir  by  Allauddin. 

1243  A.D.,  July— 643  A.H.,  Safar  : 
The  Mongols  crossed  the  river  Indus 
and  laid  siege  on  Uch.  Sultan  Masud 
Shah  hearing  of  this  made  preparations 
for  a  counter-attack.  On  hearing  this 
the  Mongols  left  for  Khurasan  (Eastern 
Persia  via  flakhar). 

It  seems  that  the  Mongols  had  not 
established  themselves  directly  in  Balu- 
chistan until  then  and  their  feudatory 
Kara  Khitai,  ruler  of  Kirman  also  pos- 
sessed Malcran  as  far  as  the  frontiers  of 
Sind,  but  in  the  last  half  of  this  century 
they  had  occupied  the  Quetta  Division 
and  probably  destroyed  all  Junipar 
forests  there.  Today  there  is  no  Juni- 
par tree  in  Quetta-Ziarat  valley  which 
may  be  more  than  600-700  years  old. 

1246  A.D.,  June  2nd  : 

644  A.H.,  Muharram  15  : 

Nasiruddin  Muhammad  bin  Altatmash 

ascended  Delhi's  throne. 

i 

1244-45  A.D.— 643  A.H.  : 

Monguta,  the  Mongol,  led  an  army  from 
the  borders  of  Tukharistan  into  the 
territories  of  Uch  and  the  Upper  Sind. 

Every  Amir  or  Malik  at  Delhi  showed 
indecision,  but  Malik  Ulugh  Khan 
organized  an  army  and  sent  letters  to 
Uch,  some  of  which  fell  into  the  hands 
of  Mongols  who  fearing  large  army 
from  Delhi,  raised  the  investment  of 
the  fortress  of  Uch. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Masumi,  p.  3$. 


A* 

*m 

Masumi,  p.  36. 

The  eldest  son  of  Altatmash  was  named 
as  Nasiruddin.  After  the  death  of  the 
latter,  former  named  his  newly  born  son 
by  the  same  name. 

- 


■ 


. 


J 


— 


1 


• 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


259 


1245  A.D. : 

The  Mongols  under  the  leadership  of 
Muizuddin  captured  Lahore  and  re- 
mained in  possession  of  it  until  the 
accession  of  Allauddin  Masud  and  for 
some  time  afterwards. 

Due  to  this  victory  they  made  fresh 
incursion  on  Uch. 

1245  A.D.,  July— 643  A.H.,  Safer  : 

The  news  of  Mongol  army's  laying  siege 
on  Uch  under  Manguta  reached  Delhi. 
Sultan  Masud  Shah  moved  with  his 
army  to  Uch.  On  hearing  the  pews  of 
his  arrival,  the  Mongols  left  for  Khora- 
san  via  Bakhar.  After  reaching 
Bakhar,  Masud  Shah  dismissed  Noor- 
uddin  Mohammad,  the  Governor  of 
Upper  Sind  and  appointed  Malik 
Jalaluddin  Hassan  as  the  new  Gover- 
nor. 

1245-47  A.D.--643-44  A.H.  : 

Malik  Saifuddin  Hassan,  the  Qarlugh, 
held  Multan  and  Hindu  Khan,  Mihtar- 
i-Mubarak,  the  Kazi  (treasurer)  was 
made  ruler  and  Governor  of  Uch.  The 
latter  put  his  Deputy  Khwaja  Salih  the 
Kotwal,  incharge  of  the  Uch  fort. 
Monguta  who  was  head  of  the  forces  of 
the  Mongol  troops  at  Tukharistan, 
Khatlan  and  Ghazni  attacked  the  Sind 
territories  (Multan  and  Uch)  on  the 
orders  of  Uktae,  son  of  Chengiz  Khan 
and  latter's  successor.  On  his  arrival, 
Malik  Saifuddin  Hassan  abandoned  the 
city  of  Multan  and  proceeded  towards 
Siwistan  and  Debal. 

Monguta  invested  Uch,  destroyed  the 
neighbourhood  of  that  city,  but  could 
not  capture  it. 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  194-196. 

■ 

Masumi,p.  36. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  pp.  196-198.  Its  author 
Minhaj  Siraj  had  accompanied  the 
Sultan  during  this  expedition. 


Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  1 1 53-55  and 
1201. 

It  is  surprising  that  the  Mongols  always 
attacked  Uch  and  Multan.  It  is  certain 
that  by  this  time  they  were  in  full  control 
of  Quetta-Ziarat  and  Loralai  and  they 
took  the  nearest  route  to  Multan  and 
Uch.  They  totally  destroyed  Junipar 
forests  of  Quetta-Ziarat  valley.  Today 
no  Junipar  tree  in  the  valley  is  more  than 
700  years  old.  Their  route  was  via  the 
Khojak  Pass  to  Quetta  and  then  via 
Ziarat  and  Duki  to  Dera  Ghazi  Khan 
and^  Multan. 

By  this  time  the  Mongols  were  in  pos- 
session of  whole  of  Asia  and  the  Indian 
Sub-continent  as  far  as  Bias.    This  creat- 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1246  A.D.  : 

The  Mongols  attacked  Multan.  Its 
Governor  Hassan  Qarlugh  fled  to  the 
Lower  Sind.  Ulugh  Khan,  who  later  on 
became  Sultan  Balban,  drove  the  Mon- 
gols out  of  the  frontiers  of  the  Delhi 
Sultanate. 


1246  A.D.  June,  2nd  : 

644  A.H.,  Muharram  15  : 

The  courtiers  forced  Sultan  Masud  to 
abdicate    and    his    uncle    Nasiruddin 
Mahmood  bin  Altatmash  was  made  the 
new    Sultan.  After  eight  days,  Sultan 
Masud  was  arrested  and    imprisoned. 
He  died  in  jail. 

1250  A.D.  : 

The  river  Indus  eroded  the  Bakhar 
gorge  fully  and  its  total  waters  were 
carried  through  this  gap. 

1250-51  A.D.— 648  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Nasiruddin  Mahmood  sent 
Balban  Buzrig  to  Upper  Sind,  which 
was  made  his  Jagir.  Latter  rebelled 
after  a  year.  Sultan  then  sent  Sher 
Khan,  the  ruler  of  Multan  to  crush  the 
rebellion.  Sher  Khan  laid  siege  on  Uch, 
and  Balban  Buzrig  was  compelled  to 
surrender  the  fort  of  Uch  to  the  former. 


ed    a    situation    whereby   the    Soomra 
could  rule  independently. 

CHI,  Vol.  HI,  p.  65. 


Masumi,  pp.  36-37. 


Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri. 


. 


1 


1250-51  A.D.  : 

Kishlu  Khan  Nagar  asked  Balban  to 
bestow  Multan  and  Uch  to  him.  Balban 
permitted  this  though  there  was  diffi- 
culty in  ousting  out  Ikhtiyar-ud-Din 
Kargiz,  who  had  expelled  the  Qarlughs 
from  Multan  and  Uch. 


Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,    pp.    784-88 

and  792. 
v 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


261 


* 


\ 


1251  A.D.  : 

649  AH.,  Shawwal 22nd, Monday  : 

Sultan  Nasiruddin  left  Delhi  to  visit 
Lahore,  Multan,  Uch  and  Bakhar. 

He  appointed  Sultan  Safar  as  the  Go- 
vernor of  the  areas  from  Multan  to 
Bakhar  and  Sehwan. 

1253  A.D.— 651  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Nasiruddin  Mahmood  appointed 
Arslan  Khan  as  the  Governor  of  Sind 
(Upper  Sind  only)  but  after  a  few  days 
he  was  replaced  by  Malik  Aza-al-Din 
Khan  also  known  as  Kishlu  Khan. 
During  this  year  Mongols  attacked 
Uch. 

1256  A.D.— 654  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Tur  Soomro  died  and 
Gunero-II  became  the  ruler  of  Sind. 
He  ruled  upto  657  A.H.  or  1259  A.D. 

Daulat-i-Alviya  calls  Gunero  as 
Allauddin  Khairo.  Masumi  also  men- 
tions Khairo  as  ruler  of  Sind  after  Phatu. 
Masoomi's  Khairo  was  probably 
Gunero-I,  not  mentioned  by  Daulat-i- 
Alviya. 


Masumi,  p.  38. 


The  statement  about  Qutlagh  Khan 
having  been  made  Governor  of  the  areas 
from  Bakhar  to  Debal  with  capital  at 
Sehwan  is  doubtful.  He  may  have  been 
appointed  Governor  of  the  northern 
Sind  only,  as  the  Soomras  continued  their 
rule  of  the  Lower  Sind  and  must  have 
declared  independence  after  Altatmash's 
death.  Masumi  has  tried  to  prove  Delhi's 
rule  of  Lower  Sind  without  any  evidence. 

Raverty,  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.  704. 
Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  36-37. 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.  K.t 
pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 

Masumi,  p,  34. 


1254  A.D.— 652  AJL  : 

Ulugh  Khan  succeeded  in  ejecting 
Imaduddin-i-Rayhan  from  power. 
After  a  year,  he  was  sent  to  Badaun  and 
Malik  Balban  -Kishlu  Khan  got  Uch 
and  Multan  again  in  1255  A.D. 


Raverty,    Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,   p.  78  and 
f.n.^3. 


262 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1255  A.D.  : 

Having  taken  possession  of  Uch  and 
Multan,  Malik  Balban  became  disloyal 
to  the  Delhi  Sultan  and  sent  his 
son  in  pledge  to  Halaku  Khan,  to  seek 
Moghal  help  for  capturing  Delhi.  This 
move  was  accepted  and  the  Mongol  help 
was  organized. 

. 

1257  A.D.— 655  A.H.  : 

Kishlu  Khan  (Malik  Balban)  a  Mongol 
protege  holding  Upper  Sind  (with  head- 
quarters at  Sehwan)  marched  his  troops 
along  the  Beas  to  attack  Delhi  jointly 
with  Qutlugh  Khan,  but  retired  as 
Sultan  Nasiruddin  resolved  to  defend 
the  city  and  deputed  Ulugh  Khan  (later 
on  Sultan  Balban)  for  the  job. 

1257-58  A.D.— 655  A.H.  : 

The  Sindhis  (of  Multan  and  Uch)  re- 
belled against  the  Delhi  government. 
Sultan  Nasiruddin  marched  on  Multan 
and  Uch  but  returned  back  due  to  some 
political  reasons.  Sher  Khan  advanced 
to  crush  uprising  but  was  defeated. 

1258  A.D.— 656  A.H. : 

Even  after  making  an  attempt  to  seize 
Delhi,  Malik  Balban  (Kishlu  Khan) 
was  pardoned  and  reinstated  at  Uch 
and  Upper  Sind.  Meanwhile  Malik 
Sher  Khan  ousted  the  Qarlughs  from 
Multan.  Due  to  proximity  of  Multan 
and  Uch,  contention  arose  between 
Malik  Balban  (Kishlu  Khan)  and  Sher 
Khan  on  several  occasions.  During  this 
period  Malik  Balban  held  the  territories 
as  Mongol  protege. 


Ravertyy,  Nasiri,  pp.  784-85. 

During  the  Delhi  Sultanate  period,  the 
provincial  governors  had  absolute  powers 
as  well  as  army  and  treasury.  It  was  not 
unusual  for  them  to  rebel  or  make  an 
attempt  to  usurp  the  Delhi  throne.  Such 
attempts  at  Multan  and  Uch  helped  the 
Soomras  and  later  on  the  Sammas  to 
maintain  independence  during  the  period. 

Raverty,   Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,  p.   787  and 
f.n.  4,  also  pp.  784  and  785. 
Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  37-83 
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri  (Calcutta),  pp.  123-124. 


. 


i 
-> 


Raverty,  Nasiri,  pp.  792  and  859,  and 
also  notes  on  Afghanistan,  p.  575. 
Barni  has  ignored  an  important  fact  that 
Malik  Balban  Kishlu  Khan  who  held 
Multan,  Uch  and  Upper  Sind  upto  1258 
A.D.  was  in  league  with  the  Mongols 
against  the  Delhi  Government,  and  had 
not  only  made  a  trip  to  Iraq  to  seek 
assistance  of  Halaku  Khan  but  had  also 
sent  his  son  to  the  Mongol  court. 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


r 


i 


These  circumstances  left  the  Lower  Sind 
independent  under  the  Soomras. 


1258  A.D.— 656  A.H.  : 

The  Mongol  army  invested  Multan  and 
Uch.  Sultan  Nasiruddin  moved  against 
them  but  they  left  the  area  before  his 
arrival. 

1258  A.D.  : 

Halaku  finding  the  failure  of  Qutlugh 
Khan  and  Malik  Balban  (Kishlu  Khan) 
to  capture  Delhi,  refused  to  help  further 
adventures,  and  ordered  the  Mongol 
forces  stationed  in  Sind  (probably  at 
Sehwan)  under  Sali  Bahadur  to  destroy 
the  Multan  fortification  but  not  to  cross 
the  Delhi  frontiers.  This  way  Delhi 
lost  most  of  the  Punjab  and  Upper  Sind. 

1259  A.D.— 657  A.H.  : 

Gunero-II,  the  Soomro  king,  died  and 
was  succeeded  by  Dodo  bin  Gunero-II. 
He  ruled  upto  671  A.H.  or  1272-73  A.D. 
and  was  succeeded  by  Tai  bin  Dodo. 

Tai  ruled  upto  695  A.H.  or  1295-96 

A.U. 


Raverty,  p.  863  further  states  that  Malik 
Balban  (Kishlu  Khan)  could  not  act 
independently  and  that  the  Moghal 
Shahinshah  (Intendant)  must  have  been 
in  the  control  of  the  affairs  of  Uch 
upto  the  end  of  his  governorship  of  Uch 
and  Upper  Sind. 

At  that  time  the  whole  of  the  West  and 
East  Punjab  upto  the  river  Beas  was 
under  the  Mongol  control.  With  Uch 
under  their  vassal  Kishlu  Khan  (Malik 
Balban),  the  Delhi  Sultanate  could  not 
be  controlling  Sind. 

Masumi,  p.  37. 

Epigraphia  Indo-Muslimica,  pp.  214, 
217,  270,  271,  314  and  322. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  485. 

Daulat-i-Alviya  gives  his  name  as  Saif- 
uddin  Tai  and  rule  from  619  to  638  A.H. 
(1222-1240  A.D.). 

This  version  is  un-acceptable  as  during 
Jalaluddin  Khwarizm  Shah's  attack 
on  Sind  in  1224  A.D.  Chanesar  was 
ruling. 


264 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SINT> 


1260  A.D.,  16th  November— 
658  A.H.,  8th  Zil-Haj  : 

Syed  Muhammad  Maki  presently  buried 
at  Shah  Maki  Fort,  Hyderabad,  died 
there. 

1260  A.D.— 658  A.H.  : 

Minhaj  Siraj  completed  Tabaqat-i-Nasiri. 

1260  A.».— 658  A.H.  : 

Allauddin  Juwaini,  the  ex-Governor  of 
Almut,  the  paradise  of  assassin  terror- 
lists,  wrote  Tarikh-Jahan  Gusha-i- 
Juwaini. 

1261  A.D.,  November— 660  A.H.  I 

Khalifa  Mustansir-Billah    was  killed 
by  Halaku  Khan. 

1 262-63  A.D.— 661  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Shaikh-ul-Islam  Bahauddin 
Zakariya  Multani.  He  was  a  Sindhi  and 
lived  in  the  Sukkur  district  in  which  he 
was  rehabilitated  by  the  King  of  the 
Lower  Sind,  Muhammad  Tur  Soomro, 
before  destruction  of  his  capital  Tur. 
The  Shaikh  came  from  the  family  of  the 
Habari  Arab  rulers  of  Sind. 

He  had  a  large  following  in  territories 
between  Multan  and  Uch. 

1263  A.D.— 661  A.H.  : 

Zakariya  bin  Muhammad  bin  Mahmud 
al-Kazwini  wrote  Asar-ul-Bilad  Wa 
Akhbar-uI-Ibad  or  'Monuments  of 
Countries  and  Memories  of  Men.' 


Mihran,  No.  3, 1963,  pp.  132-147. 


Also  see  entry  1 193  A.D. 


The  author  was  born  in  623  A.H.  (1226 
A.D.)  and  died  on  the  4th  Zil-Haj,  681 
A.H.  (March  5,  1283  A.D.).    The  wor 
was  in  progress  since  651  A.H. 

Jahan-Gusha-i-Juwaini,      Vol.       I,  pp 
XXm,  XLVn  and  LXY. 


Zainul-Akhbar,    p.    26. 

Barni,  p.  348. 

Firishta,  (Naval  Kishore  edition), 
Vol.  H,  p.  404,  puts  the  date  as  666  A.H. 
Tahiri,  pp.  25, 151  and  264. 

• 
His  Khalifa  Jalaluddin  Surkh  converted 
many  Soomras  to  Sunni  faith,  but  a  large 
majority  remained  Ismaili  until  the  mid- 
fourteenth  century,  when  due  to  influence 
of  Makhdoom  Jahanian  of  Uch  man 
gave  up  this  sect. 

Elliot.  Vol.  I,  gives  translation  of  por- 
tions pertaining  to  Sind,  pp.  93-99. 


■4 


; 


j 

- 


4 


1 


SOOMRA   DYNASTY 


265 


r 


i 


1264  A.D.— 662  A.H.  : 

Qalandar  Shahbaz  reportedly  came  to 
Multan,  though  there  is  every  probability 
that  he  was  in  Multan  since  1235  A.D. 

1266  A.D.— 664  A.H.,  13th  Jamadi-I  : 

On  the  death  of  Sultan  Nasiruddin,  on 
Jamadi-I,  11th,  Ghiasuddin  Balban,  a 
Turkish  slave  of  Altatmash  was  nomi- 
nated as  the  Sultan  of  Delhi  Sultanate 
by  the  courtiers.  He  had  remained  go- 
vernor of  various  provinces  for  20  years 
and  was  also  Vazier  under  Sultan  Nasir- 
uddin Mahmood  who  had  given  him  the 
title  of  Ulugh  Khan. 

1266-67  A.D -665  AH.  : 

Muhammad  Ufi  travelled  in  Sind  and 
Gujarat  and  later  on  wrote  Jami-ul- 
Hikayat.  He  describes  hospitality  of 
Sindhis  specially  keeping  a  guest  for  one 
to  three  days  depending  on  if  he  was 
healthy  or  sick. 

1266-1287  A.D.  : 

In  the  days  of  Balban,  the  postal  system 
was  perfected.  Post  runners  were  sta- 
tioned at  every  1/2  mile,  running  with  a 
hell  in  their  hands.  In  the  days  of 
Muhammad  Tughluq  as  reported  by 
Ibn  Batuta,  it  took  5  days  for  post  to 
reach  from  Sind  to  Delhi. 

1268  A.D.-666  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Pir  Patho.    His  tomb  is  on 
the  hill  of  same  name,  14  miles  south  of 
Thatta  on  old  bed  of  Baghar  branch  of 
the  river  Indus. 

1269-70  A.D.— 668  A.H.  : 

Mahmood  Ka-Aan  appointed  Go- 
vernor of  Sind  (Uch)  and  Multan  by  his 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam  states  that  Sultan 
Muhammad  met  him  at  Multan.  But 
the  latter  came  as  Governor  in  668  A.H. 
Refer  entry  1165-66  A.D. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  39. 


Isami,  in  Futuh-ul-Salatin  puts  the  date 
as  665  A.H.  which  is  wrong.  Even  Barni's 
date  of  662  A.H.,  on  p.  25  is  incorrect. 


Rehala  (Mahdi  Hussain),  pp.  3-4 
Masalik  (Otto  Spies),  p.  53. 


Tahiri,  p.  310.  Pir  Patho  is  called  Raja 
Gopichand  by  the  Hindus. 

v 

Barni,  pp.  67-68  mentions  this  meeting 
with  Shaikh  Bahauddin  Zakariya  (who 


: 


266 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


father  Ghiasuddin  Balban  and  designat- 
ed as  Sultan  Mahmood.  The  latter  met 
Shaikh  Usman  Marandi  (Qalandar 
Shahbaz)  and  Shaikh  Bahauddin 
Zakariya  in  Multan  and  listened  to  their 
songs. 


• 


1272-73  A.D.— 671  A.H.  : 

Dodo-II  bin  Gunero-II  Soomro  died 
and  Tai  bin  Dodo  became  the  ruler  of 
Sind. 


1275  A.D.  February  : 

673  AH.  1st  Shaban  : 

Syed  Usman  Marandi,  Shamsuddin  Lal- 

Shahbaz,  died  at  the  age  of  112  years, 


had  died  in  1262  A.D.)  in  1269-70.  At 
this  time  Qalandar  Shahbaz  would  also 
be  104  solar  years  old.  It  makes  the 
statement  doubtful. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  43. 

Masumi,  p.  39,  puts  the  year  as  664  A.H., 
which  obviously  is  wrong. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  34. 

Isami,  in  Futuh-ul-Sa latin  puts  the  date 
as  665  A.H.  which  is  wrong.  Even  Barni's 
date  of  662  A.H.  on  p.  25  is  incorrect. 

See  also  entries  1165  -66. 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.K., 
pp.  95-96  and  484-486. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam  does  not  mention  the 
rule  of  Dodo  bin  Gunero  between 
1266-1272/73  A.D.  but  instead  puts  the 
rule  of  Tai  from  1266  A.D.  Since  Tai 
was  son  of  Dodo-II,  he  could  not  have 
inherited  the  kingdom  directly  from  his 
grandfather,  unless  there  was  no  other 
heir  to  the  throne,  which  again  is  improb- 
able due  to  the  existence  of  polygamy 
among  the  Muslims,  provided  that  the 
Soomras  being  new  converts  and  Ismailis, 
still  stuck  to  the  monogamy  practised 
among  the  Hindus.  This  again  is  dis- 
puted as  Rajput  rulers  were  polygamous 
and  the  Soomras  must  have  adopted  it 
either  from  the  Muslims  or  the  Rajputs. 

v 

Mahboob  Ali  Channa, 'Sehwan  Sharif 
Mihran,  No.  2,  1962,  pp.  136-147. 


^ 


\ 


J 


t 


SOOMRA  dynasty 


267 


at  Sehwan2  years  after  his  arrival  there 
from  Multan,. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi,  pp.  295,  349, 
355,  359  and  445-46. 

Maqalat-us-Shuara . 

Lub-i-Tarikh-i-Sind,  pp.  6-9  puts  it  as 
650  A.H.  but  all  these  were  written 
500-600  after  the  death  of  Qalandar  and 
could  not  be  authentic.  Equally  errone- 
ous is  his  birth  date. 


. 


1275  A.D.— 675  A.H.: 

Zakariya  bin  Muhammad  bin  Mah- 
mood  Kazwini  from  the  town  of  Kazwin 
in  Persia  wrote  Ajaib-ul-Makhlukat  wa 
Gharaib-ul-Maujudat  i.e.  "Wonders  of 
Things  created  and  Marvels  of  Things 
Existing".  Another  work  Asar-ul-Bilad 
Wa  Akhbar-ul-Ibad  i.e.  Monuments 
of  countries  and  description  of  people 
was  written  in  661  A.  H.  (1263  A.  D.). 
The  books  describe  some  towns  of  Sind, 
and  show  existence  of  Zoarastrian 
temples  in  Sind  and  Baluchistan  in  his 
days. 

1276  A.D.  : 

During  the  rule  of  Sultan  Balban  when 
Soomras  became  Vassals  of  Delhi,  3000 
horses  and  mules  carrying  tribute  from 
Sind  were  looted  by  Raja  Rawal  Jainsi 
of  Jaisalmir. 

1276-77  A.D.— 675  A.H.  : 

Pir  Shamsuddin  Sabzwari,  an  Ismaili 
preacher,  came  to  Sind  and  kept  pre- 


Hadiqat-ul-Auliya,  pp.  39-45  gives  the 
date  of  his  death  as  21st  Shaban,  673  A.H 

Ma'athir-ul  Karam  also  gives  same  date 
as  Hadiqat-ul-Auliya. 

Also  see  entry  1165-66. 

Portions  pertaining  to  Sind  have  been 
translated  into  English  by  Elliot  and 
Dowson,  Vol.  I. 

Hughes  Buller,  Gazetteer  of  Makran, 
under  Language. 


Todd,  Vol.  II,  Ch.  Ill,  pp.  327-344.  It 
is  not  sure  whether  the  tribute  was  from 
Northern  Sind  or  the  Lower  Sind. 


Journal,    Bombay    Branch    of  Asiatic 
Society,  VoL  12,  pp.  32,  1936. 


268 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S1ND 


aching  his  faith  for  the  next  65  years. 
His  teachings  in  Sindhi  poetry  have 
survived  to  this  day.  He  was  deputed 
by  Imam  Qasim  Shah.  29th  Imam  of 
Nizaris  in  1310-11  A.D.  to  the  Punjab 
and  Sind,  where  he  converted  Lohanas 
to  a  new  sect  called  Noor  Bakhshi.  He 
also  converted  many  thousand  people 
at  Debal. 

1283-84  A.D.— 682  A.H.  : 

Tai  Soomro  died  and  was  succeeded  by 
Chanesar,  who  continued  to  rule  upto 

700A.H.  (1300-1301  A.D.). 

m 

Zafar  Khan,  the  general  of  Allauddin, 
came  to  Sind  in  1297-98  A.D.  Accord- 
ing to  folk-lore  Dodo  was  the  ruler  of 
Sind  and  Chanesar  invited  Allauddin 
who  is  said  to  have  come  in  person  to 
over-throw  Dodo  and  instal  Chanesar 
in  his  place. 

This  chronology  of  Tuhfat-ul-Kiram 
turns  Dodo-Chanesar  ballads  into  a 
pure  fiction.  It  is  also  certain  that 
Allauddin  did  not  come  to  Sind.  Zafar 
Khan  may  have  helped  Chanesar  in  a 
local  rebellion. 


1284-84  A.D.— 683  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Kazwini  (also  spelled  as 
Zakariya  Qazvini),  author  of  the 
geographical  work  Asar-ul-Bilad  wa 
Akhbar-ul-Bilad.  The  towns  of  Multan, 
Mansurah,  Debal  and  their  local  con- 
ditions are  described  in  this  work 


Shamsuddin  died  at  Multan  in  757  A.H. 
(1355  A.D.).  His  ancestors  had  migrated 
with  Imam  Hadi  from  Cairo  to  Almut. 
He  produced  28  Bhajanas  in  the  praise 
of  Imam  Qasim.  Debal  was  already  in 
ruins  then.  By  Debal  the  Lower  Sind 
is  meant. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  69  and  486. 

Masumi,  pp.  42-43  puts  Nasir  Khan 
as  the  general  of  Allauddin  in  Sind 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  puts  Tai's 
death  and  Chanesar's  accession  in 
695  A.H.  (1295-96  A.D.)  and  his  rule 
upto  713  A.H  (1313-14  A.D.). 

Daulat-i-Alviya  states  that  (Kamaluddin) 
Chanesar  was  thrown  out  in  696  A.H. 
(1296-97  A.D.)  and  may  have  sought 
Allauddin  (Zafar  Khan's)  help.  But 
same  source  shows  Dodo's  rule  upto 
1300-1301  A.D.,  again  proving  that  Dodo 
was  not  killed  while  fighting  Allauddin's 
troops,  but  rather  survived  and  con- 
tinued to  rule.  However  Daulat-i-Alviya 
is  not  considered  an  authentic  history 
The  name  Kamaluddin  is  also  this 
author's  invention. 

The  text  was  published  from  Wustenfeld 
in  1848  A.D.  See  entry  1203-04  and 
1275  A.D. 

v 


^ 


f 


I 


1285  A.D.-684  A.H.  : 

Birth  of  Ziauddin  Barni,  the  author  of 
Tarikh-i-Feroz  Shahi. 

As  per  his  own  statement,  he  was  74 
lunar  years  or  12  solar  years  old  when 
he  wrote  his  history  in  1357  A.D.  It  is 
an  important  source  on  Sind  and  Delhi 
relations  from  1264  to  1357  A.D. 

Unfortunately,  this  historian,  a  genius 
of  his  age,  died  in  1359  A.D.  in  such  an 
extreme  poverty  that  no  shroud  of 
cotton  was  available  for  his  coffin,  and 
he  had  to  be  buried  in  a  coarse  matting. 
He  lacks  in  chronological  order  of 
events  which  are  obtained  from  con- 
temporary sources. 

1287  A.D.—686  A.H.  : 

After  the  death  of  Sultan  Balban,  the 
courtiers  in  1287  A.D.  appointed  his 
grandson  Muizuddin  Khaikobad,  son 
of  Nasiruddin  Bughra,  as  new  Sultan. 
Nasiruddin  Bughra  then  was  the  Go- 
vernor of  Bengal.  Kaikobad,  fearing 
that  he  may  be  replaced  by  his  cousin 
Kaikhusru,  Governor  of  Multan  and 
Sind,  called  the  latter  to  the  court  at 
Delhi  and  had  him  assassinated  near 
Rohtak. 


Masumi.  p.  40. 


SOOMRA    DYNASTY 

1285-85  A.D.— 683  A.H.  : 

The  Mongol  generals  Qutlagh  and 
Timur  invaded  the  Lahore  area.  Sultan 
Balban's  son.  Sultan  Mahmood,  the 
Governor  of  Multan  and  the  Upper 
Sind.  gave  him  a  battle  with  30,000 
soldiers  in  which  in  spiie  of  his  being 
killed  the  Mongols  took  to  flight. 
Balban  appointed  Kaikhusro,  Sultan 
Mahmood's  son  as  the  new  Governor 
of  Multan  and  Sind. 


. 


Barni.  pp.  473  and  602 
p.  312. 


Amir  Khurd, 


Some  authorities  put  it  as  1286  A.D< 


Masumi,  p.  40,  and  Barni,  p.  122,  have 
assigned  685  «A.H.  to  his  death  which  is 
incorrect.  Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  52  and 
Futuh-us-Sa latin,  p.  185  confirm  that 
Kaikobad  became  Sultan  in  686  A.H. 
Amir  Khusru  in  Qiran-al-Saadin  confirms 
the  date  of  686  A.H. 


270 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1289-1325  A.D.— 688-725  A.H.  : 

Amir  Khusru,  the  poet  composed  Mas- 
navis  which  contain  historical  material 
on  the  Sub-continent  and  reflect  that 
Delhi  Sultante  had  hardly  any  control 
on  the  Lower  Sind.  The  Masnavis  were 
composed  as  under: 

(i)  688  A.H.  (1289-90  A.D.)  Qiran-al- 
Saadin,  describes  the  conditions 
after  the  death  of  Balban  and 
during  the  rule  of  Kaikobad. 

(ii)  690  A.H.  Miftah-ul-Futuh,  des- 
cribes four  battles  of  Jalaluddin 
Khilji. 

(hi)  711  A.H.  (1311-12  A.D.)Khazain- 
ul-Futuh  or  Tarikh-i-Alai  covering 
the  period  of  first  seventeen  years 
of  Allauddin's  rule. 

(iv)    715  A.H.  (1315-16  A.D.)    Dewal 
Rani-Khizr  Khan  a  semi-historical 
romance,  written  to  please   Khizr 
Khan. 

(v)  718  A.H.  (1318-19  A.D.)  Noh 
Siphar,  describes  first  three  years 
rule  of  Qutubuddin  Mubarak 
Khilji. 

(vi)  725  A.H.  (1325  A.D.)  Tughluq 
Nama,  describes  fall  of  Khilji  Dy- 
nasty and  the  taking  over  by 
Ghfasuddin  Tughluq. 

1290  A.D.,  1st  February  : 
689  A.H..  19th  Muharram  I 

The  courtiers  had  Sultan  Kaikobad, 
grandson  of  Balban,  assassinated,  thus 
bringing  to  an  end  the  84  years  rule  of 
the  Slave  Sultans  of  Delhi.  They  nomi- 
nated Jaaluc'din  Feroz  Khiiji  as  the 
next  Suitan. 


- 


Barni,  pp.  201  and  202. 


Masumi  describes  Ghazi  Malik  Tughluq 
as  Governor  of  Multan  and  Upper  Sind 
before  he  became  Sultan. 


• 

I 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


271 


V 


I 


Tughluq  came  to  Sind  in  a  miserable 
condition  during  the  reign  of  Allauddin 
Khiiji.  when  his  brother  Ulugh  Khan 
(Almas  Beg)  was  Governor  of  Upper 
Sind.  Tughluq  entered  the  services  of 
Ulugh  Khan  and  from  initial  services  as 
a  shepherd  of  a  merchant  rose  to  the 
position  of  a  great  Amir  called  'Malik 
Ghazi. 


Ibn  Batuta  saw  an  inscription  on  a 
mosque  at  Multan  constructed  at 
Tughluq's  order  showing  that  he  had 
fought  twentynine  battles  with  the 
Tatars  (Mongols)  and  had  defeated 
them. 

1290  A.D.— 689  A.H.  : 

Jalaluddin  Khiiji  occupied  the  Delhi 
throne. 

1290  A.D.— 689  A.H.  : 

Pir  Sadaruddin,  a  well  known  Ismaili 
preacher  was  born.  He  preached  in 
the  Sindhi  language  and  Sindhi  poetry, 
parts  of  which  have  survived  to  this  day. 
He  a. so  invented  a  new  script  for  Sindhi 
language  having  40  letters,  which  was 
being  printed  from  Bombay  until  re- 
cently. This  scrips  p  known  as  Khawja- 
Ki-Sindhi  or  Khoiki. 


Amir  Khusru.  Tughluq  Namah.  p.  63. 

Firishta,  pp.  230-31  states  that  he  came 
during  the  reign  of  Balban  and  married 
into  a  local  Jatt  family  and  that  the  King 
Ghiasuddin  was  a  fruit  of  this  marriage 
is  more  acceptable. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  59,  assigns  this  date  to 
Kaikobad's  death.  Masumi  puts  688  A.H 
which    is    incorrect.      Barni      assigns 

688  A.H.  to  Jalaluddin's  accession,  hut 
this  is  disproved  by  Amir  Khusrus 
Masnavi  in  Miftah-ul-Futuh,  which  as- 
signs 3rd  Jamadi-II,  689  to  this  occasion. 
Mubarak  Shahi.  p.  62,  assigns  Rabi-II, 

689  A.H.  to  it.  Amir  Khusru's  date 
would  be  more  reliable  as  the  poem  was 
composed  for  the  occasion. 


Barm,  p.  202. 

Masumi,  p.  41  puts  it  as  688  A.H. 
which  Dr.  Daudpota,  p.  277  consi- 
ders as  wrong. 

The  Khojki  Script  is  based  on  some  old 
Sindhi  script  as  is  found  at  Bhanbhore 
destroyed  in  1226  A.D. 


272 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1296  A.D.-695  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Jalaluddin  Khilji  on  arrival  at 
Lahore  appointed  his  son  Arkali  Khan 
as  Governor  of  Multan  and  Uch  and 
probably  Zafar  Khan  as  Governor  of 
Upper  Sind.  The  income  from  Sind 
was  to  go  to  Arkali  "Khan  towards  his 
pay. 

- 


1296  A.D.— 695  A.H.,  17th  Ramzan  : 

Sultan  Jalaluddin  Khilji  was  assassi- 
nated by  his  nephew  and  son-in-law 
Allauddin,  who  later  on  became  Sultan 
himself.  The  wife  of  Jalaluddin  Khilji 
installed  her  youngest  son  Rukunuddin 
Ibrahim  as  the  Sultan  of  Delhi.  The 
eldest  son  Arkali  Khan,  disapproving 
her  mother's  action  prepared  for  assault 
on  Delhi.  Allauddin  too  prepared  to 
take  over  the  Government. 

Rukunuddin  Ibrahim  left  Delhi  and 
took  shelter  with  Arkali  Khan  at  Mul- 
tan. Allauddin  on  reaching  Delhi  brib- 
ed all  the  courtiers  who  forgot  the  trea- 
chery and  then  he  coronated  himself 
on  Zil-Haj  19th,  695  A.H.  and  sent  his 


Masumi,  p.  41  puts  the  year  as  939  A.H. 
(1294-95  A.D.),  and  Nusrat  Khan  instead 
of  Zafar  Khan. 

Nusrat  Khan's  appointment  as  the  Go- 
vernor of  Sind  is  not  mentioned  by  any 
other  historian. 

See  entry  1297-98  A.D.  for  Zafar    Khan' 
expedition  to  Sind. 

Masumi,  p.  42  thinks  that  Nusrat  Khan 
built  Nasarpur  town,  which  w."c  actually 
built  after  1351  A.D.  when  I  jz  Shah 
appointed  Amir  Nasar  as  the  Governor 
of  the  territories  on   the  Eastern  Puran. 

See  entry  1351   A.D. 

Masumi  also  states  that  Nusrat  Khan 
was  to  work  under  the  administrative 
and  financial  control  of  Arakli  Khan  and 
Arkali  Khan  invaded  Sind  twice  and 
crushed  rebellions.  This  is  not  sup- 
ported by  any  other  history. 


Barm,  pp.-238  and  242. 


Masumi,  p.  42  puts  3  months  siege. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  71-72. 

Masumi,  wpngly  states  that  Nusrat 
Khan  was  given  10,000  troops  to  govern 
Multan,  Uch,  Bakhar,  Sehwan  «ind 
Thatta  and  suppress  rebellion.  Thatta 
did  not  exist  then. 

The  Lower  Sind  at  the  time  was  being 
ruled  independently  by  Soomras.  It  was 
Zafa*  Khan  who  took  expedition  to 
crush  Mongols  in  Upper  Sind  in 
1297-98  A.D.    and  not  Nusrat  Khan. 


I 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


273 


brother  Almas  Beg  or  Ulugh  Khan  with 
40,000  troops  to  capture  Multan,  which 
capitulated  after  two  months  siege,  as 
the  Multanis  betrayed  and  joined  Ulugh 
Khan.  Arkali  Khan  and  Rukunuddin 
Ibrahim  were  captured,  blinded  and 
imprisoned  at  the  Gwalior  fort  in  spite 
of  Shaikh  Rukunuddin  having  acted  as 
an  intermediary  in  the  surrender. 
Malak  Harnimar  was  appointed  as  the 
Governor  of  Multan  and  Upper  Sind 
in  place  of  Arkali  Khan.  Malak 
Nusrat,  was  given  the  title  of  Nusrat 
Khan,  as  he  seems  to  have  supported 
Allauddin  against  Arkali  Khan.* 

Ulugh  Khan  probably  became  the  Go- 
vernor of  Upper  Sind  (Multan,  Uch 
and  Bakhar). 

1297-98  A.D.— 697  A.H.  : 

After  defeating  the  Mongols  near  Jalan- 
dhar,  Allauddin  Khilji  sent  10,000 
horse-men  under  Zafar  Khan  to  subdue 
any  rebellion  in  Multan,  Uch,  Sehwan 
and  Thatta  (Thatta  probably  did  not 
exist  then). 

The  Mongols  under  Nu-Yan  Saldo  in- 
vaded Sehwan,  and  Chehldev,  a  Raja  of 
Sehwan,  became  independent  with  the 
help  of  these  Mongols.  Zafar  Khan 
laid  siege  to  the  Sehwan  fort.  Chehldev. 
his  brother  and  Mongols  retaliated  by 
powerful  arrows,  which  made  Sehwan 
un-approachable  even  by  birds,  but  it 
finally  fell.  Chehldev,  his  brother  and 
all  the  Mongols  with  their  families 
were  sent  to  Delhi  as  prisoners. 

Zafar  Khan  conquered  the  Sehwan  fort 
without  scaling  ladders,  stone  thrower 


Barni,  p.  294. 

Firishta,  Bombay,  Vol.  I,  pp.  174-180  and 
189.  Date  of  Allauddin's  coronation 
comes  from  Mubarak  Shahi. 

Same  source  states  that  he  entered  the 
royal  palace  on  Zil-Haj  22nd,  695  A.H. 


' 

Barni,  pp.  263-64. 


Masumi,  p.  43  puts  the  name  of  the 
general  as  Nusar  Khan  which  is  incorrect, 
and  so  is  its  year  698  A.H. 

There  is  not  enough  evidence  that  Zafar 
Khan  invaded  the  Lower  Sind  after  the 
fall  of  Sehwan,  excepting  the  Sindhi 
ballads,  which  talk  of  Allauddin's  conflict 
with  Dodo-IJ,  to  instate  Chanesar  in  his 
place.  Besides  this  Barni,  p.  323  mentions 
the  names  of  19  Provinces  and  their 
Governors  in  1307-8  A. D.  Maiik  Kafur 
is  mentioned  as  the  Governor  of  Multan 
and  Siwistan,  but  the  Lower  Sind  is  not 
mentioned. 

v 
Masumi,  pp.  42-43    puts  name    of  the 
Governor  of  Sehwan  as  Nusrat  Khan 
which  is  incorrect  as  in  the  third  year  of 


274 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


engines,  or  hurling  missiles  and  other 
war  machines  but  simply  by  axes  and 
arrows,  showing  that  Sehwan  fort  had 
neither  high  walls  nor  strong 
structure  as  stated  by  Masumi. 

Zafar  Khan  may  have  taken  expeditions 
to  the  Lower  Sind  and  Cutch.  Cutchi 
tradiions  make  a  mention  of  migration 
of  Sammas  as  well  as  Soomras  from 
Lower  Sind  to  Cutch  when  chased  by 
Allauddin's  Imperial  troops,  but  Abda, 
the  great  grandson  of    Gajan  son  of 
Rayadhan  son  of  Lakho,  Jareja  Samma 
of  Sind,  attacked  and  defeated  the  Im- 
perial troops  and  rescued  the    Royal 
ladies  of  Soomra  House  of  Tur  (capital 
of  Sind  on  Gungro  branch  of  the  Indus) 
as  per  Cutchi  tradition.    This  tradition 
like  Gujaraii,  Sindhiand  Rajistani  bal- 
lads may  have  been  written  in  the  1 5th 
century  and  may  not  be  a  historical  fact. 
Another  tradition  states  that  in    this 
battle  Abro  Samma,  a  Cutchi  chief  lost 
his  life,  but  saved  the  ladies. 

1297-98  A.D.  : 

Allauddin  Khilji's  General  (probably 
Zafar  Khan)  captured  Anhilwara,  the 
capital  of  Gujarat.  Cutch  accepted  the 
suzerainty  of  the  successors  of  old 
masters  and  probably  paid  tribute  to 
maintain  the  Jareja  Samma  rule.  It  is 
certain  that  Delhi  could  not  have 
exercised  effective  control  in  this  thinly 
populated  country  of  Jarejas,  whose 
three  branches  controlled  the  province 
independent  of  each  other.  Since 
Samma  religious  practices  were  a  curi- 
ous mixture  of  Hinduism  and  Islam  and 
were  under  the  influence  of  Sindhi  Sam- 
ma they  could  easily  adjust  with  a 
Muslim  Governor  of  Gujarat. 


Allauddin's  rule  he  had  Ulugh  Khan 
appointed  to  capture  Gujarat. 

Barni,  p.  253,  and  Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol. 
I,  p.  142  put  the  name  of  Zafar  Kfcan  as 
the  general  deputed  to  subdue  Sind. 

According  to  Khusru,  in  Khazain-ul- 
Futuh,  Nusrat  Khan  left  Delhi  for  Gujarat 
on  Jamadi-I  20th,  698  A.H.  (Feb.  23. 
1299  A.D.)  and  started,  campaign  in 
Gujarat  along  with  Ulugh  Khan,  whereas 
Barni  puts  it  as  1298  A.D. 

Firishta,  p.    103  assigns  1297-98  to  it. 

Badauni  and  Yahya  Bin  Sarhandi  put 
698  A.H.  or  1299  A.D. 


Williams,  pp.  100-101. 


Wiliams,  pp.  100-101. 


■ 


■ 


* 


J297-98  A.D.— 697   A.H.  : 

After  the  defeat  of  the  Mongols,  Zafar 
Khan's  troops  returned  to  Bakhar. 
Meantime,  on  Allauddin's  orders  Ulugh 
Khan  took  half  of  the  troops  from  the 
(Upper)  Sind  to  invade  the  Jaisalmir 
fort  and  proceeded  to  capture  Gujarat. 

1300  A.D.  : 

The  Ismailis  survived  in  Upper  Sind  and 
Multan  upto  Allauddin's  times  and 
Multan  ironically  enough  served  as 
refuge  zone  for  Muslim  heretics  perse- 
cuted in  their  lands. 

Allauddin  found  enough  heresy  in 
Multan  to  undertake  a  purification  cam- 
paign. 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY  275 

- 


1300  A.D.  : 


- 


Sindhi  speech  derived  from  old  Var- 
chada  Apabhramsa  of  Sind. 

The  Varchada  Apabhramsa  had  deve- 
loped from  Western  Apabhramsa  by 
about  900  A.D. 

The  Western  Apabhramsa  was  a  Prakrit 
embracing  the  North  Western  Punjab 
and  Sind  around  500  A.D  and  may  be 
named  as  Madra,  Gandhara  or  Sindu 
(Saindhavi)  Prakrit. 

Around  500  A.D.  there  were  eight 
Prakrits  in  the  Sub-continent. 

(i)   Eastern  or  Magadhi. 
(ii)   Central  or  Ardha  Magadhi. 
(iii)   Northern  or  Khasa  or  Himalayan. 

(iv)  Samraseni  or  Middle,  current  in 
Western  U.  P.,  parts  of  the  East- 
ern Punjab  and  parts  of  Rajistan. 


Barni,  pp.  249-50. 

The  Soomras  in  Sind  were  still  Ismailis. 


HOP,  Vol.  VI,  pp.  491-95. 


276 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  Of  SIND 


(v)   Western  Rajistan,  Saurashtra  and 
Gujarat. 

(vi)    Malavian. 

(vii)    Maharashtrian. 

(viii)    North-Western  Punjab  and 
Sind. 

1300  A.D.  (Approximate)  : 

Taj-ul- Malik  Kafur  appointed  as  Go- 
vernor of  Multan  and  Sehwan  after  sub- 
duing of  Cheldev. 

1300-01  A.D.— 700  A.H.  : 

Chanesar  bin  Tai  Soomro  died  and  was 
succeeded  by  Bhoongar-II,  who  ruled 
for  15  years  upto  715  A.H.  (1315  A.D.). 


1300-1416  A.D.— 700-819  A.H.  : 

Pir  Sadaruddin  bin  Pir  Shahabuddin 
lived  then.  Born  in  Sabzwari,  he  died 
at  Uch  in  819  A.H.  He  was  an  Ismaili 
preacher  and  preached  in  local  langu- 
ages including  Sindhi.  He  learnt  Sans- 
krit, adopted  a  Hindu  name  and  wrote 
the  book  'Dosa  Qatar*.  In  this  book  he 
called  Prophet  Muhammad  as  Brahama. 
Ali  as  Vishnu  and  Adam  as  Shiva.    He 


Barni,  pp.  269-270. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  95-96  assigns 
682-700  A.H.  (1283-1300/1301  A.D.)  to 
his  rule. 

Daulat-i-Alviya  assigns  the  same  year  to 
Asad-al-Millat  Dodo's  death  and 
calls  the  successor  as  Zaheeruddin 
Bhoongar,  who  according  to  this  source 
continued  his  rule  upto  740  A.H.  (1339- 
40  A.D.) 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  continues  Chane 
sar's  rule  upto  713  A.H.  (1313-14  A.D.). 

Daulat-i-Alviya  mentions  that  Kamal- 
uddin  Chanesar-II  ruled  upto  1396-97 
A.D.  (696  A.H.),  when  he  was  removed 
and  replaced  by  Asad-al-Millat  Dodo, 
who  ruled  upto  700  A.H.  (1300-1301  A.D.) 


Arnold,  Preachings  of  Islam,  p.  225. 
Maulvi  Najamul  Ghani,  Mazhab-i-Islam, 
p.   334. 


s 


•- 


^ 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


277 


called  his  followers  as  Khawaja  (Persian 
wordV  for  artisans,  educated  people, 
businessmen  and  doctors),  which  later 
on  became  Khoja  or  Khawajo.  His 
followers  called  him  Harish  Chandur 
or  Soha  Deva.    He  is  buried  at  Uch. 

1307-1383  A.D.— 707-781  A.H.  : 

Makhdoom  Jahanian  of  Uch  lived  then. 
He  probably  was  the  fief  of  Sehwan  in 
the  days  of  Feroz  Tughluq  as  per  in- 
scription now  on  Qalandar's  grave, 
showing  that  he  built  a  tomb  on  the 
grave  of  Waliullah  Allaul-Haq  Ali 
Baghdadi  on  7th  Safar  758  A.H. 
(1357  A.D.). 

1310  A.D.— 710  A.H.  : 

Rashiduddin  Fazlullah-Hamdani  com- 
pleted Jami-ul-Tawarikh  or  History  of 
Mongols.  Author  was  born  in  Ham- 
dan  in  645  A.H.  (1247  A.D.),  became 
Vazier  of  Ghazan  Khan,  the  Mongol 
King  of  Persia,  and  died  in  718  A.H. 
(1318  A.D.).         ^ 

■ 

■ 
1310  A.D.— 711  A.H.  : 

Amir  Khusro  composed  Tarikh-i-Alai, 
the  history  of  Allauddin  Khilji.  The 
book  does  not  mention  Alia uddin's  ex- 
pedition on  Sind  and  Dodo-AUauddin 
conflict. 

1314-15  A.D.— 715  A.H.  : 

Bhoogar  bin  Chanesar  bin  Tai  Soomro 
died  and  his  son  Khafif  became  the  next 
ruler. 


Professor    Muhammad    Shafi,    p. 
Akhbar-ul-Akhyar,  p.  72. 


18. 


The  recent  text  edited  by  Dr.  Bahman 
Karimi  has  been  published  from  Tehran 
in  1338  Sh.  The  portions  pertaining  to 
the  Sub-continent  were  copied  from 
Beruni  (970-1048  A.D.)  and  these  have 
been  reproduced  by  Elliot  and  Dowson 
in  Vol.  I.  The  earlier  texts  were  pub- 
lished from  Paris  in  1861  and  1901  A.D. 
respectively. 


Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.  K., 
pp.  95-96  and  484-486,  puts  Chanesar's 
rule  upto  713  A.H.  or  1313-14  A.D. 
This  version  is  doubtful. 

v 

Daulat-i-Alviya   calls  him   Zaheeruddin 

Bhoongar,  his  death  in  740  A.H.  (1339-40 


278 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1316-17  A.D.— 716  A.H.,  6th  Shawwal  : 

Sultan  Allauddin  died.  Tarikh-i-Mu- 
barak  Shahi  states  that  he  was  poisoned 
by  Malik  Kafur,  one  of  his  generals. 
Malik  Kafur  installed  Allauddin's  son 
Shahabuddin  aged  5  or  6  years,  as  the 
new  Sultan,  but  he  was  killed  35  days 
after  Allauddin's  death  and  another  son 
of  Allauddin,  Qutubuddin  Mubarak 
Shah  Khilji,  was  appointed  as  the  new 
Sultan  in  717  A.H.  (1317-18  A.D.)  by 
Taj-ul-Malik  Kafur. 

On  his  death,  the  control  of  Delhi  was 
lost  on  Sind  and  Cutch. 


■ 


" 


A.D.)  and  his  successor  Fakhruddin 
Umer-I,  who  retired  in  775  A.H.  (1373-74 
A.D.).  This  version  is  also  un-accept- 
able  as  Soomra  rule  ended  by  the  over- 
throw of  Hamir  soon  after  1351  A.D. 
when  the  Sammas  started  ruling  the 
Lower  Sind  as  confirmed  by  Shams 
Siraj  Afif. 

See  also  entries  1365-1369  A.D.  The 
names  Zaheeruddin  and  Fakhruddin 
are  also  not    known  to  other  historians. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  81  puts  it  6th  Shawwal, 
715  A.H.  Masumi,  p.  43  puts  the  date 
of  his  death  as   Shawwal  6,  717  A.H. 

Barni,  p.  381,  puts  it  as  6th  Sahwwal  with- 
out mentioning  the  year.  Firishta  puts 
it  6th  Shawwal,  716  A.H. 

Confirmation  comes  from  Amir  Khusru's 
Naha  Siphar. 

Masumi,  p.  45  states  that  these  parts 
were  given  in  the  Jagir  of  Malak  Ghazi. 
This  statement  is  incorrect  as  Barni,  a 
contemporary  historian,  p.  323,  states 
that  Multan  and  Uch  were  given  in  the 
Jagir  of  Taj-ul-Malik    Kafur. 

The  Sassanids  were  the  first  nation  who 
enslaved  free  peasants  by  creation  of 
Feudal-elite  or  Jagirdars,  a  feudal  re- 
volution that  affected  all  countries  of 
Europe  and  Asia. 

This  system  was  copied  by  the  Arabs,  the 
Salves-Russians  and  Central  Asians,  as 
reported  by    Girshman,  p.  345. 

It  was  brought  to  the  Sub-continent  by 
the  Arabs,  but  it  reached  its  advanced 
stage  under  the  Delhi  Sultans. 


■J 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


279 


r 


r 


I 


1317-1320  A.D.— 717-720  A.H.  : 
The  Soomras  shifted  capital  to  Thatta. 
Simultaneously  they  threw  off  the  yoke 
of  Delhi  Government. 

The  river  Indus  seems  to  have  changed 
the  course  between  1300-1340  A.D. 
Kalri,  north  of  Thatta  became  the  main 
branch  and  Baghar  south  of  Thatta,  the 
secondary  stream.  The  bifurcation  took 
place  about  10-12  miles  east  of  Thatta, 
which  was  between  Jhok  and  Bulri  in  the 
previous  century.  Ren  branch  kept  flow- 
ing as  usual  but  Gungro  on  which 
Soomra  capital  Tur  stood  seems  to 
have  lost  much  of  its  waters  bringing 
the  end  of  the  city  of  Tur. 

In  the  central  Sind  below  Bakhar  gorge 
river  flowed  about  16  miles  east  of  pre- 
sent channel.  Nasarpur  township  was 
built  on  this  course  by  Feroz  Shah 
Tughluqin  1351  A.D. 

Debal  was  deserted  by  the  river  and 
a  new  port  Lahri  Bunder  was  established 
on  the  new  Kalri  branch.  The  Eastern 
and  Western  Purans  too  were  deserted 
for  good. 

1320  A.D..  April  : 
720  A.H.,  5th  Rabi-I  : 

Khusru  Khan,  a  Hindu  slave  who  was 
captured  at  Malva,  converted  to  Islam 


In  the  grab  of  Mansabdars  (who  were 
both  Hindus  and  Muslims)  it  reached 
the  climax  of  its  exploitation  under  the 
Mughals,  and  a  new  class  of  feudals 
evolved.  The  Khatri  class  of  Rajputs 
willingly  joined  the  Mughals  all  through 
from  Akbar  to  Aurangzeb  (1556-1707 
A.D.)  as  it  suited  their  traditional  pro- 
fession. 

Masumi,  p.  46  states  that  they  rebelled 
and  captured  Thatta. 

The  Soomras  were  founders  of  Thatta. 
They  may  have  shifted  the  capital  from 
Muhammad  Tur  to  Thatta  due  to  hydro- 
logical  changes  in  the  course  of  the  river 
Indus.  The  rebellion  coincided  with  the 
death  of  Allauddin  Khilji  and  the  chaos 
created  at  Delhi  subsequently. 

They  most  probably  were  subdued  and 
made  to  pay  tribute  by  Allauddin's 
general  Zafar  Khan  in  1297-98  A.D.  and 
on  his  death  might  have  declared  in- 
dependence. 

Except  Masumi  no  other  historian  has 
quoted  the  incident.  Mir  Masum  is 
most  un-reliable  on  the  Soomra  and 
Samma  periods  and  has  based  his 
information  on  heresay,  folklore  and 
the  assumption  that  the  Soomras  and  the 
Sammas  were*  subordinate  to  the  Ghaz- 
navis,  Ghoris  and  Delhi  Sultans. 


K 


Ain-i-Haqiqat  Nama,  Vol.  I,  p.  298. 

■ 


280 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SINJ* 


and  had  risen  to  the  rank  of  the  Go- 
vernor of  all  the  provinces  of  Deccan, 
got  Sultan  Qutubuddin  Mubarak  Shah 
Khilji  assassinated  and  became  Sultan 
on  the  next  day  i.e.  the  6th  Rabi-I, 
calling  himself  Sultan  Nasiruddin. 

1320  A.D.— 720  A.H.,  Rajab.  : 

After  Khusru  Khan  had  Sultan  Qutub- 
uddin Mubarak  Shah  murdered  and 
strengthened  his  party,  which  mainly 
consisted  of  Parwari  of  Gujarat  (Khusru, 
a  Hindu  convert,  was  from  tribe  of 
Barwar  or  Parwar),  and  some  rebel 
Muslims,  Malik  Fakhruddin  Dawal  re- 
lated to  his  father  the  atrocities  of 
Khusru  Khan.  On  this  Malik  Ghazi 
(Tughluq)  asked  his  private  Secretary  to 
draft  letters  to  Amir  Muglatti,  the  Go- 
vernor of  Multan,  Muhammad  Shah, 
the  Governor  of  Siwistan,  BahramAiba, 
the  Governor  of  Uch,  Ain-ul-Mulk 
Multani,  Yaklakhi,  the  Governor  of 
Samana,  and  Hoshang,  the  Governor  of 
Jalor  desiring  all  of  them  to  assist  him 
in  retaliatory  war  to  avenge  the  death 
of  the  Sultan.  No  letter  was  addressed 
to  the  Soomras  of  the  Lower  Sind 
showing  that  they  were  independent. 

This  is  further  confirmed  by  the  fact  that 
the  son  of  Muhammad  Shah,  Governor 
of  Siwistan  (Sehwan)  who  had  been 
thrown  in  prison  by  noblemen  before 
the  arrival  of  this  letter  was  released  on 
the  condition  that  Muhammad  Shah 
would  join  Ghazi  Malik.  He  agreed  to 
do  so  but  the  war  ended  before  his 
arrival.  Tughluq  Nama  and  Tarikh-i- 
Mubarak  Shahi  also  confirm  that  Ghazi 
Malik  looted  the  convoy  carrying  horses 
and  taxes  from  Multan  and  Sehwan  and 


Elliot,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  211  for  Parw&ri. 
Tughluq  Nama  of  Amir  Khusru,  Hy- 
derabad (Deccan),  verses  843-896,  and 
also  pp.  45-48  and  54-62. 

Futuh-ul-Salatin  confirms  the  views  of 
Tughluq  Nama. 

Tarikh-i-Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  88-90. 

Ain-i-Haqiqat  Nama,  Vol.  I,  pp.  298-99. 


. 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


281 


used  this  wealth  to  defeat  Khusru  Khan. 
The  soldiers  were  given  2  years  advance 
salaries.  The  success  was  mainly  due  to 
troops  from  Sind  and  Multan. 

In  all  these  sources  there  is  no  mention 
of  the  Soomras  of  the  Lower  Sind. 

Malik  Ghazi  became  the  next  Sultan 
calling  himself  as  Ghiasuddin  Tughluq. 

1320  A.O.,  7th  September: 

720  A.H.,  Shaban  1  : 

Malik  Ghazi   (Tughluq)  ascended  the 

throne  of  Delhi. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  92  puts  the  year  as 
721  A.H.  which  is  incorrect. 

Tughluq  Namah,  pp.  132-134  and  144 
gives  the  date  of  721  A.H.  which  is  not 
correct. 

Masumi,  p.  45. 


f 

1 


1320  A.D.  or  soon  afterwards  : 

Ghiasuddin  Tughluq  on  ascending  the 
throne  in  1320  A.D.  awarded  titles  and 
honours  to  his  comrades  and  kinsmen. 
To  Bahram  Khan  Aiba  he  gave  the  title 


Isami,  Futuh  ul-Salatin  confirms  the  same 
date.  Firishta  assigns  1321  A.D. 
(721  A.H.)  to  thisjncident  but  the  version 
of  the  first  two  sources  is  more  accept- 
able. 

Tughluq  is  spelled  differently  by  various 
authorities. 

Ibn  Batuta  writes  it  as  Tughluq. 

Moreland  puts  it  as  Tughlaq. 

Lane  Poole  states  it  as  Tughlak. 

Sir  Aurel  Stein  writes  it  as  Taghlik. 

Sir  Wolseley  Haig,  records  it  as  adopted 
Tughluq. 


282 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  AND 


of  Kishiu  KJian  with  the  government  of 
(Upper)  Sind  and  Multan  under  him. 
He  also  honoured  him  by  addressing 
him  as  brother. 

It  was  at  the  same  time  that  he  honoured 
his  eldest  son  Malik  Fakhruddin  Juana 
by  declaring  him  heir  apparent  and 
awarding  the  title  of  Ulugh  Khan.  All 
the  courtiers  were  made  to  take  the  oath 
of  allegiance  to  him. 

1320  A.D.  : 

Sammas  who  had  helped  Soomras  to 
rise  to  power,  but  were  later  on  driven 
out  by  Soomras  to  Cutch,  and  had 
taken  shelter  with  Chawras  of  Gujarat 
established  their  kingdom  in  Cutch. 
Sammas  of  Sind  accepted  Islam  but 
those  who  had  left  for  Cutch  remained 
Hindus. 

1320-1325  A.D.  : 

Ghiasuddin  Tughluq  ruled  from  Delhi. 
In  1320  A.D.  while  Ghiasuddin  Tughluq 
(Malik  Ghazi)  was  on  march  to  Delhi, 
the  Soomras  who  ruled  the  Lower  Sind 
occupied  more  territories  in  the  Upper 
Sind. 

1325  A.D.,  July  : 

Death  of  Ghiasuddin  Tughluq  due  to 
collapsing  of  a  huge  wooden  palace  con- 
structed by  his  son  Muhammad  Tughluq 
to  receive  his  father.  Muhammad 
Tughluq  asked  permission  to  caparison 
elephants  ride  past  in  procession  which 
was  granted.  On  approach  of  elephants 
the  structure  collapsed  burying  the 
Sultan. 


< 


. 


s 


CHI,  Vol.  Ill,  under  Sind. 


Masumi,  p.  46. 
Rehla,  pp.  391-95. 
Barni,  p.  452. 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  p.  198  ff. 


Badauni,  Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh,    pp. 
224-25. 


SOOMRA   DYNASTY 


283 


P 


n 


- 


Ibn  Batuta  states  that  it  was  organized 
by  Muhammad  bin  Tughluq.  The 
Sultan  died  after  4  years  and  10  months 
rule  as  stated  by  Mahdi  Hussain  quot- 
ing memoirs  of  Muhammad  bin 
Tughluq.  Sir  Wolseley  Haig  fixes  this 
date  as  February  1325  A.D.,  which  does 
not  appear  to  be  correct  as  this  happen- 
ed during  the  burning  heat  of  the  time. 

Barni  does  not  consider  Muhammad 
Tughluq  as  patricide  and  states  that  it 
was  due  to  storm  that  the  wooden  palace 
came  down  burying  in  the  Sultan.  He 
also  thinks  that  it  was  due  to  stroke  of 
lightning.  • 

Sir  Wolseley  Haig  states  that  Barni  did 
did  not  tell  the  truth  for  the  fear  of  in- 
curring the  wrath  of  Feroz  Shah. 

Later  histories  like  Tabaqat-i-Akbari 
and  Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh,  though 
secondary  sources  state  that  Ulugh  Khan 
(Muhammad  Tughluq)  deliberately  built 
this  frail  structure  to  cause  his  father's 
death. 

Firishta  considers  Ulugh  Khan's  leaving 
the  palace  before  its  collapsing  a  mere 
coincidence.  But  this  too  is  a  secondary 
source.  Of  all  these,  Ibn  Batuta  would 
be  more  reliable,  as  the  book  was  writ- 
ten in  far  off  land,  after  he  had  left 
Sultan  Muhammad  Tughluq's  court, 
holding  responsible  posts  under  him  and 
being  under  the  Sultan's  patronage. 

1326-27  A.D.— 727  A.H.  : 
The  skins  of  rebellious  Ghiasuddin 
Bahadur  Bura  and  Bahauddin  Gurshasp 
who  were  killed  and  skinned  at  the 
orders  of  Muhammad  Tughluq  reached 
Sind.    Kishlu  Khan,  the  Governor  of 


Firishta  (Bombay),  p.  235. 

Sir  Wolseley  Haig,  JRAS,  July,  1922. 


Rehla  of  Ibn   Batuta,  pp.  95-96. 


284 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Multan  and  the  Upper  Sind    ordered 
both  of  them  to  be  buried. 

Ibn  Batuta  names  him  Bahauddin 
Gushtasp,  son  of  Ghiasuddin's  sister, 
but  Firishta  names  him  Bahauddin 
Gurshasp,  son  of  Muhammad  Tughluq's 
uncle  and  a  leading  Amir.  He  had  re- 
fused to  swear  allegiance  to  Muhammad 
Tughluq,  and  a  large  force  was  sent 
against  him  under  Khwaja  Jehan,  who 
with  the  help  of  Hindu  Rajas  defeated 
and  captured  Gushtasp.  He  was  flayed 
alive,  his  flesh  cooked  with  rice  and 
placed  before  elephants.  His  skin  was 
then  filled  with  straw  and  was  sent  all 
over  the  Empire  for  exhibition. 

1326-27  A.D.—727  A.H.  : 
Bahram  Aibiya,  titled  as  Kishlu  Khan 
and  adopted  brother  of  Muhammad 
Tughluq,  was  appointed  as  the  Gover- 
nor of  Multan,  Uch  and  the  Upper  Sind 
by  Muhammad  bin  Tughluq. 

Soon  after  taking  over  he  rebelled. 
Firishta  states  that  the  reason  for  the 
rebellion  was  his  being  compelled  to 
send  his  family  to  the  new  capital  Dau- 
latabad. 

It  is  argued  that  he  was  dis-satisfied  at 
the  execution  of  Malik  Bahadur  Gur- 
shasp, who  had  refused  to  go  to  Dau- 
latabad  and  as  a  consequence  rebelled 
and  met  his  fate. 

Ibn  Batuta  states  that  the  reason  for  the 
rebellion  of  Kishlu  Khan  was  that  Mu- 
hammad Tughluq  had  the  skin  of  his 
own  nephew  Gurshasp  removed  and 
filled  with  grass  and  sent  it  over  the  Em- 
pire for  exhibition.  When  it  reached 
Sehwan,  Kishlu  Khan  got  it  buried. 


Firishta,  p.  241 . 

This  is  also  confirmed  by  Isami. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  99  names  him  Malik 
Bahadur  Gurshasp.  Barni  does  not 
mention  the  whole  incident. 


1 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  I,  p.  192. 
Ain-i-Haqiqat  Nama,  Vol.  II,  pp.  282-283. 

Barni,  p.  479. 

Masumi,  pp.  46-48.    It  appears  Kishlu 
Khan  had  no  influence  in  Sind. 

Rehla,  Vol.  HI,  pp.  318-323. 


1 


S 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


285 


- 


Ma su mi's  statement  that  Kishlu  Khan 
made  Bakhar  as  his  headquarters  is 
incorrect. 

Barni  states  that  on  hearing  of  the  rebe- 
llion, Muhammad  Tughluq  returned  to 
Delhi,  and  sent  troops  to  subdue  Kishlu 
Khan.  The  latter  was  defeated  in  a 
battle  near  Multan,  arrested  and  be- 
headed. Kishlu  Khan's  army  consisted 
of  Multanis  and,  therefore,  Muhammad 
Tughluq  determined  to  allow  massacre 
of  Multan,  but  by  the  timely  interven- 
tion of  Shaikh  Rukunuddin,  this  action 

was  dropped. 

• 

Masumi  also  states  that  Kishlu  Khan 
had  the  support  of  Multanis  and  Balo- 
chis.  The  statement  about  Balochis  is 
doubtful. 

1327-28  A.D.— 728  A.H.  : 

After  the  suppression  of  Kishlu  Khan's 
rebellion  at  Multan,  Sultan  Muhammad 
Tughluq  appointed  suitable  and  trust- 
worthy Governors  at  Multan,  Bakhar 
and  Sewistan  and  returned  to  the  capital 
at  the  end  of  the  same  year. 

1327  A.D.  : 

The  Mongols  under  Changatia  Chief 
Tarmashirin  (Dharmasri)  of  Transoxi- 
ana,  a  Buddhist,  who  had  accepted  Islam 
attacked  the  Sub-continent.  After  sub- 
during  Multan,  he  proceeded  to  Delhi. 
Muhammad  Tughluq  purchased  peace 
by  giving  him  huge  quantity  of  wealth. 

Tarmashirin  after  having  accepted  gifts 
and  money  from  Muhammad  Tughluq 
returned  to  Transoxiana  but  on  his  re- 
turn he  plundered  Gujarat  and  Sind  (Uch 
and    Multan),  taking  away  many    pri- 


Mubarak 
incident. 


Shahi,   p.   100  confirms  the 


Masumi,  p.  48. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  101,  113  and  118. 

Timur's  Zafar  Nama  confirms  it. 

Elliot  and  Dowson,  pp.  377,  363  and  303. 

Barni  gives  the  details  of  Mongol  trea- 
chery nearThatta. 


286 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


sonersand  sent  his  son-in-law  Amir 
Nauroz  and  large  number  of  Mongol 
chieftains  to  the  court  of  Muhammad 
Tughluq.  All  of  them  joined  Muham- 
mad Tughluq's  army  and  Amir  Nauroz 
remained  in  his  service  for  20  years 
until  the  Sultan's  death  at  Sonda  in  1351 
A.D.,  when  these  Mongols  joined  hands 
with  the  Soomras  and  looted  the  Im- 
perial army. 

1327-28  A.D.— 728  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Tughluq  appointed 
Qawamul  Malak  Maqbool  as  the  next 
Governor  of  Multan.  Qawamul  Malak 
was  a  Hindu  slave  of  Kanwar  Rao  Dev 
and  was  converted  to  Islam.  He  was 
to  be  assisted  by  the  Commander  Bahzad 
Khan  and  the  Assistant  Commander 
Shahu  Lodhi  (Afghan). 

There  is  no  mention  that  he  was  the 
Governor  of  Sind  too. 

1330-31  A.D.  : 

Ibn  Batuta  reports  that  Imad-ul-Mulk 
Sartez  was  the  Governor  of  the  Upper 
Sind  (Multan),  when  a  man  pretending 
to  be  Tarmashirin  (the  Mongol  invader), 
arrived  and  some  of  the  Amirs  identi- 
fied him  to  be  Tarmashirin.  This  Tar- 
mashirin stayed  in  Multan  for  some 
days  and  possibly  moved  with  a  follow- 
ing of  his  Mongol  tribesmen  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Delhi. 

From  the  statement  it  is  clear  that  Imad- 
ul-Mulk  Sartez  was  not  Governor  of 
Sind  but  of  Multan. 

1329-30  A.D.—730  A.H.  : 

Qazwini  Hamidullah  bin  Abu  Bakar  bin 
Hamad  bin  Nasar  Mastaufi  wrote 
Tarikh-i-Guzida,  which  gives  an  account 


■ 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh,  pp.  95-96  and 
484-486. 


Ain-i-Haqiqat  Nama,  Vol.  II,  p.  83. 

Tarmashirin  after  his  invasion  of  the 
Sub-continent  in  1327  A.D  returned  to 
Transoxiana,  but  was  deposed,  and  fled 
to  the  Sub-continent  to  take  shelter  with 
Muhammad  Tughluq. 

■ 


. 


' 


The  text  has  been  printed  from  London 
in  1910.  English  tr.  by  Browne,  Lon- 
don, 1921. 


s 


x 


-• 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


287 


* 


L 


f 


< 


- 


, 


of  the  history  of  Sind,  Persian  and  Arab 
raids,  etc. 

1329-32  A.D.— 730-32  A.H.  : 

Token  currency  issued  by  Muhammad 
bin  Tughluq  in  circulation. 

1332-33  A.D.— 733  A.H.  : 

Khafif  bin  Bhoongar  bin  Chanesar 
Soomro  died  and  his  brother  Dodo-II 
bin  Bhoongar  became  the  ruler. 

By  this  time,  the  Soomra  rule  in  the 
Upper  Sind  had  become  too  weak  and 
the  decline  had  started,  and  finally 
Hamir,  their  last  ruler,  was  eliminated 
by  the  Sammas.  The  Soomra's  hold 
on  Lower  Sind  remained  undisputed 
until  1351  A.D. 

The  way  the  Soomras  dispersed  and 
looted  the  forces  of  Muhammad  bin 
Tughluq  described  by  Barni  shows  that 
they  were  very  powerful  in  the  Lower 
Sind.  In  the  Upper  Sind,  the  river  had 
taken  a  new  course  along  the  alignment 
of  the  western  Nara,  a  shift  of  at  least  20 
miles  to  the  west,  deserting  the  country 
and  resulting  into  the  loss  of  their  power. 

The  Sammas,  occupying  the  Central 
Sind,  had  evolved  good  relations  with 
Feroz  Tughluq  in  the  beginning.  It 
was  during  these  earlier  days  that  the 
Sindhi  girls  of  Samma  family  were  sent 
to  the  Royal  Harem  at  Delhi. 

1332-33  A.D.  to  1352  or  after  : 

Rule  of  Doda,  Umer  and  Bhoongar-IH 
Soomras.  On  the  death  of  Bhongar-HI, 
Hamir  became  the  ruler  of  the  Lower 
Sind  and  was  thrown  out  by  the  Sammas 
by  about  1352  A.D. 


Ibn  Batuta  did  not  see  Paper  currency  in 
circulation  in  Sind  in  1333  A.D. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  69  and  486. 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif,  quoted  by  Hussamuddin,  T.K., 
pp.  95-96  and  484-486,  puts  the  death 
of  Boongar  as  728  A.H.  (1327-28  A.D.) 
and  that  of  Khafif  as  746  A.H. 
(1 345-46).    This  version  is  doubtful. 

From  this  time  further,  the  dates  of 
Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Daulat-i-Alviya  and 
Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  are  doubtful. 


Mahru's  Letter  No.  134,  pp.  233-34. 

HCIP,  Vol.  VI,  «tates  that  Banbhiniyo's 
daughter  was  married  to  Feroz  Shah. 
This  is  based  on  translation  ofDukhtar 
as  daughter,  which  also  means  a  girl. 


CFTRONCtX)GICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Tuhfat-ut-Karam  puts  the  rule  of  these 
Kings  as: 


Doda-n 

733—780  A.H. 

(1332—1378  A.D.) 

Umer 

780—793  A.H. 

(1378—1390  A.D.) 

Bhoongar 

793—803  A.H. 

(1390—1400  A.D.) 

Hamir 

803—          A.H. 

(1400—            A.D.) 

One  interesting  conclusion  that  can  be 
drawn  from  this  erroneous  chronelogy 
is  that  it  was  Doda-II  who  chased 
Muhammad  Tughluq's  troops  in  1351 
'A.D.  and  may  be  that  the  Ballads  des- 
cribing Dodo-Delhi  conflict  refer  to 
Muhammad  Tughluq's  expedition  on 
Sind. 

Daulat-i-Alviya    gives    the    following 
chronology  of  the  same  period. 

(Zaheeruddin)  Bhoongar 
700—740  A.H. 
(1300—1339/40  A.D.) 

(Fakhruddin)  Umer 
740—775  A.H. 
(1339/40— .1373/74  A.D.) 

(Qamaruddin)  Tahir 
775—813  A.H. 
(1373/74—1410/11  A.D.) 


. 


(Moeenuddin)  Armil 
813—822  A.H. 
(1410/11—1419  A.D.) 

(Bahauddin  Shah  Mir)  or  Hamir 
822^-843  A.H. 
(1419—1439/40  A.D.) 

% 

1 


r 


SOOMRA  DYNASTY 


289 


This  chronology  is  equally  erroneous 
and  the  names  in  the  bracket  appear  to 
be  forged. 

The  Samma  rule  started  on  the  whole  of 
Sind  soon  after  1352  A.D.  due  to  over- 
throw of  Hamir. 

Masumi  puts  the  beginning  of  the 
Samma  rule  to  Allauddin  Khilji's  time. 
This  may  have  been  over  a  small  part  of 
Central  Sind,  but  the  Lower  Sind  con- 
tinued to  be  governed  by  the  Soomras. 
Raverty  puts  the  beginning  of  the 
Samma  rule  to  1342  A.D.,  when  the 
anarchy  caused  by  Muhammad 
Tughluq's  actions  brought  the  centri- 
frugal  forces  to  the  height.  He  is  not 
correct  as  Jam  Unar  revolted  against  the 
Delhi  empire  first  in  1333  A.D.  and 
established  his  rule  not  at  the  capital  of 
the  central  Sind,  Sehwan,  but  at  the 
headquarters  of  his  tribe  probably  in 
the  Nawabshah  District. 

Tahir  puts  the  beginning  of  the  Samma        Masumi,  p.  22. 


rule  in  843  A.H.  or  1439  A.D.,  but  he 
is  incorrect  as  Afif  saw  the  Sammas  rul- 
ing Thatta  in  1365  A.D.  This  is  also 
confirmed  by  Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi  and 
Tuhfat-ul-Karam. 


From  this  it  can  be  concluded  that 
Sammas  rose  in  Allauddin  Khilji's 
times,  rebelled  first  in  1333  A.D.  and 
overthrew  the  Soomras  completely 
between  1 353-1360  A.D.  as  Mahru's 
letters  indicate. 

Sammas  were  Rajputs  of  the  Yadava 
stock  as  stated  by  Chachnama.  Sirat-i- 


Raverty,  Mihran,  p.  325. 

Tahiri,pp.  148-51. 

Afif,  p.  199. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  99-100. 
Mahru's  letter  No.  46,  pp.  100-103. 


Elliot  and  Dowson,  Vol.  I,  p.  496. 


290 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Feroz  Shahi  recognized  them  as  Mus- 
lims. 

The  letters  of  Mahru  confirm  that  they 
were  Muslims. 

Tuhiat-ul-Karam  considers  them  as 
descendants  of  Nuh,  which  is  a  fabrica- 
tion. 

Prior  to  1333  A.D.  : 

Debal  replaced  by  Lahri  Bunder  due  to 
abandoning  of  Gharo  creek  branch  by 
the  river  Indus.  This  was  followed  by 
other  major  changes  in  the  course  of  the 
river.  Bakhar  became  an  island  which 
till  then  was  connected  to  main  land  6n 
Sukkur  side. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  46,  99  and  134, 
pp.  100-103, 186-1 89,  and  229-235. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  99-100. 


' 


■ 


% 


) 


BEGINNINGS  OF  THE  RISE  OF  SAMMAS 


1333-34  A.D.— 734  A.H.  : 

Jam  Unar  and  Qaiser  Rumi  raised  a 
rebellion  against  the  Delhi  government 
and  killed  Malak  Rattan,  the  represen- 
tative of  Delhi  government  at  Sehwan, 
titled  as  Raja-i-Sind. 

Rattan  was  expert  i  n  account  matters. 
Sehwan  was  in  his  Jagir.  Jam  Unar 
looted  the  treasury  and  the  rebels  gave 
him  the  title  of  Malik  Feroz  and  made 
him  ruler  of  Upper  Sind.  He  had  1800 
mounted  soldiers  who  helped  him  in  the 
rebellion. 

His  son  Banhbiniyo  defeated  Hamir  bin 
Dodo  Soomro  between  1351  and  1360 
A.D.  and  became  the  ruler  of  Sind. 
Hamir  took  shelter  outside  Sind. 

When  the  news  of  rebellion  reached 
Multan,  its  Governor  Sartez  sent  troops 
to  crush  the  rebellion.  Jam  Unar  being 
away  from  his  own  tribe  left  for  his 
home.  The  rebels  made  Qaisar  as  their 
Amir,  Amadul-Mulk  Sartez's  troops 
laid  siege  of  Sehwan  which  was  capitu- 
lated after  40  days  and  heavy  punish- 
ments were  inflicted  on  Qaisar's  men 
and  rebels.  Jam  Unar  seems  to  have 
reached  his  tribe  safely. 


Rehla,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  5-6. 


His  name  was  Ferozuddin  Jam  Unar  as 
per  inscription  on  Jam  Niazmuddin 
tomb. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  46,  pp.  101-102. 

■ 
Rehla,  above  quoted,  pp.  5-6. 

Masumi,  p.  294,  states  that  Jam  Unar 
after  reaching  his  tribe  died  of  a  drunken 
orgy.  This  is  incorrect  as  shown  by 
entry  year  1335  A.D. 

Ibn  Batuta  saw  the  bodies  of  rebels 
nailed  across  the  city  ramparts. 

Ibn  Batuta  states  that  Unar  was  a 
Soomra.  According  to  Dr.  Daudpota 
(Masumi,  p.  294)  Jam  Unar  was  selected 
as  a  leader  jointly  by  the  Soomras  as  well 
as  the  Sammas  (of  the  Central  Sind).  Dr. 
Islam,  in  Islamic  Culture,  1948,  maintains 
that  Unar  (Wana)  was  a  Soomro.    His 


292 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


source  is  Ibn  Batuta  who  has  mistaken 
Soomra  for  Sarama. 


Malik  Hushand  rebelled  at  Daulatpur  at 
the  same  time  and  when  pursued  by 
Sultan  himself,  he  escaped  to  the  terri- 
tory of  a  Hindu  king  in  the  Western 
Ghats. 

Shahu  Afghan  revolted  in  Multan,  killed 
the  Naib,  Bihzad,  and  occupied  the  city; 
but  when  the  Sultan  marched  to  Multan, 
he  escaped  to  Afghanistan. 

At  this  time  the  Hindus  in  Sanam,  Sam- 
ana,  Kaithal  and  Kuhram  too  rebelled 
but  were  suppressed  by  the  Sultan.  In 
737  A.H.  (1336  A.D.),  Bengal  under  the 
leadership  of  Fakhruddin,  the  armour 
bearer  of  Bahram  Khan,  the  former 
Governor  of  Sonagaon,  rebelled  and 
declared  independence.  The  whole  of 
Rajputana  became  independent. 


Since  then  there  were  continuous  rebel- 
lions in  Western  Telegu,  Tilingana, 
Tandi  and  Mandalam  (Northern  Mala- 
bar) by  the  Hindus  and  these  continued 
upto  the  death  of  Sultan  in  1351  A.D. 

Sind  was  the  first  area  to  raise  rebellion 
in  1333  A.D. 

1333-1352/53  A.D.  : 

Rule  of  Ferozuddin  Shah  Jam  Unar  bin 
Banbhiniyo-I. 


Soomra's  power  in  the  Upper  Sind 
waned  due  to  hydrological  changes  of  the 
river  Indus  and  their  leadership  slowly 
passed  in  the  hands  of  the  Sammas  of 
the  Central  Sind. 

J.  R.  A.  S„  1909,  p.  673,  and  J.  R.  A.  S„ 

1922,  pp.  304,  341. 

Ishwari  Prasad,  'History  of  Qarunah 
Turks',  pp.  141-44,   152. 

Isami,  Futuh-us-Salatin,  pp.  451-52  and 
481-523,  calls  the  Sultan  as  Kafir  and 
urges  a  general  revolt. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  p.  205. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  99-1 16. 

Sastri,  K.  A.  Nilkana,  'A  History  of 
South  India',  pp.  226-28. 

Rai  Bahadur  Gauri  Shanker  Ojha,  'His- 
tory of  Rajputana,  Vols.  I  and  II, 
Ajmer,  1928. 


s 


Muntakftab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif  in  Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  100,  puts 
the  date^of  his  death  as  1337  A.D. 


BEGINNINGS  OF  THE  RISE  OF  SAMMAS 


293 


1333  A.D.,  12th  September  : 

734  A.H.,  1st  Mohan-sun  : 

Ibn  Batuta  entered  Sind.  He  had 
started  his  travels  in  1325  A.D.  and  in 
8  years  had  visited  Northern  Africa, 
Arabia,  Persia,  the  Levant  and  Cons- 
tantinople, from  where  he  came  to 
Sind.  He  reached  Delhi  on  Rajab 
13,734  A.H.  (March  20,  1334  A.D.)  and 
was  made  Qazi  by  Muhammad  Tughluq. 

Barni,  the  historian,  was  admitted  in  the 
court  of  Muhammad  Tughluq  the  same 
year. 


Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307  puts 
his  rule  from  1348  to  1352  A.D. 

The  statement  is  incorrect  as  this  Jam 
came  to  power  in  the  Central  Sind 
in  1333  A.D.,  and  may  have  ruled  the 
Central  Sind  since  then.  Dr.  Baloch  has 
adjusted  the  date  in  view  of  Masumi's 
statement  that  Jam  Unar  ruled  for  four 
years. 


Rehla  of  Ibn  Batuta,  G.  O.  S.,  1953. 
Also  see  entries  1286  and  1359  A.D. 


Batuta  was  born  in  1304  A.D.  He 
started  his  travel  in  1325  A.D.  and  re- 
turned lo  Morocco  (his  home)  in  1349. 
Here  he  wrote  his  journal  (Rehla)  at 
the  orders  of  Sultan  Abu  Inam  and  died 
at  the  age  of  73  years  in  1377-78  A.D. 


1333-51  A.D.  : 

In  the  reign  of  Muhammad  bin  Tughluq, 
Mubarak  bin  Mahmud  and  Abu  Safa 
Sirajuddin  Umar  visited  the  Sub-con- 
tinent and  preserved  their  accounts  in 
Masalik-ul-Absar  —  Fi  —  Mamalik-ul- 
Amsar. 


Barni,  p.  468. 
Rehla,  Vol.  H, 

Quartremere :  Masalik-ul-Absar-Tomex 
II,  p.  167  ff.,  quoted  by  Agha  Mahdi 
Hassain  in  Muhammad  bin  Tughluq, 
p.  90. 


They  have  named  23  provinces  of  the 
Tughluq  Empire  which  include  Multan, 
Uch  and  Siwistan,  but  the  Lower  Sind 
is  not  mentioned. 


Recent  text  edited  by  Spies,  Otto,  has 
been  published  from  Aligarh.  Extracts 
in  Elliot  and  Dowson,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  574- 
585. 


294 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Barni  lists  only  12  provinces  which  do 
not  include  Sind. 

Ibn  Batuta  names  15  provinces  and  a 
number  of  towns  in  the  Empire,  which 
include  Multan,  Uch  but  not  Sehwan 
which  had  revolted  against  Muhammad 
Tughluq  in  1333-4  A.D.  and  was  re- 
covered, but  it  is  definite  that  Unar 
Samma  (wrongly  called  Soomra  by 
Batuta)  must  have  occupied  it  soon 
afterwards  and  probably  ruled  it  in- 
dependently. 

From  this  it  is  clear  that  the  Lower  Sind 
was  being  ruled  independently  by  the 
Soomras.  • 

1334-1400  A.D. : 

The  single  horned  rhinoceroe  which  was 
native  of  Sind  until  1400  A.D.  probably 
disappeared.  It  is  shown  in  Amri  and 
Mohenjo-Daro  seals.  In  1333  A.D. 
Ibn  Batuta  reports  its  existence  in 
Upper  Sind. 

J333-1525  A.D. : 

The  Samma  Rule  of  Sind. 

1333-38  A.D. 

The  revolt  in  Sind  in  1333-34  A.D.  by 
Jam  Unar  was  not  an  isolated  instance 
of  rebellion  against  the  Delhi  sultanate 
of  Muhammad  Tughluq.  In  1333-34 
A.D.  (733  A.H.),  Jalaluddin  Ahsan 
Shah,  the  Governor  of  Malabar,  revolted 
and  established  an  independent  Sultan- 
ate of  Madura. 

A  Mongol  chief  Haljaun  assisted  by 
Hindu  Amir  Gulchand  rebelled  at 
Lahore,  but  both  were  defeated  by 
Khwaja  Jehan. 


Barni,  pp.  467-8. 


•    ■ 
Rehla,  Vol.  II. 


Mahdi  Hussain,  Rise  and  Fall  of  Muh- 
ammad Bin  Tughluq,  p.  158. 


«; 


7 


' 


-i 


BEGINNINGS  OF  THE  RISE  OF  SAMMAS 


295 


** 

<? 


There  are  two  important  chronologies  of  this  period  by  Hodivala  (Studies  in  the 
Indo-Muslim  History,  Vol.  I)  and  by  Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch,  in  Tahiri.  These  have 
been  corrected  in  view  of  new  evidence. 


Name  of  Ruler  —  Hodivala 

Baloch 

Corrected, 

Jam  Unar 

1335-1339  A.D. 

1348/49-1352  A.D. 

1333-1352  A.D. 

Jam  Juna 

1339-1352  A.D. 

1352-1365/66  A.D. 

1352-1368  A.D. 

Jam  Banhbiniyo 

1352-1367  A.D. 

1352-1365/66  A.D. 

1352-1368  A.D. 

Jam  Tamachi 

1367-1379  A.D. 

1365/66-1375/76  A.D. 

1368-1370  A.D. 

Jam  Juna  (second 

time) 

—        — 

1375/76-1389  A.D. 

1371-1883/89  A.D. 

Jam  Tamachi 

(second  time) 

—        _. 

1389-1392/93  A.D. 

1389-1392  A.D. 

Salahuddin  (usurper) 

1379-1389  A.D. 

. 

Jam  Nizamuddin 

1389-1391  A.D. 

1392/93-1403/04  A.D. 

1392-1404/05  A.D, 

Jam  Ali  Sher 

1304/05-1406/07  A.D. 

1404/05-1406/07  A.D. 

S/o  Tamachi 

1391-1398  A.D. 

1406/07-1412/13  A.D. 

1406/07-1412/13  A.D 

Karn 

1398  A.D. 

1412/13-1413/14  A.D. 

1412-1413  A.D. 

Sadaruddin 

Jam  Sikandar 

1413/14  A.D. 

1412-1413  A.D. 

Fateh  Khan 

1398-1414  A.D. 

1413/14-1428  A.D. 

1412/13-1428  A.D. 

Tughluq 

(Inscription) 

1414-1442  A.D. 

1428-1453  A.D. 

1428-1453  A.D. 

Mubarak 

1442  A.D. 

1453  A.D. 

1453  A.D. 

Sikandar-II 

1442-1444  A.D. 

1453-1454  A.D. 

1453-54  A.D. 

Sanjar 

1444-1453  A.D. 

Rayadhan 

1453-1461  A.D. 

1454-1461  A.D. 

1454-1461  A.D. 

Nanda 

1461-1508  A.D. 

1461-1508  A.D. 

1461-1508  A.D. 

Feroz 

1508-1527  A.D. 

1508-1521  A.D. 

1508-1524  A.D. 

Insha-i-Mahru  mentions  that  the  2nd  and  3rd  were  joint  rulers. 


1334/35-1350  AD.  : 

Major  changes  in  the  course  of  river 
Indus  took  place.  The  river  Indus 
shifted  westwards,  the  Western  Nara 
became  an  important  channel.  Larkana 
and  Upper  Dadu  districts  upto  Sehwan 
became    fertile,    Western    Puran    was 


- 


296 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


abandoned,  Kalri  became  main  branch 
and  Baghar  a  less  important  branch  of 
the  Lower  Sind.  Thatta  was  established. 
Ghungro  Branch   declined  and  so  did 
the  Soomra  capital  Muhammad  Tur. 

1335  A.D.— 736  A.H.  : 

Accession  of  Jam  Unar  to  power  in 
Central  Sind.  He  ruled  for  17  years 
upto  1362  A.D.  The  Lower  Sind  was 
still  ruled  by  the  Soomras  during  this 
whole  period. 

1338  A.D.: 

Due  to  decay  of  Pari  Nagar,  its  business 
community  left  first  for  Bhodesar  in 
1338  A.D.,  and  then  migrated  to  Jam- 
nagar. 

Qazwini  Hamd-ullah  bin  Abu  Bakar 
bin  Hamd  bin  Nasar  Mustaufi  wrote 
Nuzhat-ul-Qulub  (Delight  of  Hearts), 
a  geographical  work.  It  describes  Sind. 

1340  A.D.— 741  A.H.  : 

The  Abbasid  Caliphate  re-established 
in  Egypt. 

1341-43  A.D.  : 

Muhammad  Tughluq  appointed  Diwan- 
i-Amir-i-Kohi  with  instruction  to  im- 
prove agriculture.  These  Diwans  were 
contractors  who  were  advanced  money 
to  promote  agriculture.  The  total  pro- 
ject was  a  failure  and  not  even  one  per 
cent  increase  in  the  agricultural  output 
was  achieved. 

Barni  states  that  unless  Muhammad 
Tughluq  had  died,  which  happened 
during  his  expedition  to  Sind,  not  even 
one  of  the  under-takers  would  have 
survived. 


Hodivla,  Vol.  I,  p.  102.  puts  the  years  as 
1335,  his  rule  upto  1339  and  his  brother 
Juna's  rule  from  1339  to  1352  A.D. 


Sobhraj,  J.  S.  H.  S.,  Vol.  V,  p.  136. 


The  text  has  been  published  from  Tehran 
in  1336  Sh. 


L 


^ 


. 


HIS    ROUTE     TO     SINO    WAS 
AL-SARA    NORTH    OF    CASPIAN    SEA 
KHAWARIZM,   AL-KAT,   BUKHARA,  SAMAR 
-KANO,  KISH,   TIRMIZ  ,  BALAKH/JUNDUZ, 
ANDARAB,  GHA2NA,  GOMAL-PASS,  FORT 
-SANOEMAN,  MEKHTAR,  BARKHAN.OERA 
-BUGTI,  TO    THUL    TALUKA,  JANANI  , 
SEHWAN.NASAR-PUR   ANO    LAHRI. 

HIS    RETURN    ROUTE     FROM 
SIND  WAS    LAHRI,  NASAR-PUR,  DARBELO, 
BAKHAR  ,  UCH,  MULTAN  ,  AJUDAHAN,  A8U- 
-HAR,SARSATI,HANSI,ANO    DELHI. 


DRAWN    UNDER     SUIOANCE     OF     M.H.PANHWAR. 


SIND    IN  1351  AD- 

MUHAMMAD    TUGHLAQ'S      INVASION   OF  SIND 


AND 
TAGHfe    FLIGHT   TO  SIND 


NOTES:- 

TAGHI    TOOK    SHORTEST    ROUTE    AS    HE      HAD     SUPPORT     OF 
JAREJA   SAMMAS     OF    CUTCH     AND    SOON«AS    OF    SIND.  MUHAMMED 
TUGHLAQ.   HAD  TO  AVOO  CUTCH    AND    APPROACH    SOOMRA  COUNTRY 
THROUGH   THE  DESERT-  RANN    OF  CUTCH   WAS    DRY    THEN.FEROZ 
TUGHLAQ    TOOK    THE    SAME    ROUTE   IN  HIS    SECOND   ATTACK    ON 
SND    N1367     A.D.MAHMUO   GA2NAVI    SACKED  KANTHKOT    ON  WAY 
FROM    SOMNATH    TO    SIND, BUT  FROM    KHANKOT     HE    TOOK     THE  DESERtI 
ROUTE,  AVOIDING  TO    CROSS    CREEK, NOW   RANN   OF   CUTCH.  ALL  THREE 
SUFFERED     HEAVY   LOSSES    IN    THE    DESERT. 


< 


1.  TOWNS   OF  KTH     CENTURY. 

2.  COURSE    OF  INDUS  KTH    CENTURY. 

3.  DRY   BED    OF    HAKRA. 

U.  PRESENT    COURSE   OF    INDUS. 

5.  MUHAMMAD   TUGHLUQS  ROUTE. 

6-  TAGHlt    ROUTE. 

7.  PRESENT   PROVINCIAL    BOUNDARY. 

8.  INTERNATIONAL    BOUNDARY. 


DRAWN   UNDER   GUOANCE  OF   MH-PANHWAR. 


1 

f 

BEGINNINGS  OF  THE  MSI  OF  SAMMAS 


297 


■    I 


1342  A.D.  : 

Ibn  Batuta  left  Delhi  on  a  mission  to 
China.  He  returned  to  Morocco  in 
1349  A.D.  and  at  the  court  of  Sultan 
Abu  Inam,  described  his  experiences  in 
a  journal  called  Rehla.  He  died  in 
1377-78  A.D. 

1342-43  A.D.— 744  A.H.  : 

Shahu  Lodhi,  assistant  commander  at 
Multan  had  Commander  Bahzad 
Khan  assassinated.  He  also  expelled 
Qawamul  Malik  from  Multan.  It  was  a 
period  of  great  famine  in  Delhi,  Malwa 
and  most  of  India  inasmuch  as  that  men 
resorted  to  cannibalism. 

Muhammad  Tughluq  himself  led  an 
expedition  to  Multan,  but  Shahu  Lodhi 
fled  to  the  western  hills.  Muhammad 
Tughluq  reached  Debalpur  and  appo- 
inted Amadul-Mulk  as  the  Governor 
of  Multan. 

There  is  no  mention  of  any  governor- 
ship of  Sind. 

1343  A.D.  : 

The    Bania    inhabitants    of    Bhodesar 
migrated  to  Nau  Nagar  due  to  disagree- 
ment with  Raja  Khan  Jarjee. 

1344  A.D.  : 

The  arrival  in  Delhi  of  an  envoy  of  the 
Abbasid  Caliph  Al-Hakam-II,  from 
Egypt.  Muhammad  Tughluq  had  him- 
self written  to  the  descendants  of  the 
Abbasid  Caliphs,  reported  to  be  in 
Egypt,  requesting  them  to  send  him  a 
Sanad  and  accept  him  as  the  Sultan  of 
India. 


CHI,  Vol.  UI,  p.  161. 


Tarikh-i-Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  106-107. 

Barni,  p.  483,  states  that  on  hearing  of  the 
approach  of  Muhammad  Tughluq,  Shahu 
Lodhi  sent  an  apologetic  letter  to  Sultan 
requesting  for  permission  for  proceeding 
to  Afghanistan  and  for  appointment  of 
his  substitute. 


Sobhraj.,  J.S.H.S.,  Vol.  VII,  p.  136. 


Barni,  pp.  491-496. 

The  last  Abbasid  Caliph  Mutasim  was 
murdered  in  1258.  His  uncle  Ahmed 
escaped  to  Egypt  then  being  ruled  by 
the  Mamluk  Turks.  The  reigning  King 
Zanir,  welcomed  Ahmed  and  installed 
him  as  Caliph.  Thus  began  the  revival 
of  the  Abbasid  Caliphate  in  Egypt  in 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


From  that  date  only  the  names  of  the 
Sultans  of  Delhi  who  had  authority  and 
confirmation  of  the  Abbasid  Caliphs 
were  to  be  read  in  Khutba.  Thus  names 
from  Balban  to  Ghiasuddin  Tughluq 
were  dropped  from  Friday  Khutbas, 
throughout  the  Sultanate,  which  in- 
cluded some  parts  of  the  Upper  Sind 
too. 


June  1261,  three  and  half  years  after  the 
murder  of  Mutasim  in  February  1258. 

It  is  believed  that  the  Sultan  sought  this 
Sanad  to  attract  masses  in  his  tenet 
against  the  rebels  who  besides  being 
Muslims  were  led  by  Ulemas,  Kazis, 
Khatibs,  Faqihs  and  Mashaikhs. 


- 


* 

* 


MUHAMMAD  TUGHLUQ'S  EXPEDITION  ON  SIND  I  HIS  DEATH 


*> 


^ 


1347  A.D.  : 

Taghi,  a  cobbler  and  slave  of  Malik 
Sultani  who  was  presented  to  Sultan 
Tughluq  Shah  by  a  group  of  merchants 
from  Turkey  and  later  on  had  risen  to 
an  important  position  under  Muham- 
mad Bin  Tughluq,  rebelled. 

1347-48  A.D.  : 

Taghi  joined  hands  withQutlagh  Khan, 
collected  troops,  reached  Gujarat, 
and  raised  a  rebellion.  He  was  sup- 
ported by  the  Amirs  of  Sadah  in  his 
rebellion. 

Muhammad  Tughluq  decided  to  teach 
him  a  lesson. 

1347-50  A.D.  : 

Muhammad  bin  Tughluq  was  occupied 
mainly  with  the  work  of  suppression  of 
Taghi  and  preparation  to  invade  Sind. 

1347  A.D.,  January-March— 747  A.H.  : 

Rebellion  led  by  Taghi  against  the 
Tughluqs  developed  in  Gujarat. 


1347  A.D.,  April-May— 748  A.H.,  Safer  : 

Muhammad  bin  Tughluq  arrived  in 
Broach  from  Daulatabad  to  crush 
Taghi's  rebellion.  Isanii  thought  that 


Barni,  pp.  516-19,  525  and  531-34. 

Ishwari  Prashad,    'History  of  Qarunah 
Turks,  pp.  225-31. 

Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi,  p.  2. 

Barni,  pp.  515-516. 

Ain-i-Haqiqat  Nama,  Vol.  II,  pp  84-85. 


Mahdi  Hussain,   Muhammad  Tughluq, 
p.  188. 


Barni,  pp.  515-517. 


. 


Maulana  Isami.  Futuh-us-Sa latin,  Agra. 
1938,  pp.  570-71. 

Hodivala,  Vol.  I,  pp.  300-01. 

Agha  Mahdi  Hussain,  p.  185. 


Barni,  p.  516. 
Futuh-us-Salatin,   pp.    571-72. 


300 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


he  was  a  faithful  official  of  Sultan  and 
was  driven  to  rebellion  by  the  tyranni- 
cal behaviour  of  Sultan  himself. 

1347  A  D.,  August.— 748  A  H.  Jamadi-T  : 

In  the  battle  of  Kadi,  Taghi  was  defeat- 
ed by  Muhammad  Tughluq's  armies. 

1343  A.D.,  September  : 

748  AH.,  Jamadi-II  i 

Taghi  fled  to  Cutch.  Muhammad  Tugh- 
luq  arrived  in  Patan. 

1347  A.D.,  September  to  1348  A.D.,  June: 
748  A.H.,  Jamadi-n  to  749  A.H..  Rabi-I: 
Muhammad  Tughluq  stayed  in  Patan  tp 
reorganize      the     administration    and 
prepare  for  chasing  Taghi. 

1347  A.D.— 748  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Hafiz  Shamsuddin  Ibn 
Abdullah  also  called  Dhahabi,  at  Bagh- 
dad. He  was  author  of  Tazkirat-ul- 
Huffaz,  which  describes  learned  men  of 
Sind  who  earned  fame  at  Baghdad. 

1348  A.D.— 749  AH.  : 

Shahabuddin  Abdul  Abbas  Ahmed,  au- 
thor of  Masalik-ul-Absar-Fi-Mamalik- 
ul-Amsar,  who  later  on  visited  Sind  and 
wrote  about  it,  was  born. 

1349  A.D.,  June  to  October  : 
Taghi  fled   from  Girnar    to  Thatta. 

Taghi's  route  from  Gujarat  to  Sind  was 
I  Cambay  to  Broach,  Aswal,  Nahrwala 
(Patan),  Kanth  Kot,  Girnar,  Gondal, 
Navalakhi,  Lakhpat,  Jati,  Sujawal  and 
Thatta.  He  was  helped  by  the  Jareja 
Sammas  of  Cutch  en  route. 

Muhammad  Tughluq  took  the  difficult 
and  hazardous  route  from  Cambay  to 


Barni,  pp.  520-21. 


Barni,  p.  522. 
Hodivala,  p.  302. 

Barni,  p.  522. 


< 


The  text  was  published  from  Hyderabad 
(Dn.)inl333A.H. 


Barni,  pp.  522-23., 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol  I,  p.  222. 

Firishta  (Nawal  Kishore,  1884),  p.  143. 

- 

v 

Mahdi  Hussain  in  the  map  showing  route 
of  Muhammad  Tughluq  takes  him  from 


MUHAMMAD  TUGHLUQ'S  EXFED1TION  ON  SlND  AND  HIS  DEATH 


301 


•? 


\ 


Aswal,  Kadi,  Patan.  Girnar,  Gondal, 
Nakni  (Nagar  Parkar),  Diplo,  Mithi, 
Dambherlo  (Damrila),  Digri,  Thari, 
Tando  Muhammad  Khan,  Mula  Katiar 
and  Sonda.  He  avoided  the  shorter 
route  expecting  to  meet  resistance  from 
the  Soomras  on  the  Sind  border  if  he 
crossed  Rann  of  Cutch  via  Lakh  pat. 
He  was  also  expecting  the  arrival  of 
boats  as  well  as  Mongol  troops  from 
the  upstream  side  of  the  river  Indus. 

1348  A.I),  June  to  October  : 
749  A.H.,  Rabi-T  to  Rajab  : 
Muhammad  Tughluq  stayed  in  Mandal. 

1349  A.D.  to  1349  A.D.,  June: 

749  A.H.,  Sh'aban  to  750  A.H.,  Rabi-I : 

Muhammad  Tughluq  moved  against  the 
Saurashtra  chieftain  and  summond  re- 
inforcement from  Delhi. 

1350  A.D,  June  to  October  : 

750  A.H.,  Rabi-r  to  Rajab  : 

Taghi  escaped  to  Thatta  and  took  shel- 
ter with  the  Soomras,  while  Muham- 
mad Tughluq  stayed  in  Gondal  await- 
ing the  arrival  of  troops  from  Delhi. 

Muhammad  Tughluq  made  preparation 
for  assault  on  Sind,  while  camping  in 
Junagadh. .  He  summoned  Maliks, 
Shaikhs  and  Ulma.s  including  Khuda- 
wandzadah  and  Makhdoomzadah  with 
their  followers,  who  also  arrived.  Boats 
were  also  summoned  from  Multan, 
Uch,  Depalpur  and  Siwistan  to  attack 
Thatta,  both  by  the  river  Indus  as  well 
as  the  land.  He  held  court  at  Junagadh 
for  making  preparations  to  invade  Sind. 

At  Sultan's  request  the  Mongol  detach- 
ments under  Altuna  Bahadur  also  came 


Nagar  Parkar  to  Islamkot  to  Mithi. 
This  is  erroneous,  as  Islamkot — Mithi 
road  was  built  only  a  century  back. 


Barni,  p.  523. 


Barni,  pp.  523-4. 


. 


Masumi,  p.  48. 
Barni,  p.  523. 


302 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OP  SIND 


from  Farghana  via  Bolan  pass,  and  met 
him,  when  the  Sultan  crossed  the  Indus. 

1349-50  A.D.— 750  AH.  : 

Composing  of  Masnavi,  Futuh-ul-Sala- 
tin  by  Khwaja  Abdul-Malik    Isami  at 
the  age  of  40    (lunar  years).    This  puts 
his  birth  date  to  711  A.H.  (1311-12 
A.D.). 

This  history  starts  with  the  reign  of 
Mahmud  of  Ghazni  and  ends  with  Mu- 
hammad Tughluq.  It  describes  Taghi's 
background.  Its  information  about 
Muhammad  Tughluq's  expedition  to 
Sind  supplements  that  of  Barni's  and 
is  useful  for  chronological  order. 


1350  A.D.,  June  to  October  : 
751  A.H.,  Rabi-II  to  Shaban  : 
Sultan  Muhammad  Tughluq  laid  on  sick 
bed  and  it  was  not  until  December 
that  he  was  able  to  move  to  Sind. 

1350  A.D.,  December: 

571  AH.,  Shawwal  ! 

Sultan  Muhammad  bin  Tughluq  left 

Gondal  (north  of  Junagadh)  with  his 

massive  army  towards  Sind.    While  at 

Gondal,  he  ordered  boats  to  come  from 

Depalpur,  Multan,  Uch  and  Sehwan. 

1350  A.I). : 

Birth  of  Shams  Siraj  Afif  who  wrote 
Tarikh-i-Feroz  Shahi,  which  starts  with 
Feroz's  accession  to  throne  at  Sondha 
and  gives  details  of  Feroz's  two  expedi- 
tions on  Sind.  In  the  first  expedition 
Afifs  father  was  incharge  of  a  flotilla  of 
1000  boats,  out  of  a  total  of  5000  deploy- 
ed for  the  purpose. 

Unfortunately,  the  work  conceals  the 
weaknesses  of  Sultan  Feroz  Shah  and 


< 


The  work  was  started  on  10th  December, 
1349  A.D.  and  was  completed  on  14th 
May,  1350  A.D. 

The  text  edited  by  Agha  Mahdi  Hussain 
was  printed  from  Agra  in  1938. 


. 


Barni,  p.  523. 


- 


Barni,  pp.  524-25. 


It  covers  the  period  from  1351-1388  A.D. 
The  work  edited  by  Wilayat  Hussain  was 
published  by  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal 
in  1891.  Urdu  translation  by  Fida  Ali 
Talib  is  defective. 


% 


MUHAMMAD  TUGHLUQS  EXPEDITION  ON  SIND  AND  HIS  DEATH 


303 


depicts  him  as  an  orthodox  and  pious 
Muslim,  and  great  admirer  of  religious 
men  and  saints.  The  Sultan's  lack  of 
military  abilities  is  covered  by  his  being 
too  humanitarian  and  merciful.  The 
details  of  the  second  Thatta  expeditions 
have  not  been  fully  covered.  The 
Sultan  received  a  complete  set-back 
until  arrival  and  negotiations  of  Makh- 
doom  Jehaniya  of  Uch.  This  has  been 
distorted. 

• 

The  Makhdoom  has  been  depicted  only 
as  a  pious  man.  His  role  in  setting  right 
affairs  on  Sind  in  favour  of  the  Sultan, 
at  least  three  times,  has  been  suppressed. 

1350  A.D. : 

Due  to  threat  of  Muhammad  Tughluq's 
invasion  of  Sind,  some  Samma  Muslims 
of  Sind  planned-.to  migrate  to  Cutch,  to 
take  shelter  with  their  tribes-men,  the 
Jareja-Samma  rulers  of  Cutch,  but  the 
migration  was  called  on  in  March  1351 
due  to  sudden  death  of  the  Emperor. 

1350  A.D.  : 

Ibn  Batuta,  who  visited    Sind  in  1333 
A.D.,  wrote  Rehla,  a   work  considered 
to  be  Arabic  Ulysses,   curious,   learn- 
ed, courageous  and  artistic.  The  book 
in  its  Vol.  II  has  a  chapter  on  Sind. 


1351  A.D.,  March  9  : 

752  A.H.,  Muharram  10  : 

Sultan  Muhammad  Tughluq  took  the 
fatal  fish  on  breaking  his  fast.  The  fish 
is  now  considered  a  fake  story  to  cover 
up  the  more  important  evidence  of  his 
death  by  poisoning. 


Williams,  p.  101. 


A  number  of  texts  and  translations  are 
available,  and  of  these  Haig's  article, 
'Ibn-e-Batuta  in  Sindh'  in  J.  R.  A.  S., 
Vol.  XIX,  new  series,  1887,  pp.  393-412 
covers  Sind  fully.  Recently  a  4-volume 
translation  of  the  work  by  Gibb  has 
been  published. 


Barni,  pp.  524  and  529  puts  the  date 
as  751  AH.,  which  is  incorrect. 


Mahdi  Hussain,  p.  191. 


304 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1351  A.D.,  March  20  : 

752  A.H.,  Muharram  21  : 

Sultan  Muhammad  bin  Tughluq  died  at 

14    Kohs    (28    miles)    from    Thatta. 

Badauni  suspects  poisoning. 

Sirat-ul-Auliya  of  Muhammad  bin 
Mubarak  states  that  Sultan  sent  for  the 
Ulamas  and  Saints  and  among  them  was 
also  Shaikh  Nasiruddin  Mahmood.  On 
their  arrival,  he  did  not  show  respect 
for  them  and  this  miraculously  caused 
his  death. 

Badauni  states  that  while  Muhammad 
Tughluq  was  facing  rebels  in  Gujarat, 
Feroz  was  installed  as  Sultan  in  Delhi 
by  the  Ulamas  and  specially  Nasiruddin 
Mahmood,  and,  therefore,  the  Ulamas 
and  Feroz  were  called  by  the  Sultan. 
They  reached  Sonda  before  his  death. 

Barni  confirms  that  Shaikh  Nasiruddin 
Mahmood  and  other  Ulamas  were 
brought  (as  prisoners)  to  his  camp  at 
Sonda. 

That  Feroz  Tughluq  also  came  with  the 
Ulamas  to  Sonda  leaves  no  doubts  to 
Badauni's  version. 

The  death  of  Sultan  Muhammad  Tugh- 
luq is  suspected  by  poisoning  by  Bada- 
uni, stating  that  Shaikh  Nasiruddin 
Mahmood  taking  advantage  of  trou- 
bles of  the  Sultan,  had  installed  Feroz 
as  Sultan  at  Delhi.  Hearing  this  news  at 
Gondal,  while  on  way  to  Thatta,  the 
Sultan  ordered  that  Feroz  and  Shaikh 
Nasiruddin  Mahmood  be  brought  as 
prisoners.  When  these  prisoners  arriv- 
ed at  Thatta,  the  Sultan  ordered  their 
execution  but  shortly  after  this  he  died. 


Barni,  p.  524. 

Firishta,  Bombay  Edition-II.  p.  258  puts 
it  as  20th  Muharram.  Mahdi  Hussain 
located  the  place  of  his  death  as  Sonda, 
22  miles  from  Thatta  by  land  and  it 
would  be  28  miles  from  it  along  the  river. 

Quoted  by  Mahdi  Hussain  in  Tughluq 
Dynasty,  p.  498. 

Badauni,  Vol.  I,  p.  242  suspects  that  he 
was  poisoned. 


Barni,  p.  523-25. 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh,  Vol.  I,  p.  242. 


< 


MUHAMMAD  TUGHLUQ'S  EXPEDITION  ON  SIND  AND  HIS  DEATH 


305 


> 


* 
*» 


Barni  states  that  on  his  death  bed  the 
Sultan  was  reconciled  to  Feroz,  but  does 
not  mention  the  causes  of  misunder- 
standings This  reconciliation,  there- 
fore, shows  that  Badauni's  version  is 
correct.  Barni  in  spite  of  his  hatred  for 
the  Sultan  calls  him  Shahid,  a  title  ac- 
corded also  to  those  who  are  killed  by 
poisoning.  Barni  has  also  suggested 
that  best  solution  for  the  Sultan  while 
in  the  midst  of  rebellions  at  Gujarat  was 
to  abdicate  (in  favour  of  Feroz). 
This  version  though  rejected  by  Sir 
Wolseley  Haig,  appears  to  be  closer  to 
the  truth  than  death  caused  by  eating  of 
palla  fish. 

1351  A.D.,  March  22  : 
752  A.H.,  Muharram  23  : 

Accession  of  Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  at 
Sonda. 


Dr.  Moinul   Haq  puts  as  Muharram 
24th  or  March  23rd. 

Barni  is  silent  on  the  question  of  heirs. 
Isami  states  that  he  had  a  daughter  born 
in  the  days  of  Ghiasuddin  Tughluq. 
Isami  also  mentions  a  son  who  was 
raised  to  throne  by  Khwaja  Jehan. 

Badauni  mentions  another  elder  son 
who  accompanied  him  to  his  Sind  ex- 
pedition. 

Feroz  Tughluq  born  in  706  A.H.  or  1305 
A.  D.  was  46  years  of  age  then. 

1351  A.D. 

On  death  of  Muhammad  bin  Tughluq, 
the  Mongol  auxiliary  forces  whom  Amir 
Farghan  had  sent  under  the  command 


Barni,  pp.  521-25  and  515. 


(J.R.A.S.,  July  1922. 


■ 


Barni,  p.  529,  puts  the  date  as  24  Mu- 
harram, 752  A.H.,  and  has  put  21st  Mu- 
haram,  751  A.H.  as  the  date  of  Muham- 
mad Tughluq's  death. 

Urdu  translation  of  Barni's  Tarikh-i- 
Feroz  Shahi. 

Futuh-us-Salatin  Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  118 
assigns  23rd  Muharram,  752  A.H.  to  Feroz 
Shah's  accession,  and   Afif  holds   the 
same  view.    Firishta,  Vol.  II,  pp.  258-59 
has  copied  Afif  and  Sirhandi. 

Badauni,  p.  242. 

Arabic  History  ot  Gujarat,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  893. 
Afif  puts  his  age  as  45  lunar  years  or  44 
solar  years  at  this  time. 

Barni,  pp.  107, 525,  531-35. 

Afif,  p.  48. 


306 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


of  Ultun  Bahadur  to  help  the  Sultan, 
became  rebels,  joined  the  Soomras  and 
looted  and  chased  the  Delhi  forces.  Mir 
Masum  states  that  Taghi  with  the  help 
of  Soomras,  Sammas  and  Jarejas  (of 
Cutch),  had  attacked  the  Imperialists. 

To  avoid  further  confusion,  Feroz  Shah, 
the  new  Sultan,  in  consultation  with  the 
leading  Amirs  paid  huge  sums  of  money 
and  gifts  to  Ultun  Bahadur  and  then 
alone  the  Mongols  left  for  their  country. 

Amir  Nauroz  Khan  (son-in-law  of 
Tarmashirin)  the  Mongol  who  for  nearly  - 
20  years  was  in  the  service  of  Sultan  and 
also  had  deserted  and  joined  the  other 
Mongols  and  the  Soomras,  attacked 
the  Imperial  forces,  which  had  departed 
from  Sonda  on  the  third  day  after  Sul- 
tan's death.,  and  had  done  only  one  or 
two  kohs  from  there.  The  Soomras 
attacked  from  the  rear  and  the  Mongols 

from  the  front. 

j 
The  Mongols  seized  women,  slave  girls, 

horses,    mules,     clothes    etc.      Even 

villagers  who  had  joined  the  Imperial 

army,  now  joined  the  Soomras  in  the 

plunder.  They  were  about  to  seize  the 

Royal  Harem  and  treasury  when   the 

leaders  and  nobles  approached   Feroz 

Tughluq  to  become  the  Sultan.    Under 

these  pressures^he  accepted  the  proposal, 

bribed    Mongols    and     proceeded    to 

Sehwan. 

In  view  of  Muhammad  Tughluq's  death 
by  poisoning,  the  version  of  the  pre- 
ssures of  Ulmas  is  a  madeup  story. 

While  the  Mongols  were  looting  the 
imperial  troop,  Malik  Tun,  a  slave  of 
Vazier  Khawaja  Jchan  fled  to  Delhi  and 


Ishwari   Parshad,   History  of  Qarauna 
Turks,  p.  305. 

Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi,  pp.  1-4. 


Masumi,  p.  48. 


The  place  would  most  probably  be 
between  37th  and  39th  miles  from 
Hyderabad,  an  alluvial  depression  bound- 
ed by  hills  on  three  sides  and  the  river  on 
the  fourth  or  the  eastern  side.  The  river 
then  would  have  been  even  closer  to  it 
than  today. 


■ 

■ 

" 

Q.A  I8€t 

Barni,  p.   539,  denounces  the  boy  as 


illegitimate. 


MUHAMMAD  TUOHLUQ'S  EXPEDITION  ON  SIND  AND  HIS  DEATH 


307 


f 


narrated  the  story  to  his  master,  who 
installed  Mahmud,  a  young  son  of 
Muhammad  bin  Tughluq  aged  6-7  years 
under  the  title  Sultan  Ghiasuddin  Mu- 
hammad Shah.  The  Vazier  Khawaja 
Jehan  later  on  tried  to  make  amends  but 
he  was  put  to  death  by  Feroz  Tughluq. 

1351  A.D.— 752  A.H.  : 

Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  soon  after  his  acce- 
ssion at  a  distance  of  3-4  miles  from 
Sonda  towards  Sehwan  had  his  coins 
minted. 

1351  A.D.— 752  A.H.  : 

Feroz  Shah  while  on  way  from  Sonda 
to  Sehwan  appointed  governors  for  the 
different  parts  of  Sind,  Amir  Nasar  for 
(present)  Nasarpur  (which  was  built 
by  Nasar),  Malik  Bahram  for  the  pre- 
sent Northern  Hyderabad,  and  South- 
ern Nawabshah  Districts  (the  later 
built  Bahrampur),  Malik  AH  Sher  and 
Malik  Kafur  at  Sehwan,  Malik  Rukun- 
uddin  his  representive  for  Sind  and  Malik 
Abdul  Aziz  as  Diwan  of  Sind.  He  also 
sent  his  agent  to  Ainul  Malik  Mahru  in 
Multan  and  also  to  other  places  inform- 
ing them  of  his  accession. 

Mahru  states  that  the  early  Subedars 
of  Sind  like  Bahram  were  so  tyrant  that 
the  young  and  old  of  Sind  were  sub- 
missive. 

1350-51  A.D.— 751  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Feroz  ordered  Amir  Nasar  to 
build  a  fort  on  Puran  or  Kalab  Sanghra, 
and  thus  Nasarpur  was  found.  Amir 
Nasar  was  posted  there  with  a  thousand 
troops. 


Afif,n>-  51-52  and  57-80. 

Isami   asserts  that  Sultan  had  no  issue. 

Badauni,  p.  242,  states  that  he  had 
another  son  who  had  accompanied  him 
to  Sind. 

Coinage  and  Metrology  of  Sultans  of 

Delhi  by  Nelson  Wright. 

These  were  most  probably  minted  at 

Sehwan. 


Afif,  pp.  53-55. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  134,  p.  235. 
Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  119. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  118. 
Tuhfa't-ul-Karam,  p.  64. 
Masumi,  pp.  49-50. 


30« 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


The  founding  of  Nasarpur  on  the 
Western  Puran  shows  that  the  change 
of  the  course  of  the  river  Indus  which 
took  place  some  25  years  earlier  had 
stabilized  itself. 

This  change  of  course  was  the  main 
cause  of  the  decay  of  the  Soomra  power 
and  the  rise  of  the  Sanunas. 


1351  A.D.— 752  A.H.  : 

Feroz  Shah  reached  Sehwan,  where  for 
the  first  time  the  Khutba  was  read  in 
his  name. 

He  entrusted  the  rule  of  Sehwan.  to 
Malik  Ali  Sher  and  Malik  Taj  Kafur. 

This  was  the  first  appointment  of  the 
Governor  at  Sehwan  after  many  years. 

The  route  followed  from  Sonda  to  Seh- 
wan was:  Sonda,  Tando  Muhammad 
Khan,  Nirunkot  (Hyderabad),  and 
Halakandi  to  Sehwan. 

1351  A.D. : 

Muhammad  bin  Tughluq  was  tempor- 
arily buried  at  Sehwan  at  the  western 
side  of  Qalandar  Shahbaz's  grave. 


The  belief  that  Nasarpur  was  founded 
by  Allauddin's  general  Nusrat  Khan  is 
incorrect  as  the  latter  never  came  to 
Sind. 


Masumi.  pp.  49-50. 
Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  118. 


Sehwan  until  then  seems  to  have  been 
controlled  by  the  Samma  chief  Jam  Unar. 


Professor  Muhammad  Shan,  Oriental 
College  Magazine,  Vol.  LT,  No.  1,  pp. 
156-161. 

Mubarak  Shahi's  statement  on  p.  119 
that  the  king's  body  was  taken  to  Delhi 
on  an  elephant  is  incorrect  as  proved  by 
inscriptions  on  his  temporary  burial. 
This  tomb  was  bulldozed  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Aufaq  in  1967,  for  the  face 
lifting  of  Qalandar's  premises.  How- 
ever, the  inscriptions  have  been  preserved 
by  the  Archaeological  Department. 

Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch  in  The  Burial  place  of 
Sultan  Muhammad  bin  Tughlaq',  Islamic 
Culture,  January  1948,  states  that  this 


*1 


1 


MUHAMMAD  TUGHLUQ'S  EXPEDITION  ON  SlND  AND  HIS  DEATH  309 


was  temporary  burial  of  the  king  and 
his  body  was  removed  later  on  in  1365 
A.D.  by  Feroz  Tughlaq  for  final  burial 
at  Delhi.  If  this  statement  is  correct 
then  the  body  would  have  been  removed 
in  1367  A.D.  after  the  surrender  of 
Banbhiniyo. 

Dr.  Mehdi  Hussain  (Tughluq  Dynasty, 
pp.  499-500)  basing  on  Sirat-ul-Aulya, 
states  that  his  corpse  was  later  on  taken 
to  Delhi  and  buried  by  the  side  of  his 
father.  The  examination  of  the  graves 
by  him  shows  the  indifference  with  which 
the  Sultan  was  buried.  This  fact  reveals 
that  in  spite  of  Afif 's  claims  to  the  con- 
trary, Feroz  Shah  had  no  respect  for 
Muhammad  Tughluq. 


1351  A.D.  : 

Taghifled  from  Thatta  towards  Gujarat, 
where  he   was  killed.    The    news    of 
Taghi's  death  was  communicated  to 
Feroz  Tughluq,  while  on  his  way  from 
Sehwan  to  Delhi. 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  p.  227. 


ft 


■- 


1351  A.D. : 

According  to  Mir  Masum,  Feroz  Shah 
on  his  way  to  Delhi  stopped  at  Bakhar 
for  20  days  and  appointed  Malik 
Rukunuddin  as  Naib-e-Hukumat.  He 
was  given  the  title  of  Ikhlas  Khani 
and  the  control  of  the  Upper  Sind  was 
also  entrusted  to  him.  Malik  Abul 
Aziz  Burid  was  appointed  as  the  Diwan 
of  Bakhar  and  given  80  soldiers  to  guard 
the  Bakhar  Fort. 

Mubarak  Shahi  states  that  Feroz  Shah 
halted  at  Sehwan  (which  is  more  prob- 
able to  arrange  temporary  burial  of 


Masvmi,  pp.  49-50,  basing  on  hearsay 
only. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  119, 123. 

• 

Barni  mentions  the  arrival  of  Feroz 
Shah  in  Delhi  at  the  end  of  Jaraadi-II, 
while  Mubarak  Shahi,  and  Firishta  men- 
tion it  as  2nd  Rajab,  752  A.H.  This 
means  about  5$  months  to  march  from 
Sonda  to  Delhi, a  considerably  long  time, 
showmg  long  stay  in  Sehwan  and  Bakhar. 


3 1 0  CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 

Muhammad  Tughluq)  and  appointed 
Maulana  Ahmad  and  Maluk  AH  Ghauti 
as  fiefs  of  Sind  and  were  sent  after  Taghi 
and  Thatta.  (This  is  not  probable  as 
the  Thattians  had  proved  too  powerful 
for  the  Imperial  army). 



■ 

■ 


• 

V 

s 


> 


FALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA-DELHi  CONFLICT 


1351-52  A.D.  : 

Jam  Unar  defeated  Hamir  bin  Dodo 
soon  after  Muhammad  Tughluq's  death 
and  established  the  Samma  Dynasty, 
over  most  of  Sind. 

At  the  time  of  Ibn  Batuta's  visit  in 
1333-34  A.D.,  Unar  had  raised  a  rebel- 
lion in  the  Central  Sind  against  the 
Delhi  Government.  He  probably  helped 
the  Soomras  against  Muhammad  Tugh- 
luq's invasion  in  1351  A.D.,  but  seems 
to  have  acquired  enough  strength  to 
overthrow  Hamir  Soomro  after  settling 
the  affairs  with  the  Imperial  army. 

Subsequently  Ain-ul-Mulk  made  an 
appeal  to  Malik-us-Shariq  Iftikhar-ul- 
Mulk,  Sahib-i-Diwan  (Prime  Minister) 
to  help  in  reinstating  Hamir  Soomro  in 
place  of  Jam  Banbhiniyo-H,  the  Samma 
ruler  of  Sind,  who  had  joined  hands 
with  the  Mongols  and  had  attacked  the 
Imperial  territories  in  Multan  and 
Gujarat. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  Lahore,  1965,  pp.  100-103. 

Masumi's  version  on  p.  61,  that  Jam 
Unar  died  of  drunken  orgy  is  disproved 
by  Mahru's  letters. 

Masumi's  statement  that  he  died  after 
a  rule  of  three  and  half  years  is  also 
incorrect. 

The  main  reason  for  decay  of  Soorara 
power  was  changes  in  the  course  of  the 
river  Indus  which  resulted  in  the  shifting 
of  capitals  a  number  of  times.  Finally  in 
the  mid- 14th  century  the  river  changed 
its  course    approximately     along    the 
western     Nara-canal,    deserting     and 
turning  into  waste    present    Khairpur 
and    Nawabshah  districts,  the  strong- 
holds of  Sammas,  who  then  rebelled  and 
usurped  the  power. 


1352-53  A.D.— 753  A.H.  : 

Ferozuddin  Shah  Jam  Unar  died  and 
his  son  Sadaruddin  Jam  Banbhiniyo-II 
and  the  former's  brother  Allauddin  Jam 
Juna-I  jointly  ruled  Sind. 


Hodivala,  Vol.  I,  p.  102  puts  his  death 
in  1339  A.D. 

Masumi's*  statement  that  he  died  after 
3>\  years  rule  since  raising  the  rebellion 
in    1333  A.D.    seems    to  be    incorrect. 


312 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1352-54  A.D.  : 

Banbhiniyo,  son  of  Jam  Unar  (the  latter 
known  for  the  sack  of  Sehwan  in  1333 
A.D.)  defeated  Hamir  bin  Dodo  Soom- 
ra  in  a  single  battle  in  spite  of  help  from 
Ain-ul-Mulk  Mahru,  the  Governor  of 
Multan. 

He  became  ruler  of  the  whole  of  Sind 
by  about  this  period. 

1352-64  A.D.  : 

Downfall  of  the  Soomra  rule. 

The  exact  date  is  not  known  but  it  would 
be  between  1351  A.D.  and  1364  A.D.  as 
it  was  during  this  period  that  Ain-ul- 
Mulk  Multani  appealed  to  Sultan  Feroz 
Tughluq  to  save  the  Soomra  s  from  the 
Sammas,  who  were  mixed  up  with  the 
Mongols  and  had  been  encouraging 
them  to  attack  the  Delhi  Sultanate's 
territories. 

Dr.  Riazul  Islam  maintains  that  the 
policy  of  Delhi  after  752  A.H.  (1351 
A.D.)  was  to  support  the  Soomras  as  a 
counter-poise  against  the  rising  Sam- 
mas, who  when  they  came  to  power 
resorted  to  another  invasion  from  Delhi 
by  Feroz  Shah,  and  it  involved  a  two 
years  expedition  to  settle  the  matter. 

Somewhere  between  these  years,  Jam 
Unar,  the  Samma  rebelled  against  the 
government  of  Hamir  Dodo.  His  son 
Banbhiniyo,  who  succeeded  his  father 
probably  the  same  year  sought  the  help 
of  the  Mongols  in  his  exploits,  conquer- 
ed many  forts.  He  also  used  the  Mongols 
against  the  Delhi  Government.  Sultan 
Feroz  Tughluq,  therefore,  determined  to 
help  Hamir  Dodo  and  organized  a  full- 
fledged  expedition  against  Thatta. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  46,  pp.  100-103. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,    p.  100  puts   end    of 
their  rule  in  752  A.H. 

The  rise  of  the  Sammas  in  Sind  in  Islamic 
Culture  (1948),  pp.  366-368. 


• 


• 


■ 


- 


s 


L 


J 


FALL  OF  SOOMR AS  AND  SAlfMA-DELHI  CONFLICT 


313 


* 


' 


1352-1368  AD.— 753-768  A.H.  : 

The  rule  of  Sadaniddin  Shah  Jam  Ban- 
bhiniyo-II  bm  Feroz  Shah  Jam  Unar 
along  with  his  uncle  Allauddin  Jam 
Juna-I  bin  Banbhiniyo-I. 

Masum  assigns  13  years  to  the  rule  of 
Jam  Juna.  However,  his  statement 
about  Jam  Tamachi  and  Allauddin 
Khilji's  conflict  is  based  on  hearsay  and 
is  not  a  historical  truth.  Masum  also 
mentions  the  rule  of  Jam  Khairuddin 
during  the  early  days  of  Feroz  Shah 
which  too  is  not  a  historical  fact. 


Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307  puts  his 
ruleupto  1366/67  A.D. 

Dr.  Daudpota  (Masumi,  p.  298)  thinks 
that  he  was  son  of  Jam  Khairuddin, 
which  is  incorrect. 

Firishta  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  pp.  319-20, 
considers  Jam  Juna-I,  the  successor  of 
his  brother  Jam  Feroz  Shah  Jam  Unar 
and-  the  nominee  of  the  latter  and  his 
rule  for  14  years. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  513,  states 
that  he  succeeded  his  brother  Jam  Unar 
and  ruled  for  14  years.  Fiqshta  considers 
Jam  Bani  (Banbhiniyo-II)  as  successor 
of  Jam  Juna  and  his  rule  for  15  years. 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari  agrees  with  Firishta 
on  15  years  rule  of  Banbhiniyo-II. 

Firishta  gives  762  A.H.  (1360-61  A.D.) 
as  the  date  of  Feroz  Shah  Tughluq's 
first  expedition  to  Sind,  which  is  also 
incorrect. 

Masumi,  pp.  63-64. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  100  accepts  Masu- 
mi's  version. 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh  of  Muhammad 
Yousif  puts  the  year  of  his  death  as 
697  A.H.  which  is  incorrect. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  100. 


. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam  and  Masumi  put  Ban- 
bhiniyo-II after  Jam  Tamachi  and  Taba- 
qat-i-Akbari puts  him  after  Jam  Juna. 

Qani  copies  Masum  on  the  issue  of  Jam 
Khairuddin  bin  Tamachi. 


314 


■ 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1352-68  A.D.— 753-768  AH.  : 

Joint  rule  of  Banbbiniyo  son  of.  Jam 
Unar  and  his  uncle  Jam  Juna  of  the 
most  of  Sind.  Hamir  Soomro  having 
been  defeated,  had  left  Sind  and  was  re- 
siding outside  probably  under  the  Delhi 
government's  protection. 


Banbhiniyo  in  alliance  with  the  Mongols 
had  attacked  Gujarat  and  Punjab  several 
times.  Ain-uI-Mulk  Mahru,  the  Go- 
vernor of  Multan  appealed  to  Feroz 
Shah  to  help  Hamir,  and  as  a  result, 
Feroz  entrusted  the  job  to  Malik-ul- 
Umra  Rukunuddin  Amir  Hassan,  bro- 
ther of  the  Governor  of  Gujarat,  with  a 
view  to  free  both  Gujarat  and  Sind  from 
the  menace  of  Banbhiniyo  bin  Unar. 

This  plan  seems  to  have  failed  as  Ban- 
bhiniyo ended  the  Soomra  rule  in  Sind 
once  for  all. 

This  finally  brought  Feroz  Shah's  in- 
vasion of  Sind  in  1365-67  AD. 

Banbhiniyo  was  aggressive  and  un- 
willing to  submit  to  Delhi,  whereas  Jam 
Juna,  an  elderly  person  was  weak  and 


Afif,  pp.  53-54  states  that  this  Banbhiniyo 
remained  in  Delhi  until  the  death  of 
Feroz  Shah  Tughluq,  when  his  successor 
Tughluq  Shah  sent  him  back  to  rule 
Sind,  but  he  died  on  the  way  in  790  A. H. 
(1388  A.D.). 

Dr.  Daudpota  (Masumi,  p.  229),  thinks 
that  Jam  Khairuddin  and  his  son  Jam 
Banbhiniyo  jointly  ruled  Sind  and  when 
taken  by  Feroz  Shah  to  Delhi,  Jam 
Juna,  a  second  son  of  Jam  Khairuddin 
and  Banbhiniyo's  brother  Tamachi,  joint- 
ly ruled  Sind.    This  is  also  incorrect. 


Insha-i-MahAi,  pp.  100-103, 186-188  and 
229-235. 


Riazml  Islam,  Rise  of  Sammas  in  Sind, 
Islamic  Culture,  Vol.  XXII,  pp.  359-382. 


K 


FALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA-DELHl  CONFLICT 


315 


^> 


wrote  letters  to  Ain-ul-Mulk  Mahru,  the 
Governor  of  Multan  showing  willing- 
ness to  submit  to  the  Delhi  Emperor. 
This  may  have  been  done  through  Syed 
Jalaluddin  Bukhari  of  Uch  as  appears 
from  Mahru 's  letters. 

1352-1360  A.D.  : 

A  letter  was  addressed  by  the  Governor 
of  Multan  to  a  military  officer  instruct- 
ing him  about  an  expedition  already 
sent  against  Sind  where  a  rebellion  had 
been  raised  by  that  time  with  the  help 
of  the  Mughals  (Mongols)  and  it  was 
to  be  suppressed.  m 

The  letter  whose  author  is  called  one  of 
the  Amirs  of  the  Delhi  Sultanate  was 
written  probably  prior  to  Mahru 's  ap- 
pointment as  the  Governor  of  Multan, 
or  it  was  written  when  Mahru  himself 
was  Governor  of  Multan  and  this  Amir 
had  sent  him  a  copy. 

1353  A.D.— 754  AH.  : 

Raising  of  the  dome  over  temporary 
burial  of  Sultan  Muhammad  Tughluq 
at  Sehwan  as  is  clearly  evident  from  the 
inscriptions  on  it,  now  preserved  by  the 
Archaeological  Department  at  Karachi. 
The  mason  whose  services  were  employ- 
ed by  the  Royal  Court,  was  named  as 
Sarmast. 

1356  A.D.— 756  AH.  : 

An  inscription  on  the  tomb  of  Qalandar 
Lai  Shahbaz  commemorating  the  cons- 
truction of  the  cupola  and  domes  of  it 
by  Ikhtiyaruddin  Malik,  a  local  Go- 
vernor, in  the  reign  of  Feroz  Tughluq. 

1356  AD.: 

A  Patent  (Sanad)  arrives  from  the 
Abbasi    Khalifa    Al-Hakam    in  Egypt 


Insha-i- Mahru,  letter  Nos.  99  and   134, 
pp.  186-188, 229-235. 

Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  8,  pp.  19-21. 


' 


Professor    Muhammad    Shafi,    English 
Section,  p.  39. 


Professor  Muhammad    Shafi,     English 
Section,  p.  39. 


316 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


confirming  the    whole   Hindustan  on 
Feroz  Shah. 

1358  A.D.  or  1359  A.D.  : 

Death  of  Ziauddin  Barni,  author  of 
Tarikh-i-Feroz  Shahi,  at  the  age  of  74 
lunar  years  (equivalent  to  72  solar 
years).  His  history  covers  the  period 
from  1264-1358  and  contains  23  pages 
on  Muhammad  Tughluq's  expedition 
against  Sind  and  its  failure.  In  addition 
it  has  large  number  of  references  on 
Delhi  and  the  Upper  Sind  contacts  for 
94  years,  for  which  period  it  is  the  only 
authentic  source. 

1359  A.D.,  Soon  After  : 

Shirashamak  who  assumed  the  title  of 
Shahabuddin,  became  the  king  of  Kash- 
mir after  the  death  of  his  brother  Alla- 
uddin.  He  led  an  army  to  the  border 
of  Sind  and  is  reported  to  have  defeated 
the  Jam,  the  ruler  of  Sind  on  the  Indus. 

This  may  have  only  been  a  successful 
raid  on  the  Upper  Sind  showing  that  the 
Sammas  were  in  full  control  of  the 
Upper  Sind  then. 


(i)  The  Jam  had  nothing  to  do  with 
the  Mongol  raids. 

(ii)  The  Imperial  troops  sent  from 

.    Multan  had  looted  the  country  and 

the  public  of  Sehwan  and  Sukkur. 

(iii)  In  spite  of  provocations,  Sind's 
army  had  avoided  retaliation  on 
certain  occasions. 


This  work  was  published  by  Asiatic 
Society  of  Bengal  in  1862.  Its  Urdu 
translation  by  Dr.  Moinul  Haq  has 
been  published  from  Lahore  in  1974. 
The  book  was  written  in  758  AH.  or 
1357  A.D. 


CHI,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  278. 
CHI,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  501. 


■ 


The  Chroniclers  of  Sind  make  no  men- 
tion of  the  victory  of  Shahabuddin  of 
Kashmir  (1359-1378  A.D.).  The  authori- 
ties of  Kashmir  are  vague  and  on  this 
point  worthless. 


1359  A.D.— 1364  A.D. : 

Jam  Juna  wrote  a  letter  to  Mahru,  the 
Governor  of  Multan  informing    him       235. 
that:— 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  134,  pp.  229- 


FALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA-DELlfl  CONFLICT 


* 


(iv)  The  Multan  government  had 
taken  action  against  Sind  on  com- 
plaints of  certain  vested  interests. 

(v)  The  Imperial  army  had  Muslims 
(of  Sind)  arrested,  declared  as 
slaves  and  sold  in  the  market. 

(vi)  Sind  had  large  and  powerful  army 
and  if  the  Imperial  troops  had  en- 
tered Sind  again,  they  would  face 
the  consequences. 

(vii)  Subedar  (Muqatia)  of  Gujarat  and 
Gumashita  of  Sehwan  were  un- 
necessarily blaming  the  Jams  for 
any  thing  and  every  thing  that  went 
wrong  in  their  administration. 

1359-1364  A.D.— 760-765  A.H.  : 

In  reply  to  Jam  Juna's  letter  Ain-ul- 
Mulk,  the  Governor  of  Multan  denied  all 
his  accusations  and  replied  that  on  hear- 
ing the  rumours  of  Feroz's  death  while 
on  2nd  expedition  to  Lakhnauti  or 
Bengal  (in  1359  A.D.)  the  Jams  of  Sind 
had  thrown  off  the  yoke  of  submission 
which  was  brought  about  by  Syed 
Jalaluddin  Bukhari.  He  further  argued 
that  the  Sammas  had  also  used  the 
Mongol  troops  against  a  Muslim  coun- 
try and  the  Muslims  of  the  Delhi  Empire 
(Gujarat  and  Multan)  and  their  relatives 
had  usurped  the  Jagirs  allotted  to  the 
representatives  of  the  Sultan  at  Sehwan 
and  using  reconciliatory  tactics  to  avoid 
retaliation  by  Sehwan's  Faujdar,  but 
attacking  them  unawares,  and  denying 
knowledge  of  it,  though  the  Jams  them- 
selves had  a  hand  in  this.  He  warned 
them  to  be  as  submissive  as  under 
Bakram  Khan,  (possibly  the  Sammas 
of  Northern   Hyderabad  and  Nawab- 


317 


- 


■ 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  134,  pp.  229- 
235. 


- 
■ 

■ 


318 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


shah  had  submitted  to  Feroz  Shah  in 
1351  A.D.)  and  not  to  resort  to  rebell- 
ion when  they  had  sent  their  girls  to  the 
Royal  Harem.  The  Hindu  Rajas  after 
sending  girls  to  the  Royal  Harem  never 
rebelled,  but  Sindhis  being  treacherous 
like  Raja  Dahar's  daughters  were  cap- 
able of  it.  The  Imperial  Government 
was  not  afraid  of  the  Sind's  army 
because  the  larger  the  number  of  the 
prey  animals  the  bigger  is  the  bag,  etc. 

1360—1364  A.D.,  or  earlier  : 

Ain-ul-Mulk  Mahru  wrote  a  letter 
to  Malik-us-Shariq  Iftikhar-ul-Mulk 
Fariduddin  Sahib-i-Diwan-i-Istifai  Mu- 
malik  (Prime  Minister  of  Delhi  Sultan- 
ate) that  Hamir  Soomro  Dodo  needed 
the  latter's  blessings  (active  military 
assistance)  and  may  be  nominated  to 
defeat  and  replace  Jam  Banbhiniyo,  a 
rebel,  who  having  raised  a  Mongol  army 
had  once  attacked  Punjab  and  looted 
it,  but  was  repelled  by  the  Multan 
forces.  He  also  had  attacked  and 
looted  Gujarat  a  number  of  times  and 
had  brought  infidels  (Mongols  who  by 
that  time  had  become  Muslims)  in  the 
land  of  Islam,  which  fact  was  already 
known  to  the  Prime  Minister. 

The  Governor  of  Gujarat  Rukunuddin 
Amir  Hassan  had  also  been  recommend- 
ing his  (Hamir's)  case  and  the  author 
(Ain-ul-Mulk)  hoped,  that  given  the 
necessary  assistance,  Hamir  Dodo 
would  fulfil  the  necessary  objective  and 
save  Punjab  and  Gujarat  from  the  nui- 
sance of  Banbhiniyo. 

The  letter  was  written  when  Mahru  was 
Governor  of  Multan  and  Rukunuddin 
Amir   Hassan   was   the   Governor  of 


. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  46,  pp.  ICO- 103. 


1 


■ 

• 

=1 

* 

FALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA-DELHI  CONFLICT- 


319 


> 


fc 

f 


t 


Gujarat.  Hamir  Soomro  had  most  prob- 
ably taken  shelter  in  Gujarat,  to  the 
Governor  of  which  too,  a  letter   had 
been  addressed  by  Ain-ul-Mulk  Mahru. 

1364  A.D.— 765  A.H.  : 

The  probable  date  of  Ain-ul-Mulk  Mul- 
tani's  death.  He  administrated  Multan, 
Bakhar,  and  Sehwan  for  Feroz  Tughluq 
for  some  years.  He  entered  political 
career  in  the  days  of  Allauddn  Khilji 
and  held  various  posts  at  Dhar,  Ujjain, 
Deogir,  Ou^h,  Zafarabad  and  Multan. 
He  gained  equal  importance  under 
Feroz  as  the  Chief  Minister  did. 

• 

Ain-ul-Mulk's  letters  clearly  prove  that 
while  Sammas  were  busy  in  overthrow- 
ing Hamir,  the  last  Soomra  ruler,  the 
former  was  vehemently  advocating  to 
Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  to  rescue  Hamir 
from  the  Sammas. 

1364  A.D.  : 

Feroz  Shah  determined  to  make  an  ex- 
pedition on  Sind.  Different  opinions 
have  been  expressed  for  the  motive  of 
intervention  in  Sind  by  Feroz  Tughluq. 

Afif  states  that  it  was  to  take  vengeance 
upon  Sindhis  whom  Muhammad  Tugh- 
luq had  failed  to  subdue  owing  to  his 
sudden  death.  But  Sind  was  not  the 
only  province  where  Muhammad  Tugh- 
luq had  suffered  humiliation.  In  the 
South  India  too  he  had  faced  defeat, 
but  Feroz  Shah  never  attempted  its 
recovery. 

Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi  mentions  that  the 
objective  underlying  the  expedition  of 
Feroz  Shah  on  Sind  was  the  insolence  of 
the  Thattians  who  for  many  years  ha«l 


■ 

Islamic  Culture,  Vol.  XXI,  1948,  pp.  359- 
368.  His  letters  known  as  Insha-i- 
Mahru  have  been  published  from  Lahore 
in  1965  A.D. 

Afif,  pp.  191-92  puts  the  year  as  1365 
A.D.  which  is  wrong  in  view  of  Mahru's 
letter  No.  99,  pp.  186-89. 


■ 


'  . 


320 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


remained  hostile  and  had  secured  a  safe 
abode  in  Dararilah. 

Mahm  supports  Sirat's  view.  Ain-ul- 
Mulk,  writing  to  Malik-us-Shariq  asks 
for  Feroz  Shah's  assistance  to  crush 
Banbhiniyo,  who  in  league  with  the 
Mongols,  had  carried  out  raids  in 
Gujarat  and  the  Punjab. 

Similar  letters  were  addressed  to  Sultan 
Feroz  by  Ain-ul-Mulk,  the  fief  holder 
(Jagirdar)  and  Governor  of  Multan. 

Surprisingly  Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi  re- 
cords the  besieging  and  capture  .  of 
Thatta  fort  by  Feroz  Shah  and  Banbhi- 
niyo's  recognition  of  the  suzerainty  of 
Sultan,  but  Afif  contradicts  it.  If  the 
Sirat  was  correct,  Feroz  would  not 
have  gone  to  Gujarat  for  the  re-inforce- 
ments  and  the  second  expedition. 

Malik-us-Shariq  Nasir-ul-Mulk  was  de- 
puted by  Feroz  Shah  to  check  the  raids 
of  the  Mongols  who  were  mixed  up  with 
Jam  Banbhiniyo  in  organizing  them. 

Ain-ul-Mulk  refers  to  the  appointment 
of  Khan-i-Azam  Fateh  Khan  to  the 
governorship  of  Sind,  but  Sind  was 
then  independent  under  the  Sammas  and 
in  spite  of  two  years  expeditions  of  Feroz 
it  was  not  annexed.  It  is,  therefore, 
fair  to  conclude  that  Khan-i-Azam  was 
Governor  of  Multan  and  Uch  and  pos- 
sibly some  parts  of  Sind  with  headquar- 
ters at  Multan.  It  is  doubtful  if  Feroz 
had  control  over  the  Central  Sind  where- 
from  the  Sammas  had  risen  to  power 
in  1333-4  A.D. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  pp.  100-103. 


< 


,j 


Tarikh-i-Mubarak   Shahi. 


. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  I,  pp.  2-8. 


■ 


i 


. 


■ 


1 


I 


: 


i 


in  _. 

O 

o  "* 

O  A 

2  * 

n  O 

c  — * 

0  Ml 


<       O 


C 


■o 


o 

•5 


III.     First  or  second  quarter   16th  century,  tomb  of  SRaikh  Jiyo  at  Makli. 


i 


1 


a 


1 


FALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA-DiLHI  CONFLICT 


321 


■    \ 


1364  A.D. 

The  Governor  of  Multan  in  a  declara- 
tion informed  the  populace  of  Chachkan 
(Badin  and  Southern  Hyderabad  Dis- 
tricts) that  Jam  Juna  was  honouring 
the  treaty  (with  the  Delhi  Sultanate), 
but  Jam  Banbhiniyo  had  broken  the 
treaty.  The  Shaikh-ul-Islam  Sadar- 
uddin  (Sadar-ul-Haq  wa  Sharaq-al-Din) 
and  Syed  Jalaluddin  Bukhari  had 
brought  about  a  compromise  treaty 
under  which  the  income  from  Sind  was 
to  be  spent  on  the  (Sind's)  army,  which 
was  to  protect  all  the  areas  from  Gujarat 
to  Sukkur  (the  whole  Sind  and.Cutch) 
and  Sind  was  to  pay  only  a  token  tribute 
of  50  horses  costing  one  lac  Tankas  a 
year,  to  the  Delhi  Sultan. 

As  the  treaty  had  been  broken  by  some 
Thattians  and  no  horses  were  sent,  the 
Jams  were  to  be  punished.  There  was 
no  retaliation  from  Delhi,  until  then  as 
some  of  the  Thatta  and  Chachkan  Mus- 
lims had  taken  no  part  in  it.  But  as 
Jam  Banbhiniyo  with  the  help  of  Mon- 
gols had  destroyed  Darul-Islam  (Delhi 
Sultanate's  territories)  and  had  looted 
the  Muslims,  it  was  necessary  to  punish 
the  mischief-mongers. 

If  the  Chachkanis  repented  and  apolo- 
gized, they  were  to  be  protected,  other- 
wise they  would  also  come  under  heavy 
vengeance,  their  women  and  children 
arrested  and  sword  would  not  spare 
them  (the  adult  males). 

By  this  declaration  the  Chachkanis  were 
therefore,  informed^  that  when  the 
Islam's  armies  (troops  of  Delhi  Sultan- 
ate) arrived  at  Sehwan  and  marched  on 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  99  pp.  186-189. 
This  letter  shows  that  Makhdoom  Jaha- 
niyan  of  Uch  (Syed  Jalaluddin  Bukhari) 
was  actively  involved  in  Delhi-Thatta 
politics  even  before  Feroz  Shah's  expedi- 
tion to  Thatta.  The  letter  was  written 
by  Mahru  before  his  death  in  1364  A.D. 
but  also  on  the  eve  of  the  expedition  to 
Sind.  Feroz  Shah  therefore  must  have 
prepared  himself  for  this  expedition  in 
1364  A.D. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Thatta  they  should  join  the  Islam's 
army.  Only  then  they  would  be  par- 
doned. 


1365  A.D.,  October— 767  A.H.  Safer  : 

Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  issued  orders  to 
prepare  an  expedition  to  Sind. 

The  Vazier  Khan  Jahan  collected  large 
army  of  ninety  thousand  horses,  four 
hundred  and  eighty  elephants  and  ar- 
ranged a  fleet  of  five  thousand  boats  to 
be  requisitioned  from  Bakhar,  Multan 
and  Uch.  The  Sultan  marched  .to 
Bakhar  via  Ajodhan,  from  where  the 
fleet  floated  down  the  Indus.  AfiFs 
father  was  incharge  of  a  flotilla  of  1000 
boats.  Jam  Juna  and  Banbhiniyo 
were  also  ready  with  twenty  thousand 
horses  and  four  lac  foot  soldiers. 


From  Mahru's  letter  No.  99,  pp,  186-189, 
it  is  clear  that  preparations  of  expedition 
to  Sind  were  in  hand  in  1364  A.D.  This 
declaration  was  merely  a  formality. 


Sultan  lost  the  battle  and  left  for  Gujarat 
to  collect  reinforcements.    In  this  war 
the  M ultanis  led  the  midd'e  wing  of  the 
army. 

Afif  admits  that  during  the  retreat  when 
only  20  miles  away  from  Thatta  the 
enemy  (Sammas)  fell  on  the  rear  of  the 
Imperial  army,  capturing  the  boats  and 
killing  many  of  the  Sultan's  men.  Fur- 
ther losses  occurred  in  the  Rann  of  Cu- 
tch  due  to  shortage  of  food  and  water. 

The  total  strength  of  Feroz's  army  at 
Delhi  was  80,000-90,000  horses.  Thus 
he  used  the  full  strength  of  his  army  to 
conquer  Sind,  but  the  first  attempt  fail- 
ed. The  flotilla  of  500  boats  was  des- 
troyed by  the  Sindhi  and  Cutchi  sea- 
men. 


Afif,  pp.  194-207  gives  the  details.  He 
does  not  admit  Feroz's  defeat  but  states 
that  due  to  epidemic  and  fodder  shortage 
the  Sultan  left  for  Gujarat  to  re-inforce 
himself.  The  court  historian  uses  the 
epidemic  as  an  excuse  to  cover  defeats. 

The  figure  of  Sind  army  is  a  gross  exa- 
ggeration. Total  population  of  Sind 
could  not  have  exceeded  IS  lacs  at  that 
time,  specially  due  to  change  of  course 
of  river  Indus  in  first  quarter  of  four- 
teenth century  which  must  have  brought 
famines  and  high  rate  of  mortality. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  131. 


- 


PALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA-DELHl  CONFLICT 


323 


? 


i 


Sirat-i-Feroz  Shah  makes  a  wrong  state- 
ment that  when  the  Imperialists  were 
about  to  capture  Thatta,  Banbhiniyo 
came  and  surrendered.  This  is  in- 
correct as  the  Sultan  left  for  Gujarat 
and  spent  a  year  to  make  a  fresh  ex- 
pedition on  Sind. 

Mubarak  Shahi  clearly  states  that  Ban- 
bhiniyo retaliated  with  force  and  many 
of  the  Sultan's  men  perished  due  to 
shortage  of  food  while  still  near  Thatta 
and  therefore  under  this  helplessness,  he 
departed  for  Gujarat. 

1365  A.D.  October  to  March  1366  A.D.: 

On  retreat  from  Thatta  towards  Gujarat, 
the  Imperial  army  of  Feroz  Tughluq  suf- 
fered series  of  calamities  i.e.,  scarcity 
of  grains,  hunger  and  loss  of  the  total 
number  of  his  horses  due  to  lack  of 
fodder,  salty  marsh  land  of  the  Rann 
of  Kutch  (KLunchiran)  and  lack  of  sweet 
water,  resulting  into  the  death  of  most 
of  animals  and  thousands  of  men. 
This  lasted  for  6  months. 


Williams,  pp.  101-102,  states  that  in  this 
battle  Sammas  of  Sind  had  also  sought 
help  from  their  own  kinsmen,  the  Hindu 
Jareja  Sammas  of  Cutch,  and  the  Im- 
perial sea-men  were  no  match  for  Sindhi 
and  Cutchi  mariners.  During  his  retreat 
he  wanted  to  punish  Cutchi s  but  his 
large  army  perished  and  Cutch  escaped 
the  vengeance.  Jareja  s  had  migrated  to 
Cutch  in  1 147  A.D. 


Afif,  pp.  205-219. 


. 


' 


On  his  arrival  in  Gujarat,  Feroz  Shah 
dismissed  its  Governor  Amir  Hassan 
Nizam-ul-Mulk  for  failure  in  sending 
supplies  for  his  army  on  expedition. 

1366  A.D.  March  to  July  1366  A.D.  : 

Feroz  Shah  prepared  for  a  second  expe- 
dition on  Thatta.  The  revenues  of  Gu- 
jarat amounting  to  2  crore  Tankas  were 
spent  on  troops.  The  irregular  troops 
(Ghair  Wajahdars)  received  advance 
from  Sultan  for  purchasing  horses.  The 
regulars  (Wajahdars)  also  received  loans 
to  equip  themselves.  Vazier  Khan 
Jahan  sent  supplies  from  Delhi.   Seven 


Afif,  p.  219. 


Afif,    pp.    219-223.  Also 
Shahi  in  Islamic  Culture. 


Sirat-i-Feroz 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


lac  Tankas  were  spent  on  the  weapons 
of  war. 

1366  AD.  September  to 

1367  A,D.  September  : 

Feroz  Shah  left  Gujarat  for  Thatta. 
Large  number  of  soldiers  started  desert- 
ing the  Imperial  army.  On  this  the 
Sultan  stated  that  if  they  were  detained 
forcibly,  it  would  mean  inflicting  punish- 
ment on  them  and  therefore  on  their 
arrival  back  in  Delhi,  they  should  be 
given  mild  punishment  (Tadaruk-i- 
Ma'nwi  and  no  physical  torture). 

• 

He  avoided  Cutch,  which  had  gained 
bad  reputation  for  isolation,  remoteness 
and  treacherous  routes. 

It  was  during  these  troublesome  days 
of  Feroz  Shah  that  the  Sindhis  sang  a 
Sindhi  verse,  "By  the  grace  of  Pir 
Pattho,  one  died  and  the  other  fled", 
meaning  thereby  that  Muhammad 
Tughluq  died  and  Feroz  Shah  took  to 
flight. 

1367  A.D.  October  to  November  : 

Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  reached  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Indus  suddenly,  during 
the  harvest  season  of  corn  (Rice,  Jowar 
and  Bajra)  and  raided  large  number  of 
villages  to  secure  grain  and  took  4000 
Sindhi  villagers  as  captives.  The  Sultan 
sanctioned  proper  quota  of  grain  for 
them  and  ordered  that  as  the  captives 
were  Muslims  they  should  be  treated 
kindly. 

Imad-ul-Mulk  and  Zafar  Khan  Lodhi 
(also  called  Zafar  Khan-i-Buzrig)  cross- 
ed the  river  and  started  operations 
against  Sammas.    The  operations  con- 


Afif,  pp.  225-228 


= 


Jam  Juna  had  charged  that  Delhi  forces 
were  capturing  Sindhi  Muslims  and  sell- 
ing them  as  slaves,  as  is  reported  by 
Mahru's  letter  No.  134,  pp.  229-235. 
Feroz  Shah  issued  these  orders  to  nullify 
these  charges. 


Afif,  pj\.  231-238. 


Afif,  suppresses  this  second  defeat  of  the 
Imperialists,    which  necessitated  calling 


c 


FALL  OF  SOOMRAS  AND  SAMMA-DELHI  CONFLICT 


325 


n 


tinued  until  the  Sultan  sent  orders  to 
stop  fighting  to  avoid  terrible  bloodshed 
of  Muslims.  Imad-ul-Mulk  returned 
without  any  substantial  gain.  In  fact 
they  most  probably  were  defeated  even 
this  time  as  Imad-ul-Mulk  was  ordered 
to  go  to  Delhi  and  bring  fresh  inforce- 
ment  and  which  Wazir  Khan  Jahan 
arranged  from  Badaun,  Chanderi,  Kan- 
auj,  Sandila,  Oudh,  Jaunpur,  Bihar, 
Tirbut,  Mahoba,  Iraj,  etc.  The  troops 
accompanied  Imad-ul-Mulk  to 
Thatta.  This  must  have  taken  a  mini- 
mum of  8  months  i.e.  by  about  June 
1367  A.D.  troops  must  have  reached 
Sind  for  a  third  expedition  on  Thatta. 

Zafar  Khan  who  first  was  left  as  the 
Governor  of  Gujarat,  seems  to  have 
been  called  for  this  expedition. 


of  troops  from  almost  the  whole  of 
Empire  then  under  the  control  of  Feroz 
Shah. 


' 


SIND  SUBMITS  TO  DELHI 


1368  A.D.,  Autumn  : 

Arrival  of  fresh  inforcement  from  Delhi 
under    Imadul-Mulk  at  Thatta.      Afif 
reports  that  as    the  Imperialists  had 
seized  the  cultivated    fields,  Thattians 
were  faced  with  famine  and  starvation 
and    Banbhiniyo  made  overtures  for 
peace  through    Sayyaid  Jalaluddin  to 
Feroz  Shah  and  the  latter  accepted  the 
request  of  the  Sayyid:   Later  on,  Jam 
Banbhiniyo  arrived  at  the  Imperial  camp 
and  submitted  to  the  Sultan.    At  that 
time  the  Sultan  was  on  a  hunting  ex- 
pedition.   He  was  given    the    robe   of 
honour  and  was  made    to   accompany 
the  Sultan  to  Delhi,    but  Sind  was  not 
annexed.     Banbhiniyo's    family    ruled 
Sind  on  his  behalf.  Besides  Banbhiniyo 
many  others  also  came  for  submission 
and  the  Sultan  bestowed  on  them  many 
villages  as  Jagirs. 


Afif,  pp.  237-46. 


Mediaeval  Indian  Quarterly,  Vol.  HI,  p. 
133.  The  same  article  describes  that  this 
Sayyid  used  to  come  to  Delhi  and  stay 
as  a  Royal  guest.  It  was  diplomacy  than 
war  that  subdued  Sind. 


■ 


\ 


In  Malfuzat  of  Makhdoom  Jehaniya 
while  describing  his  miracles  it  is 
clearly  stated  that  Feroz  Shah  on  seeing 
the  loss  of  the  lives  of  the  Muslims 
called  Makhdoom  Jehaniya  (Jalaluddin 
Bukhari  of  Uch),  who  came  and  prayed 
to  Shaikh  Rukunuddin  (his  ancestor)  for 
submission  of  Banbhiniyo  to  the  Delhi 
Government.  An  oracle  informed  him 
that  his  prayer  was  accepted.  When 
the  army  of  Feroz  Shah  heard  this,  they 
became  happy  and  it  is  due  to  this  mir- 


Dr.    Riazul    Islam,    Islamic  Culture, 
October,  1948. 


\ 


SIND  SUBMITS  TO  DELHI 


: 
1 


> 


aclc  that  the  Jam  submitted  to  Feroz 
Shah  on  12th  Rabi-II. 

From  this  it  is  dear  that  Feroz  Shah 
called  the  Makhdoom  for  whom  the 
Sammas  had  great  reverence  and  sub- 
mitted as  per  his  tactics. 

Qasida-i-Mutahar  Kurhi  considers  this 
submission  as  a  miracle  in  the  Jehad  of 
Feroz  Shah. 

This  happened  after  the  arrival  of  fresh 
troops  from  Delhi  and  its  eastern  depen- 
dencies. 

Afif  states  that  a  compromise  was 
arrived  at  on  three  points. 

(0  The  Sammas  will  pay  tribute. 

(ii)  Banbhiniyo  and  Jam  Juna  will  go 
to  Delhi  and  stay  in  the  Imperial 
court. 

(iii)  Their  descendants  will  rule  Sind 
on  their  behalf  and  Sind  will  not  be 
annexed. 

Makhdoom  Jalaluddin  Jehaniya  of  Uch 
visited  Sind  to  bring  peace  between 
Jam  Banbhiniyo  Samma  and  Feroz 
Tughluq. 

In  the  Malfuzat  of  Makhdoom 
Jehaniya,  it  is  stated  that  Feroz  Shah 
called  Makhdoom  Jehaniya  and  the 
Makhdoom  prayed  for  the  submission 
of  Banbhiniyo  to  the  Delhi  Govern- 
ment. Then  a  voice  from  heaven 
(oracle)  informed  him  that  his  prayer 
was  accepted.  When  the  Imperial  army 
heard  this  they  became  happy. 


- 


Afif,  pp.  231-38. 

Afif  states  that  Jam  Banbhiniyo  seeing 
the  strength  of  the  Delhi  army,  sent  for 
the  above  saint  to  bring  a  compromise, 
but  letter  number  99  of  Malfuzat  of 
Makhdoom  Jehaniya  makes  it  clear  that 
it  was  at  the  request  of  Feroz  Shah  that 
Syed  Jalaluddin  Bukhari  came  to  Thatta 
for  this  purpose  as  is  reported  by 
Muhammad  Ayub  Qadri  "Munaqib-i- 
Makhdoom  Jehaniya",  p.  141. 

Even  subsequently  the  same  Syed  came 
to  suppress  the  uprising  by  Jam  Tamachi. 
Dr.  Riazuddin  in  Islamic  Culture,  Octo- 
ber, 1948,  supports  this  view. 

Afif,  pp.  114,  141-142,  states  that  Jam 
Banbhiniyo  called  Makhdoom  to  bring 
about  a  compromise  with  the  Sultan. 
This  version  is  not  acceptable  in  view  of 
Malfuzat's  'statement,  which  clarifies 
that  he  was  called  by  the  Sultan  and 
prayed  for  his  success. 


328 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  O*  SIND 


It  was  due  to  this  miracle  that  the  Jams 
submitted    to    Feroz    Shah    on    12th 
Rabi-n. 

1368  A.D.,  Autumn— 769  A.H.  : 
Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  in  his  entourage 
took    Jam  Juna  and  Sadaruddin  Ban- 
bhiniyo  from  Thatta  to  Delhi  and  fixed 
two  lac  Tankas  for  their  maintenance. 
This  was  equivalent  to  the  tribute  to  be 
paid  by  Sind  as  per  agreement.    In  the 
absence  of  Jam  Juna   and  Banbhiniyo, 
the  former's  son  and  the  latter's  brother 
Tamachi,  jointly  ruled  from  Thatta. 

1368  A.D.,  end  : 

Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  left  Sind  for  Delhi 
via  Multan.  On  the  way,  in  a  boat  di- 
saster, the  children  of  Banbhiniyo  were 
drowned.  The  names  of  the  latter's  sons 
are  not  known.  Thus  ended  the  two- 
year  operations  of  Feroz  Tughluq  in 
Sind. 

While  in  Delhi,  Banbhiniyo,  Mangul 
Khan  and  Qazi  Sadr  Jahan  (Qazi-ul- 
Quzat)  used  to  sit  at  a  short  distance 
behind  Khanjahan  (Vazir)  on  a  folded 
carpet.  It  was  a  prominent  seat  on  a 
carpet  in  the  Imperial  court  ji  st  behind 
the  Sultan. 


• 

Afif,  pp.  254-260. 

Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi  confirms  that  the 
operations  in  Sind  lasted  for  two  years. 
The  same  source  describes  the  features 
of  Sindhis. 


Afif,  pp.  285,219. 


Futuhat-i-Feroz  Shahi  (Islamic  Culture, 
Vol.15, 1941, p.  451). 

Qazi-ul-Quzat  was  an  important  post 
specially  under  weak  sovereigns  (like 
Feroz  Shah).  Allauddin  had  taken  all 
powers  of  Juris  ts  in  his  hands  by  initiating 
and  enacting  laws  himself  ar  d  rejecting 
interpretations  of  the  jurists.  Muhammad 
Tughluq  consulted  them,  but  rarely 
accepted  their  advice.  With  Feroz  Shah, 
Qazi-ul-Quzat  was  virtually  second  to 
Vazir  or  Prime  Minister,  (Ishwari  Pra- 
shad,  History  of  Qaraunah  Turks,  p.  257). 
Of  course  it  was  Feroz  Shah  who  abolish- 
ed brutal  punishments  like    mutilation 


< 


i 


! 


SIND  SUBMITS  TO  DELHI 


End  of  1368— End  of  1370  A.D.  : 

Rule  of  Rukunuddin  Shah  Jam  Tama- 
chi  bin  Femzuddin  Shah  Jam  Unar, 
along  with  Khairuddin  Jam  Togachi 
bin  Allauddin  Jam  Juna,  in  the  ab- 
sence of  his  brother  Jam  Banbhiniyo-II. 
His  rule  was  peaceful,  but  he  declared 
independence  from  the  vassalship  of 
Delhi  Sultanate. 


of  hands,  feet,  ear,  and  nose,  and  pluck- 
ing out  of  eyes,  pouring  molten  lead 
down  the  throats  of  people,  crushing  of 
the  bones  of  hands  and  feet,  roasting 
alive  in  fire,  driving  of  nails  in  the  hands, 
feet  and  chest,  flaying  alive,  etc. 


Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307  has 
put  his  rule  from  1366-1375/76  A.D.,  but 
there  is  evidence  that  he  was  replaced  in 
the  end  of  1370  A.D.  by  Jam  Juna  and 
sent  to  Delhi  in  the  beginring  of  1371 
A.D.  See  entry  January,   1371  AD. 

Firishta  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  p.  318,  pits 
his  rule  as  13  years  and  some  months. 
Briggs,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  247,  puts  his  rule  from 
769-782  AH.  (1367-1380/82  A  D).  His 
rule  is  considered  peaceful. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  514,  agrees 
with  13  years  and  a  few  months  rule  of 
this  prince. 

Masumi,  pp.  63-64,  puts  his  rule  during 
the  last  days  of  Allauddin  Khilji  which 
is  not  correct.  Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  100 
gives  the  same  version  as  Masumi. 

Masumi,  also  mentions  the  independent 
rule  of  Jam  Khairuddin  sdon  after  the 
death  of  Sultan  Muhammad  Tughluq, 
which  is  not  a  "historical  fact. 

Nizamuddin  and  Masum  put  Jam  Ban 
bhiniyo-II  before  Jam  Tamachi.  Firishta 
puts  Jam  Mani  bin  Jam  Juna.  Ma'athir- 
i-Rahimi,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  265,  puts  Jam 
Tamachi  as  the  son  of  Jam  Unar,  which 
is  not  correct. 

Dr.  Daudpota,  basing  on  Firishta 's 
statement  about  Jam  Tamachi  bin  Jam 


330 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1368  A.D.,  afterwards 

Ghariyal  invented  by  Feroz  Tughluq 
soon  after  his  return  from  Thatta.  It 
was  placed  on  the  top  of  Ferozabad 
palace  wherefrom  it  announced  the 
hours  of  the  day  and  night. 

Afif  describes  its  practical  utility  to  reli- 
gion, i.e.  telling  time  in  cloudy  weather 
and  the  exact  time  of  prayers,  making 
people  observe  proper  times  for  fasting 
during  the  month  of  Ramzan,  etc. 

1368  A.H.,  end  : 

The  attempts  of  Delhi  Government  to 
re-instal  Hamir  ended  and  Soomro 
Dynasty  came  to  close. 

1369  A.D.— 770  A  H.  : 

Sultan  Feroz  Tughluq  returned  from 
Sind's  expedition,  taking  along  with 
him  Jam  Juna  and  Banbhiniyo.  He 
fixed  a  stipend  of  2  lacs  Tankas  for 
each  of  them,  and  a  decent  house. 
They  attended  court  daily  in  the  most 
costly  costumes  and  sat  to  the  left  of 
the  throne. 

Mubarak  Shahi  states  that  after  Banbhi- 
niyo's  stay  in  Delhi,  Feroz  Shah  restored 


Mani  thinks  that  Jam  Khairuddin  was 
also  called  Jam  Mani. 

Afif,  p.  247,  does  not  name  Khairuddin 
Togachi,  but  only  mentions  him  as  son 
of  Jam. 

Islamic  Culture,  Oct.  1948  puts  the 
date  as  767  AH.  which  is  incorrect. 

All  the  above  sources  except  Afif  are 
directly  or  indirectly  based  on  Tabaqat-i- 
Bahadur  Shahi,  now  lost  and  in  presence 
of  Siraj-al-Hidayat  the  period  of  13 
years  is  to  be  reduced  to  only  3  years. 

Ghariyal  is  a  Sindhi  word.  It  was  de- 
finitely not  a  Sindhi  invention  butknow- 
ledge  about  it  may  have  reached  Sind 
earlier,  wherefrom  the  Sultan  may  have 
copied. 


Afif,  p.  281.      . 


Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  II. 


SIND    SUBMITS  TO  DFIMI 


331 


the  government  of  Thatta  back  to  him 
and  gave  him  a  warm  send  off. 

13*9-88  AD.  : 

Sultan  Feroz  Tughluq  exercised  some 
control  over  the  political  life  in  Sind  but 
soon  after  his  death,  Sind  gained  com- 
plete independence. 

1370-71  A.D.— 111  A.H.  : 

An  anonymous  writer,  who  enjoyed  the 
patronage  of  Sultan  Feroz  Shah,  wrote 
Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi.  It  is  based  on  per- 
sonal observations  and  starts  witn  the 
chaotic  condition  of  Delhi  troops  on 
Muhammad  Tughluq's  death  and  also 
describes  Feroz  Shah's  two  expeditions 
to  Sind.  It  is  rich  in  chronological 
events,  which  Barm's  and  Afif's  are  not. 

1370  AD.,  end— 772  A  H.  : 

Rukunuddin  Shah  Jam  Tamachi  re- 
belled against  the  yoke  of  the  Tughluqs. 
To  suppress  this,  Allauddin  Jam  Juna 
along  with  Makhdoom  Syed  Jalaluddin 
Bukhari  (Jehaniya),  was  deputed  from 
Delhi.  The  Syed  managed  to  replace 
Jam  Tamachi  by  Jam  Juna.  This 
was  the  third  time  this  Makhdoom  was 
utilized  to  settle  the  Sind  affairs. 

Afif  gives  no  date  of  this  incident,  but 
Hadiqat-ul-Aulya  quoted,  by  Dr.  Riazul 
Islam  states  that  on  this  occasion  Jam 
Tamachi  and  his  son  Sultan  Salahuddin 
Jam  Unar-III,  were  sent  to  Delhi.  On 
the  recommendation  of  Shaikh  (Hamad 
Jamli)  they  were  released  from  Qaid-i- 
Hind  (Delhi)  and  reached  Sind.  Jam 
Tamachi  had  left  Thatta  for  Delhi  in 
Rajab  772  or  January  1 372. 


Abdul  Ghafoor,  Calligraphers  of  Thatta, 
pp.  3  and  4.  Sind  may  have  gained  in- 
dependence earlier  as  the  Sultan  had 
become  senile  in  his  old  age  and  in- 
capable to  govern  properly  as  reported. 
Afif,  pp.  71-73. 


Afif,  p.  254. 


Riazul  Islam,  Islamic  Culture,  October 
1948,  quoting  'Siraj-ul-Hidaya'. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Jam  Juna  along  with  his  son  continued 
to  rule  Thatta  paying  the  annual  tribute 
to  Delhi. 

In  the  reign  of  Feroz  Shah  Tughluq 
Sayyid  Shaikh  Jalaluddin  Bukhari 
(Makhdoora-i-Jahaniya)  frequently  went 
to  Delhi  and  was  kept  as  the  state  guest 
either  in  the  Kush  of  Ferozabad  or  at 
the  residence  of  Fateh  Khan. 

He  was  responsible  for  the  uncondi- 
tional surrender  of  Jam  Banbhiniyo  to 
Feroz  Tughluq  in  1367  A.D. 

Makhdoom  Jahaniya  was  grandson*  of 
Syed  Jalaluddin  Surkhposh,  one  of  the 
disciples  of  Bahauddin  Zakariya  spon- 
sorer  of  the  Suhrawardiya  sect  of  sufism. 
During  the  reign  of  Feroz  Tughluq,  the 
Multan  branch  of  Suhrawardi  sect  had 
lost    its    importance    but    Makhdoom 
Jehaniya  enabled  its  Uch  branch  to  gain 
importance.    Due  to  his  influence    in 
Sind,    he     converted     many     Ismaili 
Soomras  to  Sunni  faith. 

He  made  frequent  visits  to  Delhi  and 
was  held  in  high  esteem  by  the  State 
officials.  Once,  Ain-ul-Mulk  Mahru 
sought  his  help  to  realize  Khiraj  in  Sind. 

It  was  the  magic  of  his  religious  influ- 
ence which  secured  the  submission  of 
the  Sammas  to  Feroz  Tughluq  at  least 
on  3  occasions,  first  before  1364,  next  in 
1368  and  lastly  in  1371-72  A.D. 

1371  A.D.,  January— 772  A.H.,  Rajab  : 
Jam  Tamachi  was  sent  to  Delhi. 

1371-1388/89  A.D.— 772—790/91  A.H.  ; 

Rule  of  Allauddin  Jam  Juna  bin    Ban- 
bhiniyo-I  (Second  time). 


Ain-i-Haqiqat   Nama,  Vol.  n,  p.  174. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  11. 

Afif  treats  Jam  and  Babaniya  as  two 
different  persons.  Afif  also  does  not 
mention  Banbhiniyo's  return  to  Sind 
but  Masumi,  p.  26  states  that  he  returned 
and  ruled  Sind  for  15  years.  His  return 
is  also  supported  by  Tarikh-i-Mubarak 
Shahi,  Badauni-Ranking  translation, 
p.  332  and  Brigg's,  Firishta,  Vol.  I,  p.  455. 

Mediaeval  Indian  Quarterly,  Aligarh, 
1957,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  109-49. 


Ibid,  p.  114. 


Afif,  pp.  141-42. 

Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  99,  pp.  186-188. 


Islamic  Culture,  October  1948,  quoting 
Siraj-ukHidaya. 

Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch,    Tahiri,  p.  307,  puts 
the  beginning  of  his  rule  in  777  A.H.  or 


N 


SIND   SUBMITS  TO  DELHI 


333 


- 


1373-74  A.D.— 775  A.D. 

Town  of  Samui  founded. 


1374  A.D.— TO  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Fateh  Khan  son  of  Feroz 
Tughluq.  He  was  assigned  the  Province 
of  Sind  in  the  early  days  of  Feroz  Shah's 
reign.  This  must  have  been  prior  to  the 
death  of  Ain-ul-Mulk  Mahru  who  died 
in  1364  A.D. 

Since  the  Sammas  were  controlling  Sind 
and  Banbhiniyo  had  even  attached  Pun- 
jab and  Gujarat,  the  title  of  Fateh  Khan 
on  Sind  must  have  been  in  name  only, 
except  for  the  early  period  when  they 
governed  the  area  upto  Sehwan. 

1375  A.D.: 

Construction  of  the  first  Jain  temple  at 
Bhodesar.  The  second  was  constructed 
in  1449  A.D. 

1380  A.D.  : 

Jam  Allauddin  Samma  built  a  tomb  over 
the  grave  of  Shaikh  Abu  Turabi.    The 
mason  was  Musa  bin  Shahjan.    The 
use  of  Persian  inscription  shows  that 
Persian  had  become  accepted   language 


775  A.H.  which  is  incorrect.  Firishtaand 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari  do  not  mention  his  rule. 
Masumi,  p.  65,  states  that  due  to  his 
good  conduct  Banbhiniyo-II  was  re- 
assigned the  Province  of  Sind  by  Feroz 
Tughluq.  Masumi  may  have  mistaken 
Juna  for  Banbhiniyo.  Tuhfat-ul-Karam, 
p.  101,  repeats  Masumi's  version. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  131. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  180,  states  that  it 
was  founded  after  the  destruction  of 
Muhammad  Tur.  Samui  may  have  been 
found  by  the  Sammas  as  a  small  town 
outside  Thatta  as  a  resort  on  the  river. 


Insha-i-Mahru,  letter  No.  1,  pp.  2-8 
states  that  Fateh  Khan  was  given  title  of 
Khan-i-Azara  wa  Khaqani  Mu'zam 
Humayun  Fateh  Khan. 


Syed  Hussamuddin  Rashdi,  Makli  Nama, 
p.  161,  states  that  the  assignment  of  Sind 
to  Fateh  Khan  must  have  taken  place 
after  the  surrender  of  Banbhiniyo  in  1368 
A.D.,  but  this  is  not  correct  as  this  title 
came  in  the  collections  of  Mahru,  before 
his  death  in  1364  A.D. 


Professor  Muhammad  Shafi,  p.  9,  thinks 
that  it  was  during  the  rule  of  Jam  Saiah- 
uddin  and  Jam  Allauddin  was  a  prince 
from  the  royal  family.    The  inscription 

on  the  tomb  raises  him  from  a  soldier 


334 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


as  such  on  the  tombs  and  monuments 
and  Arabic  was  no  longer  used  for  the 
purpose.  There  is  evidence  of  use  of 
Sindhi  in  Devnagri  Script  during  the 
Samma  period. 


1381  A.D.: 

The  Ottoman  Turks  push  into  Asia. 

1383-84  A.D.— 785  A.H.  : 

Syed  JaJaluddin  Bukhari  or  Makhdccm 
Jehaniya  of  Uch,  who  was  instrumental 
in  Sind's  surrender  to  FerozTughluq  in 
1368  A.D.  and  had  brought  about  com- 
promise between  Sind  and  Delhi,  in 
1359-64  and  1371  A.D.,  died  at  the  age 
of  78  lunar  or  76  solar  years. 

1384-85  A.D.— 786  A.H.  : 

Syed  Muhammad  and  his  son  Syed 
Ahmed  left  Shiraz  for  Thatta  via  Qan- 
dhar,  Sehwan  and  Samui.  The  great 
Persian  poet  Hafiz  also  accompanied 
them,  but  was  sent  back  from  Qandhar 
by  Syed  Muhammad  to  Shiraz,  where 
he  died  in  791  A.H. 

The  exact  date  of  their  arrival  in  Thatta 
is  uncertain  but  Syed  Ahmed  left  Syed- 
pur  and  settled  permanently  in  Thatta 
only  after  the  death  of  Syed  Ahmed  in 
800  A.H.  (1397-98  A.D.).  Soon  after 
their  arrival  they  were  settled  in  the 
village  of  Murad  Othi  in  the  Manehhar 
Parguna. 

1388  A.D.  : 

The  latest  date  of  the  completion  of 
Futuhat-i-Feroz  Shahi,  which  contains 
a  brief  summary  of  the  reign  of  Feroz 
Shah  Tughluq,  who  himself  was  its  au- 


to Waliullah.  Turabi  was  an  Arab 
Amir  who  was  assigned  a  Jagir  near 
Sakro. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi  translation,  p. 
120. 


Afif  reports  on  his  age  and  accordingly 
his  birth  date  would  be  1307-08  A.D. 


Risala-i-Ma'arif-ul-Anwar,  pp.  1 10  and 
117  quoted  by  Hussamuddin  in  Maklv 
Nama. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi  translation,  p. 
185,  states  that  they  came  to  Sind  during 
Jam  Tamachi's  rule,  which  appears  to  be 
incorrect. 


- 


Its  translation  has  been  published  in  the 
Islamic  Culture,  Vol.  15, 1941.  It  is  also 
called  Sirat-i-Feroz  Shahi.  One  of  the 
most  important  portfolios  i.e.  the  body- 


- 


SIND  SUBMITS    TO  DELHI 


335 


3 


v 


thor.  Since  it  covers  first  20  years  of 
Feroz  Shah's  reign,  it  may  have  been 
written  in  772  A.H. 

His  religious  sentiments,  expressed  in 
the  Futuhat,  are  contradicted  by  his 
waging  war  on  the  co-religionists  like 
Haji  Ilyas  Shamsuddin  of  Bengal  and 
Jam  Banbhiniyo  of  Sind.  In  addition, 
he  refrained  from  taking  any  action 
against  the  Hindus  for  their  atrocities 
upon  the  Muslims  of  Mabar  as  des- 
cribed by  Afif. 

1388  A.D.,  July— 790  A.H.,  Rajab  14  : 

Burhanuddin  Qutub-ul-Alam,  son  of 
Syed  Nasiruddin  and  grandson  of 
Makhdoom  Jehania  of  Uch,  was  born. 

1388  A.D.— 790  A.H.  : 

Death  of  the  poet  Mutahar  of  Kurhi, 
who  composed  poetry  in  the  praise  of 
Feroz  Shah  Tughluq  and  Ainul  Mulk 
Mahru  Multani. 

In  his  poetry,  he  has  passed  derogatory 
remarks  against  Jam  Banbhiniyo-II  and 
calls  them  Rai  Jam  and  Rai  Tamachi, 
etc.,  depicting  them  as  Hindus,  to  justify 
future  action  against  them. 


guard  of  the  Sultan,  was  held  by  Rai 
Bhiru  who  was  a  Hindu. 

Afif,  pp.  99-100  and  261-67. 

- 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi  translation,  p 
299. 


, 


v 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


1388  A.D.,  23  October  : 
790  AH.,  18th  Ramzan  : 

Sultan  Fcroz  Tughluq  died.  He  had 
already  nominated  his  grandson  Ghias- 
uddin  Tughluq  Shah  bin  Fateh  Khan 
as  his  successor  and  Sultan. 


The  new  Sultan  Ghiasuddin  Tughluq 
on  accession  allowed  Jam  Banbhiniyo 
and  his  brother  Jam  Rukunuddin  as 
also  latter's  son  Jam  Salahuddin  to  re- 
turn to  Sind.  Banbhiniyo  died  en  route; 
and  Rukunuddin  Tamachj  became 
Sind's  ruler  for  the  second  time  around 
791  A.H.  (1389  A  D.). 

1388  A.D.  : 

During  his  rule  Feroz  Shah  improved 
the  postal  system  by  putting  2  chawkis 
at  every  2  miles.  The  usual  system  was 
that  10  swift  runners  taking  letters,  etc., 
in  one  hand  and  a  stick  tied  with  ringing 
bells  in  the  other  hand,  rushed  from  one 
chawki  to  other,  where  similar  runners 
were  kept  in  readiness  for  receiving  the 
mail  and  rushing  to  the  next  chawki. 
These  runners  took  the  post  for  the 
Sultan  only  and  they  were  not  open  to 
general  public. 

1389  A.D.— 791  AH.  : 

Jam  Rukunuddin  Shah  Tamachi  along 
with  his  son  Jam  Salahuddin  Shah  (Jam 
Unar-II)  reached  Sind.  The  two  ruled 
one  after  the  other. 


Masumi,  p.  51. 
Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  140. 


• 


. 


Firishta  assigns  Ramzan  13th,  799  A.H. 
to  his  death,  which  is  incorrect 

Afif,  p.  254. 

Rehala    (Edited    by    Mahdi    Hussain), 
pp. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  102. 

Afif,  p.  247,  calls  Tamachi  son  of  Jam. 


i 


- 


- 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


337 


1 

I 


1389  A.D.— 791  A.H.  : 

Ghiasuddin  Tughluq  Shah  was  assassi- 
nated by  the  Hindu  slaves  of  Feroz 
Shah.  Ghiasuddin  ruled  for  5  months 
and  3  days. 

1389  A.D.,  19th  February  : 
791  A.H.,  21st  Safrr  : 

On  the  assassination  of  Sultan  Ghias- 
uddin Tughluq,  the  courtiers  took  out 
Abu  Bakar  bin  Zafar  Khan  bin  Sultan 
Feroz  from  the  prison  and  made  him 
the  new  Sultan. 

1389  A.D.— 791  A.H.: 

Darwesh  Nooh  Khaibrai,  a  sufl,  who 
reared  cattle  for  his  living  was  alive 
then.  He  informed  Jam  Tamachi,  who 
was  on  his  way  from  Delhi  to  Thatta, 
that  Jam  Juna  was  still  ruling  over 
Sind. 


1389  A.D.— 791  AH.  : 

Allauddin  Jam  Juna  died. 


1389-92  A.D.— 791-795  A.H.  : 

The  rule  of  Sultan  Rukunuddin  Shah 
Jam  Tamachi  a  second  time. 

The  folklore  Noori-Tamachi  is  connect- 
ed with  this  king. 


1389-90  A.D.,— 792  A.H.,  16th  Ram/an 
After  18  months  rule  Sultan  Abu  Bakar 
bin  Zafar  bin  Feroz  Tughluq  was  re- 


Masumi,  p.  52. 


■ 


Masumi,  p.  52. 

Ain-i-Haqiqat  Nama   by    Akbar  Shah 
Khan  Najib-Abadi,  Vol.  II,  p.  86. 


Hadiqat-ul-Auliya,  p.  56. 

His  tomb  is  located  3  miles  north  of 
Khaibar  near  Sahata  village  and  about 
25  miles  north  of  Hyderabad. 


Dr.  N.  A.  Batoch,  Tahiri,  p.  307. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari  and  Firishta  do  not 
mention  his  rule  a  second  time.  Accord- 
ing to  Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.  102-103, 
the  grave  of  Jam  Tamachi  (and  Noori 
too)  is  towards  the  south  of  the  grave 
of  Shaikh  Hamad,  and  enclosed  in  a 
dome.  This  makes  the  said  grave  of 
Noori,  now  in  the  Kinjhar  Lake  and 
preserved  as  a  monument  by  the  Irriga- 
tion Department,  an  archaeological  for- 
gery of  later  times. 


Masumi,  p.  56. 


338 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


moved  by  Ferozi  slaves  and  Nasiruddin 
Muhammad  Shah  Tughluq  was  installed 
as  the  new  Sultan.  He  was  given  the 
title  of  Muhammad  Shah-III. 

After  1390  A.D.— After  792-93  A.H.  : 

Jam  Tamachi  paid  large  sum  of  money 
to  Shaikh  Hamad,  who  built  the  Jamia 
Mosque  at  Makli  from  these  funds. 

1392-1404/05  A.D.— 795-807  A.H.  : 

The  rule  of  Salahuddin  Shah  Jam  (Unar- 
II)  bin  Sultan  Rukunuddin  Shah  Jam 
Tamachi. 

■ 


■ 

Masumi  also  mentions  the  uprisings  on 
the  (Cutch)  border  as  well  as  his  attack 
on  Cutch  and  collection  of  huge  amount 
of  booty. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  assigns  15  years  to 
his  reign,  and  quoting  Hadiqat-ul-Auliya 
states  that  Jam  Juna  sent  Jam  Tamachi 
and  latter 's  son  Jam  Salahuddin  as 
prisoners  to  Delhi,  wherefrom  they  re- 
turned with  the  blessings  of  Shaikh 
Hamad,  overthrew  Juna  and  then  the 
father  and  the  son,  ruled  in  succession. 


Hadiqat-ul-Auliya,  pp.  49-60. 


■ 
■ 
- 

Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  514,  also 
assigns  11  years  and  some  months  to 
this  king.  Firishta  (Bombay),  Vol.  II, 
p.  318,  puts  him  as  a  successor  of 
Jam  Tamachi  and  his  rule  of  1 1  years. 
Briggs,  Vol.  IV,  p.  247,  considers  this 
period  as  782-793  A.  H.  or  1380-1391 
A.D.  Firishta  has  eliminated  the  second 
time  rule  of  Allauddin  Jam  Juna  bin 
Banbhiniyo,  as  well  as  that  of  Jam 
Tamachi. 

Masumi,  p.  65  assigns  his  rule  of  eleven 
years  and  six  months  after  Jam  Tamachi, 
which  is  correct  only  if  Jam  Tamachi 
ruled  second  time. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  102. 

Hadiqat-al-Auliya,  pp.  49-60.  The 
names  of  Tamachi  and  Salahuddin  come 
from  the  inscription  on  Jam  Nizam - 
uddin's  grave.  See  entry  915  A.H.  (1509- 
10A.D.). 


1 


l 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


1395-96  A.D.— 798  A.H.  : 

Due  to  his  difference  with  Khizir  Khan, 
who  was  ruler  of  Multan  on  behalf  of 
Sultan  Mahmud  Shah  II  Tughluq  of 
Delhi,  Sarang  Khan,  the  Governor  of  . 
Debalpur  and  Lahore,  captured  Multan. 

1397  AD.,  June— 799  A.H.,  Ramzan  : 
Sarang  Khan  attacked  Delhi. 

1397-98  A.D — 800  A.H.,  10th 

Muharram  : 

Death  of  Syed  Muhammad  Shirazi 
after  having  been  in  Sind  for  14  years. 
His  descendants,  the  Shirazi  Syeds,  were 
settled  in  Thatta  and  their  graves  are 
on  the  Makli  Hills. 

1397-98  A.D.— 800  A.H.  : 

Syed  Nasiruddin  son  of  Makhdoom 
Jehania  of  Uch  and  father  of  Burhan- 
uddin  Qutubul  Alam  died. 

1397-98  A.D.— 800  A.H.   : 

Mirza  Pir  Muhammad,  grand-son  of 
Amir  Timur,  laid  siege  to  Uch  for  one 
month,  but  when  Sarang  Khan  sent  4000 
horses  under  Tajuddin  to  the  aid  of 
Malik  Ali,  the  governor  of  Uch,  Pir 
Muhammad  gave  him  a  battle  and  de- 
feated Tajuddin.  He  then  laid  siege 
to  Multan,  the  ruler  of  which  Sarang 
Khan  surrendered  after  a  bitter  fight  of 
6  months.  The  Multan  soldiers  were 
taken  as  prisoners. 

1400-1500  A.D.  : 

Mangho  Pir  flourished  then. 

1398  A.D.,  8th  October— 
800  A.H.,  15th  Muharram  : 

Sarang  Khan  was  defeated  by  the  Amirs 
of  Delhi. 


■ 


Masumi,  p.  58. 


- 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam: 

Sindhi 

translation,  p. 

299. 

- 

, 

■ 
He  is  called  Lala  Jasraj  by  the  Hindus. 


v 

Masumi,  p.  58. 


' 


340 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1398  A.D.— 801  A.H.  : 

Amir  Timur  reached  Multan  and  mass- 
acred all  the  soldiers,  made  captive  by 
Pir  Muhammad,  his  grand-son.  Masumi 
thinks  that    Sind  became  independent 
after  Timur 's  attack  of  Multan.  There  is 
no  evidence  of  Delhi's  control  on  Sind. 
Since  1 388  A.D.  Uch  remained  under  the 
Delhi  Sultanate's  control  upto  its  fall  to 
Pir  Muhammad.  The  local  Governor  of 
Uch  that  time  was  Malak  Ali,  a  nominee 
of  Sarang  Khan,  son  of  Zafar  Khan 
Lodhi,  Governor  of  Gujarat.    Sarang 
Khan    was    responsible    for    bringing 
Nasiruddin  Mahnrood  to  power   and 
latter  made  him  governor  of  Debalpur. 
With  Amir  Timur  came  Syed  Hyder  Bin 
Syed  Mir  Ali  Hussaini  to  Multan  and 
therefrom  came  to   Halakandi  (Sind) 
and  married  a  lady  from  a  Hala  family. 
His  descendants  include  Shah   Abdul 
Karim  of  Bulri  and  Shah  Abdul  Latif  of 
Bhit.    They    are    called    Mutalvi    or 
Matiari  Syeds. 


' 


Masumi,  pp.  59-60. 


. 


1398  AD.  : 

Amir  Timur  appointed  Khizir  Khan  as 
the  Governor  of  the  Punjab  and  the 
Upper  Sind  (Uch  and  Multan). 

1398-99  AD.— 801  AH.  : 

Shams-i-Siraj  Afif  completed  Tarikh-i- 
Feroz  Shahi,  which  covers  37  years  reign 
of  Feroz  Shah  from  1352-1388  A.D. 

1399-1400  A.D— 802  A.H.  : 

12  years  old  Burhanuddin,  grand-son  of 
Makhdoom  Jehania  of  Uch  with  his 
mother  Hajra  or  Bibi  Saadat  Khatoon, 
reached  Patan  in  Gujarat. 


CHI,  p.  201. 

Mubarak  Shahi. 

Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.    I,  p.  124. 

The  text  was  published  by  A.S  B.  Cal- 
cutta in  1891  A.D. 


Tuhfat-u^Karam :  Sindhi  translation,  p. 
299. 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


341 


f 


1399-1400  A.D.— 802  AH.  : 

Sultan  Nusarat  Shah  Tughluq  lost  most 
of  area  between  the  Ganges  and  Jamuna 
to  Iqbal  Khan,  but  sent  Khizir  Khan  to 
control  Debalpur,  Multan  and  Sind. 

1404/05—1406/07  A.D. 
807-809  A  H.  : 

Rule  of  Nizamuddin  Jam  I  bin  Sultan 
Salahuddin  Shah  Jam  (Unar  II,  ?). 
He  ruled  well. 


. 


1405-06  A.D.— 808  AH.  : 

Pir  Sadaruddin,  a  well  known  Ismaili 
preacher,  a  Sindhi  poet,  and  inventor 
of  probably  the  first  Sindhi  script  of  40 
letters,  died. 


1406-1412/13  A.D.— 809-815  A  H.  : 

Rule  of  Jam  AH  Sher  bin  Sultan  Rukun- 
uddin  Shah  Jam  Tamachi. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  p.  169.  The  proximity 
of  places  shows  that  by  Sind,  the  Uch 
territory  is  meant. 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307. 

Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  p.  318  assigns 
two  to  three  years  to  his  reign.    Briggs, 
Vol.  IV,  p.  247,  calculates  it   as  793-796 
A.H.  or  1391-1393  AD. 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari, 

assigns 

his  rule. 


Vol.     Ill,    p.   514 
assigns  two  years  and  some  months  to 


Masumi,  pp.  65-66  states  that  he  was 
nominated  as  the  King  by  the  chiefs  of 
various  tribes  and  on  ascending  the 
throne,  he  released  his  four  uncles  namely 
Malik  Sikandar,  Kiran,  Bahauddin  and 
A 'amir,  These  uncles  intrigued  against 
him  and  therefore,  he  escaped  to  Gujarat. 

Firishta  and  Nizamuddin  state  that  he 
died  a  natural  death  while  still  at  the 
helm  of  affairs  in  Sind.  Their  source  is, 
Tabaqat-i-Bahadur  Shahi,  whereas  Masu- 
mi's  source  is  hearsay.  Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam,  p.  103,  repeats  Masumi 's  version. 

■      . 
Chunera    Ali    Muhammad,    Noor-um- 
Mubin  (Bombay),  p.  496. 

Ghulam  Ali  Allana,  Soomran  jay  Daur  Ji 
Sindhi  Shairi,  Mihran,  Vol.  9,  No.  1 
and  2,  J  960. 

Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307. 


342 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


, 


1410  A.D.  : 

Zafar  Khan,  the  Governor  of  Gujarat 
who  had  declared  independence  of 
Delhi  Sultanate  and  titled  himself  as 
MuzaffarShah  in  1396  A.D.  began  to 
assert  his  power  over  the  old  dominions 
of  Anhilwada  and  compelled  Jareja 
Samma  chief  of  Kandh  Kot  to  submit 
to  him.  Rest  of  Cutch  remained  in- 
dependent under  Gajan  and  Otha  line. 
They  kept  good  relations  with  Sind. 

1412-13  A.D.— 815  AH.  : 

Sind  under  the  rule  of  Jam  Kiran  bin 
Khairuddin  Jam  Togachi  bin  Allauddin 
Jam  Juna-I.  He  died  on  the  second 
day  of  his  ascending  the  throne. 


Firishta  considers  him  as  son  of  Jam 
Nizamuddin  bin  Jam  Salahuddin,  and 
his  rule  extending  to  6  years. 

He  states  that  in  his  days  the  kingdom 
had  achieved  more  respectable  a  position 
than  his  predecessors.  Dr.  Baloch  con- 
siders him  as  a  brother  of  Sultan  Salah- 
uddin Shah  Jam  Unar  II  and  uncle  of 
Jam  Nizamuddin  I.  Briggs,  Vol.  IV, 
p.  247,  calculates  his  rule  upto  812  A.H. 
or  1409  A.D.  and  does  not  account  for 
the  period  between  the  death  of  Jam 
Nizamuddin-I  to  806  A.H. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol  III,  P.  514  assigns 
six  years  and  some  months  to  his  rule. 

Masumi,  pp.  67-68  states  that  he  wasted 
time'in  luxuries  and,  therefore,  was  assa- 
ssinated by  a  group  of  people  of  Thatta. 
Nizamuddin  and  Firishta  state  that  he 
died  a  natural  death.   . 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  103,  repeats 
Masumi 's  version  and  like  Masumi 
assigns  seven  years  to  his  rule. 


Williams. 


• 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307  assigns 
the  year  816  A.D.  to  his  accession. 
Firishta,  (Bombay),  p.  318,  considers  him 
as  son  of  Jam  Tamachi  and  so  does 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  515. 


c 


^ 


¥ 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


343 


I 


. 


, 


Masumi,  pp.  65-67  considers  him  brother 
of  the  Jams,  Malik  Sikandar,  Bahauddin 
and  Amir,  and  states  that  he  was  enthron- 
ed with  the  help  of  his  brothers,  and  as 
the  amirs  were  against  him,  he  wanted 
to  have  them  eliminated,  but  instead  they 
had  him  assassinated. 


The  chief  of  this  group  was  Fateh  Khan 
bin  Sikandar  who  was  nominated  to 
rule  after  the  death  of  Kiran's  brother 
Sadaruddin  Jam  Sikandar  II.  This  Fateh 
Khan  was  then  his  nephew  and  son  of  his 
brother  Sadaruddin  Jam  Sikandar  Shah- 
I,  the  successor,  as  Fateh  Khan 
was  to  follow  his  father.  Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam,  p.  103,  repeats  Masumi's  version. 


1412-13  A.D.— 815-816  AH.  : 

Sind  under  the  rule  of  Sadaruddin  Jam 
Sikandar  Shah-II  bin  Khairuddin  Jam 
Togachi. 


1412-13  A.D.— 815-16  A.H.  : 

The  rule  of  Sadaruddin  Jam  Sikandar 
Shah  bin  Khairuddin  bin  Jam  Togachi, 
is  also  confirmed  from  inscription  at 
Bahawalpur. 

During  the  Samma  period,  inscriptions 
were  engraved  on  wet  bricks  and  then 
burnt. 

1412/13-1428  A.D.— 816-831  AH.  : 

Sind  under  the  rule  of  Jam  Fateh 
Khan  bin  Sadaruddin  Jam  Sikandar 
Shah-I.  He  was  nominated  by  the 
tribes  of  Sind. 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307  assigns 
the  year  816  A.H.  to  his  rule. 

Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  eliminates  his 
rule  and  so  do  Tabaqat-i- Akbari,  Masumi 
and  Tuhfat-ul-Karam. 

Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Sindhi  Boli  Ji  Mukh- 
tasir  Tarikh,  p.  82. 

This  inscription  means  that  he  may  have 
ruled  longer  than  one  year. 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  307. 


• 


Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  p.  318  puts 
his  rule  as  15  years.  Briggs,  Vol.  IV, 
p.  248  calculates  his  rule  from  812  to  827 
A.H.  or  1409-1423  A.D. 


344 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S1ND 


• 


. 


1414  A.D.,  22nd  May.— 
818  A.H.,  1st  Muharram  : 

Syed  Ahmed  Shirazi  died  and  was  buried 
in  the  Abbasi-Qazis'  graveyard  at  Samoi. 

1418  A.D.— «21  A  H.  : 

Death  of  Abul  Abbas  Shahabuddin 
Ahmed  Bin  Ali  Qalqashandi  who  wrote 
Subuh  al  Asha,  a  book  describing  social 
conditions  in  the  Sub-continent  includ- 
ing Sind. 

1418-19  A.D.— 821  A.H.  : 

Quba-a-Mundrasa  in  the  hermitage  of 
Shaikh  Hammad  at  the  instructions  of 
the  eldest  son  of  Jam  Tamachi  during 
the  rule  of  Jam  Tughluq  Sikandar  Shah 
by  Darya  Khan  Rahu,  a  disciple  of 
Shaikh  Hammad. 

1421-1438  A.D.— 824-837  A.H.  : 

The  reign  of  Sultan  Mubarak  Shah  of 
Sayyid  Dynasty  at  Delhi. 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  514,  also 
assigns  15  years  and  some  months  to 
his  rule. 

Masumi,  pp.  67-68  states  that  he  was 
an  efficient  administrator.  He  assigns 
the  fall  of  Multan  and  Delhi  to  Mirza 
Pir  Muhammad  and  Amir  Timur  during 
the  rule  of  Jam  Fateh  Khan  which  is 
incorrect.  He  also  states  that  on  the 
fall  of  Delhi  in  1398  A.D.,  Sind  auto- 
matically became  part  of  the  Timuri 
Empire.  This  is  not  corroborate  by 
any  other  history  including  'Zafar  Nam*. 
the  Memoirs  of  Amir  Timur.  Sind  in 
fact  was  an  independent  state.  Masumi 
and  Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  103  assign  15 
years  to  his  rule. 


The   Arabic   text   was  published  from 
Cairo  in  1913-20. 


The  ruler  of  Sind  then  was  Jam  Fateh 
Khan  and  Jam  Tughluq  succeeded  him 
in  1428  A.D. 

Professor  Muhammad  Shafi  considers  it 
as  821  A.H.  (p.  15,  English  Section). 


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1441   A.D. 


|[SIDlAN    SUB-CONTINENT    AROUND    U41  A.D. 


NOTE- 
SMALL    PRINCIPALITIES     ROSE  AFTER    THE     FALL    OF     TUGHLAQ     EMP IRE.    THEY     WERE 

LOCAL     OYNASTIES,    ANO    ENC0URA6E0     DEVELOPMENT    OF    LOCAL    CULTURE.    BEGINNING      OF 

CLASSICAL   PROVTNCIAL     LITERATURE     OATES    BACK     TO     THIS     PERIOO. 

WITH    EXCEPTION     OF    GONOWANA,  ORISSA,  VIJAWIA6ARA,  Te.UNA»ARA     ANO    RAJP'ITANA, 

I  ME   REST  WERE   MUSLIM   STATES. 

KOKHARS   (6AKHARS)  WERE    BOTH    HINOUS   ANO  MUSLIMS. 
SIND  WAS  VASSAL   STATE    BETWEEN    13«8  - 1388  A.D. 


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INDEX 

1       PRESENT   PROVINCIAL    BOUNOAR€S    OF    INOIA    AND     PAKISTAN 

!      BOUNDARtS   OF    VARIOUS    KINGDOMS    IN    IU0   AH 

• 

1      TOWNS    IN    EXISTANCE    IN      K»0    A.O 

.     ,  -• 

4     YEAR    OF    INDEPENDENCE                      

,'347    -   I52S 

SCALE 


- 


A 


J2L 


N   D 
i 


OCEAN 


j& 


j& 


ji. 


DRAWN    UNDER    GUIDANCE    OF    M.H.    PANHWAR . 


35 


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75 


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'*/ 


0 


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v.. 
v.. 

KASHMIR 


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f        T  SIALK0T« 

KANDHAR       ,  _//'    1     /      /  /  ,''     I 

»***.  •*       '     #      /  <    —  'KAN9RA 

♦LAHORE 


?Tt 


,_s' 


> 


1508  A.D. 


INDIAN   SUB-CONTINENT  AS  PORTUGESE  SAN 

NCTE:- 

THE    USE  OF    SMAL    PRINCIPALITIES      PRODUCED        DEVELOPMENT  OF    REGIONAL 
CULTURES,  LOCAL    LAN6UA6EAN0    LOCAL    TRA01T10N5  M  ALL    FIELDS,  INCLU0IN6 
ARCHITECTURE  ,  WHICH    INFLUENCE    HAS    CONTINUED    TO    THIS   DAY.   IT   &AVE    IMPETUS 

TO    THE    LOCAL    ECONOMY    AND    A6RICUTURE. 

SINDWAS   VASSAL  STATE   BETWEEN  1366- 1368  A.D. 


\ 


25 


5%     •^SCHWAN 

■afr^SAMMAS   i 

,i_ .»  latytt 


•BIKANER 
#NA60UR 


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•MERTA   • 


•  SIRHINQV      f 

•iOmana/ 

'"'  •mNIPAT 

''jtHANSI  I 

I  •OfiLH 

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IMATHAURA  BAHRAICH* 


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1506-  1510? 


MM 


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CHAMP. 


•  U..AIN 

"■<?'  -  '530 

•  OHAR 


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SAT6A0N* 


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20 


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ISOMANATH 


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?suratnKHAM    *U^^      •cluchpur   ^  *- 


•sur/tnKHAN 

malkapur^v 

MADNAGARl     BIRAR 

•  DAULATABAD     ufit  -   1572 


(.GOLCONI 

/  WARAN6AL 


1* 

,6ULBAR6A 


/TALIKDTA 


60LC0NDA 

•  KINGDOM 

1512-1686    _ 

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,UROOL    i-yKONDAVKXI 
DAYA6IP.I 

•VIJAYANASARA  J 


it 

rr\         •VfTA&APATTAM 

|AMUNORY 
tlXORE 
4SULIPATNAM  1570 


BAY 

OF 

BENGAL 


[  #CHTTA&ON&  , 
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•  VIJAYANA6ARA    AT  1 

|—N*         BANotLORE«^y6<jNDA 
DVARASAMUDRA         ,V_,J 

"^•rJlagMi      KANCHI# 

SRIN6APATTAM 

•  C3IN&EE* 


CAT 


10 


1   NOTE 


ITEMS    OF     EXPORT     FORM   SIND 
WERE  ,  SALTPETRE  ,  COTTON  ,  TEXTILES, 
INDIGC  AND  RICE. 


LTANJORE 
JNEGAPATAM 


INDEX 

PRESEN-     PROVINCIAL    BOUNDARIES     OF     INDIA      AND      PAKISTAN. 

BOUNOAWES   OF     VARIOUS     KINGDOMS     IN     IS0»  A.O. 

TOWNS     IN    EXISTENCE       IN      ISO*     AJ) 

PORTUGESE   BASES  WITH  YEAR    OF    OCCUPATION 

RIVER    INDUS    IN    16TH   CENTURY 

YEAR    OF  INDEPENDENCE U01-1530 

0         SO        100       I5f>       200       250      J00       350      400  miln 


SCALE 


quiLONYt      ,'   •tutk 

TINNEVETAY^ 


65, 


INDIAN 



OCEAN 


JjmL 


£L 


DRAWN  UNDER    &UDANCE    OF    M.H.RANHWAR. 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


345 


? 


s 


. 


.    f 


In  the  year  Jamadi-I    JuUjlillj  ji^U  j  c 

Mongols  crossed  the  river  Indus  and 
looted  the  territories  of  Lahore  and 
Debalpur.  They  were  repelled  and 
Multan  was  kept  under  the  Governor- 
ship of  Al-Shariq  Maluk  Mahmood 
Hassan. 

There  is  another  version  that  King  of 
Kashmir  Shaikh  Ali  invaded  the  Lower 
Sind.  He  actually  raided  Tatta  Kutia 
mountain  pass  in  Kashmir  or  Tibet 
rather  than  Thatta  in  the  Lower  Sind. 

1422  A.D.  : 

Yousufuddin,  a  sufi  and  descendant 
of  Syed  Abdul  Qadir  Jilani  of  Baghdad, 
came   to    Sind   and   converted    many 
Lohanas  to  his  faith. 

1422-1428  AD.  : 

Jasrath,  the  leader  of  the  Khokhars  of 
Punjab  seeking  to  become  independent 
of  the  Syeds  of' Delhi  attacked  Lahore. 
They  had  already  asked  Shaikh  Ali, 
the  Mongol,  deputy  Governor  at  Kabul, 
to  attack  Sind  to  divert  Mubarak  Shah 's 
army  so  that  the  Khokhars  capture 
Delhi. 

The  plan  did  not  materialize  due  to  the 
setback  he  received  during    his  attack 
of  Lahore,  in  1423  A.D.  Shaikh  Ali 
attacked  Bakhar  and  Sehwan,  but  this 
raid  was  of  no  consequence. 

1428  A  D.— Januaryl453— 

831-857  A.H.,  RabU  : 

Sind  ruled  by  Jam    Tughluq  (Juna-II) 

bin  Sadaruddin  Jam  Sikandar  Shah- 1. 

He  was  younger  brother  of  Fateh  Khan 

and  developed  friendly  relations  with 

the  kings  of  Gujarat. 


Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  194,  201-202,  states 
that  Bakhar  and  Sehwan  were  also  kept 
under  control  of  this  Governor,  which 
is  incorrect  as  the  Sammas  were  in  full 
control  of  Sind  since  1388  A.D. 


Preaching  of  Islam,  p.  275. 


HCIP,  Vol.  VI,  p.  131. 

Mubarak  Shahi,  pp.  217-226.  The  state- 
ment is  doubtful  as  the  Sammas  were 
independently  controlling  Sind  then. 
The  attack  may  have  been  on  Upper 
Sind  territories  of  Uch,  etc.,  and  not 
on  Bakhar,  Sehwan  and  Thatta  as  men- 
tioned by  this  source.  The  attack  on 
Bakhar  and  Sehwan  may  hve  been 
motivated  for  booty. 

* 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  308. 
Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  pp.  318-19. 


346 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Since  the  rule  of  this  king,  Sind  and 
Gujarat  developed  good  relations  on 
account  of  inter-marriages  and  on  alli- 
ance between  them  against  internal  or 
external  aggression  particularly  that  of 
Delhi.  Jam  Juna-II  (i.e.  Jam  Tugh- 
luq)  gave  his  two  daughters  Bibi  Murghi 
(Murki)  and  Bibi  Maghli  in  marriage  to 
Shah  Alam  and  Sultan  Muhammad 
Shah. 

Murki  gave  birth  to  Fateh  Khan  who 
later  on  became  Sultan  Mahmud 
Begra. 

Masumi,  states  that  Jam  Tughluq  ap- 
pointed his  two  brothers  as  Governors 
of  Sehwan  and  Bakhar  and  suppressed  a 
rebellion  of  the  Balochis. 

He  started  building  of  the  Kalan  Kot 
Fort,  which  could  not  be  completed  in 
his  reign.  The  fort  seems  to  have  been 
completed  by  his  successors  and  was 
used  later  on  by  the  Sammas  and  even 
by  the  Mughal  Governor*. 

1427-28  A.D.— 831  A.H.  : 

Muhammad  Hussain  or  Pir  Murad 
Shirazi  was  born. 

1434-35  A.D.— 838  A.H.  : 

Writing  of  Tarikh-i-Mubarak  Shahi  by 
Yahya  bin  Ahmed  bin  Abdullah 
Sarhadi. 

1436  AD.  : 

Mosque  at  Bodesar  built  by  Gujarat 's 
rulers. 

1437  A.D.— 841  A.H.  : 

"Budhan  Khan,  a  Sindhi  from  Uch  and 
chief  of  the  tribe  of  Langahs,  occupied 
Multan  after  expelling  Delhi  Sultan's 
(Muhammad  Shah-IV  of  Syed  Dynasty) 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  516  putt 
his  rule  as  27  years.    Briggs,  Vol.  FV, 
p.  248  calculates  his  rule  from  827-854 
A.H.  (1423-1450  A.D). 

Masumi,  p.  69  assigns  28  years  to  Jam 
Tughluq 's  rule  of  Sind,  and  further  men- 
tions that  he  was  nominated  as  King  by 
his  brother  Fateh  Khan,  three  days 
before  the  latter 's  death. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  104. 


Text  published  from  Calcutta,  1931,  ar.d 
Urdu  Tr.  from  Lahore,  1976. 


HCn\  Vol.  VI,  pp.  141,  151,  152,  243 
and  246  quoting  Tarikh-i-Haqqi,  pp.  128- 
29,  (Cambridge  M.S.). 


sJ 


^ 


I 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


> 


" 


Governor,  Khan-i-Khanan.  Bahlul 
Lodhi  could  not  suppress  him  and  later 
on  his  son  Barbak  Lodhi  was  defeated 
by  Budhan  Khan's  grand-son  Shah 
Hassan  Langah  who  had  occupied  the 
Multan  throne  in  1460  A.D. 


Masumi  and  Nizamuddin's  statement 
that  Langah  Chief  named  Rai  Sahra 
drove  out  Shaikh  Yousiif  Qureshi  from 
Multan  is  to  be  discounted. 

Tarikh-i-Shahi,  pp.  20-21,  refers  to  Ahmed 
Khan  Bhatti's  rebellion  in  Sind  at  this 
time  and  the  appeal  made  by  the  Langahs 
of  Multan  to  Bahlul  for  help  is  also  not 
supported  by  any  other  history.  The 
Langahs  who  were  not  reconciled  to 
Bahlul  and  were  strong  enough  to  defeat 
his  son  and  to  repulse  an  attack  from 
Malwa,  could  not  have  asked  for  help 
against  Sind  from  the  Lodhis,  their 
sworn  enemies.  On  the  other  hand, 
Sind  too  was  equally  strong  at  this  time, 
and  could  have  faced  the  Langahs. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  522-25 
erroneously  puts  the  conquest  by  Qutub- 
uddin  son  of  Budhan  Khan.  The  same 
source  states  that  Shaikh  Yousuf  Qureshi, 
keeper  of  the  Tomb  of  Bahauddin 
Zakariya  (1 182-1262  A.D.)  was  made  the 
Delhi  Sultan's  Governor  of  Multan 
which  is  also  not  correct. 


1437  A.D.— 841  AH.  : 

A  rare  specimen  of  Taliq  inscription 
from  the  tomb  of  Hammad  Jamali. 

1439-1525  AD.  : 

Mughal  Arghoons  of  Qandahar,  the 
protege  of  Mongol  Sultan  of  Herat 
made  their  influence  felt  in  Sind.  The 
Sammas,  therefore,  sought  to  increase 
their  power  by  alliance  with  Gujarat. 
Daughters  were  given  in  marriage  to  the 
Kings  of  Gujarat. 

Even  when  the  last  Samma  king  Jam 
Feroz  was  expelled  from  Sind  by  the 


CHI,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  501. 


348 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Arghoons,  he  found  asylum  in  the 
court  at  Gujarat  and  gave  his  daughter 
in  marriage  to  Sultan  Bahadur  of  that 
country. 

1442/43-1443/44  A.D.— 346-47  A.H.  : 

The  probable  date  of  marriage  of  the 
daughters  of  Jam  Tughluq  Juna-II, 
Bibi  Mughli  with  Sultan  Muhammad 
of  Gujarat  (846-855  A.H.  or  1442/43-1454 
AD.)  and  Bibi  Murki  with  Shah  Alam 
(817-858  A.H.  or  1388-1454). 

These  marriages  were  prompted  by 
political  advantages  the  Sammas  were 
to  get  against  outside  intervention,  as 
per  the  advice  of  Maulana  Muhammad 
Siddiq  of  Multan,  who  along  with  two 
princesses  and  two  princes  Jam  Khair- 
uddin  and  Jam  Salahuddin  left  for 
Gujarat.  Bibi  Murki  was  sent  to  marry 
Sultan  Muhammad,  but  as  Bibi  Mughli 
was  more  beautiful,  Jam  Tughluq 's  own 
men  and  most  probably  Maulana 
Muhammad  Siddiq,  Jam's  Murshid, 
arranged  the  interchange  of  the  girls. 

1443  A.D.— 847  A.H.  : 

Birth  of  Sayyid  Muhammad  Yousuf 
S/o  Sayyid  Abdullah  Jaunpur.  He  pro- 
claimed himself  a  Mahdi  in  905  A.H.  or 
1499/1500  A.D.  either  at  Mecca  where 
he  went  for  pilgrimage  or  on  his  return. 
He  was  forced  to  leave  Gujarat  and  from 
there  came  to  Sind  where  too  he  was  not 
welcomed.  His  boats  were  destroyed 
by  Hyder  Shah  of  Sann  and  he  died  on 
way  to  Khurasan  in  910  A.H.  on  1504 
A.D.  at  Farab. 

1445-46  A.D.— 849  A.H.  : 

Bibi  Mughli.wife  of  Sultan  Muhammad, 
ruler  of  Gujarat  and  the   daughter  of 


Husamuddin,    Makli    Nama,    p.    220. 
Maraat-i-Sikandari,  p.  66. 


Abdul  Ghafoor,  Cailigraphers  of  Thatta, 
p.  6,  considers  the  girls  as  daughters  of 
Jam  (Nizamuddin),  which  is  erroneous  as 
he  would  have  been  only  a  young  boy  at 
that  time.  Hussamuddin  also  puts  the 
year  847-48  in  the  same  source  on  p.  1 80. 


. 

' 

'< 


Maraat-i-Sikandari,  pp.  45,  67  and  68. 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


349 


J 


Jam  Tughluq  gave  birth  toFateh  Khan 
who  later  on  became  Sultan  Mahmud 
Begra,  the  ruler  of  Gujarat,  the  greatest 
ruler    of    his    dynasty. 

1445  A.D.,  Oct.  3rd— 849  A.H.  Rajab,  1st  : 

Birth  of  Abul  Fazal  Abdul  Rahman  Ibn 
Ali  Bakar  Ibn  Muhammad  Jalaluddin 
al  Kudayvi  al  Shafi  also  called  Jalal- 
uddin Sayuti,  author  of  Tarikh  al 
Khulfa. 

1448-49  A.D.— 852  A.H.  : 

Yahya  Bin  Ahmed  completed  Tarikh-i- 

Mubrarak  Shahi. 

• 

1449  A.D. : 

Construction  of  Second  Jain  temple  at 
Bhodesar.  The  first  was  constructed  in 
1375  A.D. 

1451  AD.,  February  22nd— 
855  A.D.,  20th  Muharram  : 

On  the  death  of  Sultan  Muhammad  of 
Gujarat,  Bibi  Mughli,  feeling  that  the 
life  of  her  son  Fateh  Khan  (later  on 
Sultan  Mahmud  Begra),  was  in  danger 
moved  to  her  sister  Bibi  Murki's  (wife 
ofShahAlam)  house. 

His  successor,  Sultan  Qutubuddin  tried 
to  have  Fateh  Khan  assassinated  but 
could  not  succeed  as  the  child  was 
under  the  protection  of  Shah  Alam. 
After  Qutubuddin 's  death  in  863  A.H. 
(1458-59),  he  was  succeeded  by  his  bro- 
ther Daud.  The  latter  was  removed 
the  same  year  by  the  courtiers  and  Fateh 
Khan  was  installed  as  Sultan  Mahmud 
Begra. 

1453  A.D.  : 

Conquest  of  Constantinople  by  Otto- 
man Turks. 


The  book  describes  earthquake  of 
Debal.  Arabic  text  was  first  published  by 
A.  S.  B.  Calcutta.  A  Cairo  edition  was 
published  in  1892  A.D. 


Text  edited  by  Hidayat  Husain  has  been 
published  by  the  Asiatic  Society  of 
Bengal,  Calcutta,  1931. 

Imperial  Gazetteer  of  India  Series,  Vol. 
II,  Bombay  Presidency,  p.  313. 


Maraat-i-Sikandari,  p.  64. 


Maraat-i-Ahmedi,  Baroda,  p.  560.    Ma- 
raat  Ahmedi,  Bombay,  p.  36. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1453  AD- 357  AH.  : 

Sind  ruled  by  Jam  Mubarak,  a  relative 
as  well  as  Vazier  of  Jam  Tughluq.  He 
ruled  for  3  days  when  he  was  deposed. 

He  was  the  first  usurper  of  the  throne 
in  the  Samma  dynasty  and  was  thrown 
out  in  3  days.  All  Samma  rulers  died 
a  natural  death.  Succession  to  the 
throne  seems  to  have  been  from  among 
the  family  members  with  the  approval 
of  the  tribes. 


• 


-'.    ■  ' 


1453-1454  AD,  May  6— 
857-858  A.H.,  Jamadi-II  6th  : 

Sind  ruled  by  Sikandar  Shah-II,  Jam 
Muhammad  also  called  Jam  Unar-II 
bin  Jam  Fateh  Khan  bin  Sadaruddin 
Jam  Sikandar  Shah-II  and  nephew  of 
Jam  Tughluq  Juna-II.  He  was  no- 
minated as  king  by  the  chiefs  and  the 
tribes  of  Sind  after  Mubarak  was  de- 
posed. 


1450  A.D.— 858  AH.  : 

Soon  after  the  death  of  Bibi  Murki  in  ab- 
out 857-58  A.H.,  Shah  Alam  married  his 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  308. 

Firishta,  Vol.  II,  p.  319  states  that  he 
was  deposed  after  3  days.  Tabaqat-i- 
Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  516,  agrees  with  this 
version. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  104  and  Masumi, 
p.  69  state  that  Jam  Tughluq  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Jam  Sikandar,  a  minor. 
Sehwan  and  Bakhar  refused  allegiance 
to  this  prince  and  the  latter  took  an 
expedition  against  them.  In  his  absence, 
Mubarak  may  have  rebelled  and  usurped 
the  Government,  but  the  latter  was 
deposed  within  3  days  and  Jam  Sikandar 
was  reinstated  by  the  people. 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  308  has 
based  this  genealogy  on  a  book  Alzubdah 
by  Maulana  Allauddin  Manglori.  MS. 
in  Sind  University.  The  book  mixes  up 
Tamachi  and  Togachi  and  therefore 
leaves  the  question  un-resolved. 

"Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  p.  319,  who 
puts  his  rule  as  1 8  months.  Tabaqat-i- 
Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  516  agrees  with 
this  version.  Briggs,  Vol.  IV,  p .  248  puts 
his  (teath  in  8$6  A.H.  or  1252  A.D. 
Masumi,  p.  69  states  that  he  was  son 
of  Jam  Tughluq,  brother  of  Fateh  Khan 
and  Mubarak  Khan's  rebellion  took 
place  during  his  rule.  Masumi  and 
Tuhfatul  Karam,p.  104  assign  18  months 
to  his  lule. 

Mara'at-i-Sikandari,  p.  65. 


SAMMAS   REGAIN    1NDEPENDENXE 


> 


J 


• 


; 


widowed  sister-in-law  Bibi  Mughli.  Her 
son  Fateh  Khan  (later  on  Sultan 
Mahmud  Begra)  was  10  years  old  then. 
Bibi  Murki  was  buried  in  the  tomb  of 
Jam  Tughluq  Juna-II  near  Ahmed- 
abad.  Her  son  Shah  Shaikan.(Beg 
Muhammad)  was  also  buried  there. 

Since  Jam  Tughluq  Juna-II,  had  his 
daughters  married  in  Gujarat,  he 
built  a  fort  for  them  called  Malik  Got 
(or  Goth)  or  Malfk  Kot.  When  he 
died,  most  probably  in  accordance  with 
his  will,  his  body  was  taken  to  Gujarat 
for  burial.  This  Malik  Goth  was  built 
near  Qutubpur,  on  the  Sabaramatt  river, 
to  the  south  of  Ahmedabad. 

Marriage  of  Bibi  Mughli  with  Shah 
Alam  took  place  with  permission  of 
Jam  Feroz-I,  a  third  son  of  Sadaruddin 
Jam  Sikandar  Shah-I  and  uncle  of  Bibi 
Mughli  and  brother  of  Jam  Tughlaq 
ShahJuna-I. 

These  two  sources  also  reveal  that  Jam 
Tughluq  had  other  two  sons  Jam  Salah- 
uddin  and  Jam  Khairuddin. 

1454  A.D.,  6th  May  to  1461  A.D., 
29th  December— 

858  AH.,  6th  Jamadi-I  to  866  A  H., 
between  23rd  to  25th  Rabi-I  : 

Sind  was  ruled  by  Sultan  Sadaruddin 
Shah  Jam  Sanjar  also  called  Rayadhan 
bin  Sultan  Salahuddin  Shah  Jam 
(Unar-II),  bin  Sultan  Rukunuddin  Shah 
Jam  Tamachi.  He  reigned  with  justice 
and  due  to  his  personal  virtues  was 
elected  by  the  Sind  tribes  to  rule. 

Masumi  gives  the  date  of  his  enthrone- 
ment and  states  that  he  was  residing  in 
Cutch,  wherefrom  he   collected  troops 


Mara'at-i-Ahmedi,  p.  36. 

Fazlullah,  English  translation  of  Mara 'at- 
i-Ahmadi,  p.  89. 


Husamuddin,  Makli  Nama,  p.  127. 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  308. 


Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  p.  319  puts 
his  rule  as  8  years.  Briggs,  Vol.  IV,  p.  249 
assigns  his  reign  from  856  to  864  A.H. 
or  1452-1460  A.D. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  pp.     104-105  'repeats 
Masumi 's  version. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  5IND 


and  on  the  death  of  Sikandar  Shah,  oc- 
cupied Thatta.  Since  there  was  no  able 
person  in  Thatta,  the  Amirs  accepted  to 
make  him  the  King  of  Sind.  In  the 
next  1$  years  he  extended  his  kingdom 
to  Mathelo,  Ubavro,  Gajrelli  and 
Kandhi .  He  ruled  for  8$  years  and  was 
poisoned  by  one  of  his  close  friends  Jam 
Sanjar.  Masum  considers  Rayadhan 
and  Sanjar  as  two  different  persons. 
According  to  him  Sanjar  was  an  able 
and  honest  ruler,  fond  of  learned  men 
and  saints  and  died  after  8  years  rule. 


Ain-i-Akbari  considers  Sanjar  or  Raya- 
dhan as  the  same  person. 

Dr.  Daudpota  (Masumi,  pp.  301  and 
303)  states  that  if  Sanjar  and  Rayadhan 
were  different  persons,  their  chronology 
would  be: 

Jam  Rayadhan,  858-866  A.H.  (1454-1461 
A.D.) 

Jam  Sanjar,  866-874  A.H.  (1461-1469/70 
A.D.). 


1456-57  A.D.— 861  A.H.  : 

Malik  Raj  Bal  Jam  Salahuddin  bin 
Malik  Unar  bin  Malik  Rahu  bin  Malik 
Rayadhan  bin  Rahu  bin  Feroz  Shah 
Sultan  (Jam  Unar-I)  Sultan  built  Quba- 
e-Mundrasa,  which  is  near  the  tomb  of 
Darya  Khan  (Mubarak  Khan)  on  the 
Makli  Hills. 

1459  A.D.  : 

In  spite  of  Sind 's  good  relations  with  the 
Sultans  of  Gujarat  and  their  inter-marri- 
ages, the  Sammas  of  Sind  settled  the 
Soomras,  Sodhas  and  Balochis  on  the 
Thar,  Cutch  and  Jodhpur  borders.  These 
irregular  forces  attacked  Jodhpur  and 
in  .this  war,  Raja  Jodha  Rathor's  son 
Santal  was  defeated  and  killed. 

1459  A.D.,  20th  May— 863  AH.,  Rajab  17th: 

Fateh  Khan  was  installed  as  Sultan 
Mahmud  Begra  in  Gujarat  by  the  court- 
iers. He  was  14  yeais  old  then.  .  In 
his  youth  he  was  guided  by  his  mother 
Bibi  Mughli,  daughter  of  Jam  Tughluq 
Juna-II  Samma  of  Thatta  and  his  step- 
father Shah  Alam. 


Jam  Nizamuddin,  874-923  A.H.  (1469/ 
70-1517  A.D.). 


The  above  genealogy  comes  from  the 
inscriptions    in   the   Quba-e-Mundrasa, 

Professor  Muhammad Shafi,  p.  15  assign- 
ed 870  A.H.  (1465  A.D.  to  it). 


Todd,  Rajistan,  Vol.  II,  p.  21. 


Mara'at-i-Sikandari,  pp.  71-72. 


1 


. 


-O 

E 
o 


~% 


I  13.     Interior  view  of  Jam  Nizamuddin's  tomb  Mehrab. 


V 


114.     Mehrab  of  the  tomb  of  Jam  Nizamuddin  (outside  view). 


i 


>» 


115.     Fine  engraving   in   stone  from   Tomb  of  Jam   Nizamuddin,   Makli 


? 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


353 


1459-1511  AD.  : 

Gujarat  was  ruled  by  Sultan  Mahmud 
Begra  He  was  son  of  Bibi  Mughli,  the 
daughter  of  Jam  Tughluq  (Juna-II). 

1461  A  D.,  29th  Dec.— 866  A  H., 
25th  Rabi-T  : 

Sultan  Sadaruddin  Shah  Jam  Sanjar  or 
Rayadhan  probably  abdicated  and  his 
son  Sultan  Nizamuddin-II,  became 
Sind's  ruler. 

Jam  Sanjar  after  abdicating  lived  in 
Gujarat  for  a  long  time  as  his  daughter 
was  married  to  Sultan  Muzaffar-TI  of 
Gujarat  in  924  A.H.  (1518  A.D.). 

1461  A  D  ,  29th  Dec.  to  1508/9  A.D.: 

Rule  of  Sultan  Nizamuddin  Shah  Jam 
Nindo  bin  Sultan  Sadaruddin  Shah  Jam 
Sanjar  or  Rayadhan. 

All  historians  consider  him  the  ablest 
and  the  greatest  of  the  Samma  rulers. 

The  inscription  on  Jam  Nizamuddin 's 
grave  puts  his  genealogy  as  under: — 

Nizamuddin  Shah  bin  Al-Sultan 
Sadaruddin  bin  Al-Sultan 
Salahuddin  bin  Al-Sultan 
Rukunuddin  bin  Al-Sultan 


Feroz  Shah. 


Under  Jam  Nizamuddin,  Sind  reached 
the  highest,  stage  of  prosperity  in  the 
middle  ages.  Abdul  Rahim  Khan-e- 
Khanan  considers  him  as  the  most  cul- 
tured person  in  whole  of  India.  He 
collected  learned  people  around  him 
from  all  the  surrounding  countries. 


Abdul  Ghafoor,  Calligraphers  of  Thatta, 

p.  6,  considers  Mughli  as  p.aughter  of  Jam 

Nizamuddin,  which  is  incorrect. 


Dr.  Baloch  calls  him  Rai-Dhan  or 
Rai  Dino.  Hussamuddin  accepts' this 
version.  But  since  Cutch  had  three  Samma 
rulers  called  Rayadhans,  who  ruled  in 
1175-1215,  1666-1698  and  1778-1785 
A.D.,  Dr.  Baloch 's  name  Rai  Dino  is 
not  acceptable.  In  Sindhi  this  name  is 
pronounced  as  O^'j  and  at  least  one  im- 
portant town  of  that  name  has  survived. 


Masumi,  pp.  73-76. 

Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,p.  308. 


Firishta,  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  pp.  319-20 
assigns  32  years  to  his  reign.  Briggs, 
Vol.  IV,  p.  250,  calculates  it  from  864- 
894  A.H.  or  1460-1492  AD.  He  obvi- 
ously means  896  A.H.  and  not  894  A.H. 
Abdul  Ghafoor  in  Calligraphers  of  Thatta, 
puts  the  date  of  his  ascending  the  throne 
as  18th  April,  1452  A.D.  which  is 
incorrect.       ? 

Tuhfat-ul-KLaram,  p.  106,  states  that  he 
shifted  his  capital  from  Samui  to  Thatta 
which  is  incorrect  as  Thatta  was  capital 
of  Sind  in  1349  A.D.  when  Taghi  fled 
to  it.  Tuhfat-ul-Karam  puts  his  rule 
between  43  and  50  years.  Tabaqat-i- 
Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  157,  and  Ma  athir-i- 
Rahimi,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  273,  put  his  rule  as 
62  years. 


354 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OP  SIND 


His  contemporaries  were: 

Gujarat:  Sultan  Mahmud  Begra. 

Delhi:  Bahlool  Lodhi. 

Mandavi:    Ghiasuddin    bin  Mahmud 

Khilji. 

Deccan:  Sultan  Mabmood  Bahmani. 

Khurasan:  Shah  Hussain  Baiqra. 

1465  A  D.— 870  A  H.  : 

Jam  Nizamuddin  expelled  two  nobles, 
Jam  Bayazid  and  Jam  Ibrahim,  from 
Sind.  They  were  given  shelter  by 
Hussain  bin  Qutubuddin  bin  Buddhan 
Langah  of  Multan.  The  former  was 
allotted  fief  of  Shorkot  and  latter  tfcat 
of  Uch. 

1467  A.D.,  4th  Sept.— 872  A.H.,  3rd  Safar: 

Musa  bin  Subhan  built  the  tomb  of 
Shaikh  Turabi  at  the  instructions  of 
Jam  Allauddin* 

1471  A.D.  : 

While  on  way  to  reduce  Ghampaner, 
Sultan  Muhammad  Begra  heard  the 
complaints  thai  Muslims  were  being 
persecuted  by  the  Hindus  in  Sind.  He, 
therefore,  crossed  the  Rann  of  Cutch, 
reached  Thar  and  Parkar  Districts  with 
600  horses  only  and  found  an  army  of 
24000  horses  of  the  enemy.  The  latter 
having  no  intention  to  fight  entered  into 
negotiations.  They  proved  to  be  Sodas, 
Soomras  and  Kalhoras  who  told  him  that 
they  were  Muslims  but  knew  nothing 
of  the  faith  ar.d  lived  as  Hindus  and  also 
intermarried  among  them.  Begra  in- 
vited them  to  Gujarat .  Many  agreed  to 
enter  his  service,  received  Jagirs  in 
Sorath,  and  were  taught  the  faith  of 
Islam.  Of  these  Sammi  and  Virhai 
Jagirs  remained  in  their  possession  as  a 
Jagir  till  the  end  of  British  days. 


MakliNama,p.  112. 
Ma'athir-i-Rahimi,  Vol.  II,  p.  273. 
863-917  A.H.  (1458/59-1511/12  AD). 
855-894  A.H.  (1451-1489  A.D.). 
873-906  A.H.  (1468/69-1500/01  AD). 
887-924  A.H.  (1472/73-1518  A.D.). 
863-912  A.H.  (1458/59—1506/07  A  D). 


HCIP,  Vol.  VI,  p.  229. 


Professor    Muhammad    Shaft,    Oriental 
College  Magazine,  No.  2,  1935. 


CHI,  Vol.  Ill,  306  G.B.  Matleson.  The 
Historical  sketch  of  the  Native  states 
of  India,  Ch.  XIV,  London,  1875. 
Gazetteer  of  Bombay  Presidency,  Vol.  V, 
Cutch  Palanpur,  Mahi  Kanta,  p.  91. 
As  late  as  the  end  of  last  century,  the 
Memons  ot  Cutch,  professed  to  be  Shias, 
but  lived  like  Hindus  and  did  not  asso- 
ciate with  Muslims.  They  did  not  eat 
beef,  did  not  practice  circumcision,  and 
did  not  perform  daily  prayers  or  fast. 
The  Baloochis  so  settled,  were  called 
Jatwar  and  Tarwar  by  the  Gujarat  is 


* 


f 


' 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


355 


:■ 


-v 


1472  A  D.  : 

There  was  a  rebellion  against  Jam 
Nizamuddin  in  the  Lower  Sind.  Mu- 
hammad Begra,  whose  mother  was  re- 
lated to  Jam  Nizamuddin,  crossed  the 
Rann  of  Cutch  and  dispersed  40,000 
rebels.  Jam  sent  letter  of  thanks,  gifts 
and  also  his  daughter  who  was  married 
to  Qaiser  -  Khan,  the  grandson  of 
Hassan  Khan  Iftikharul  Mulk  ofKan- 
desh,  who  had  taken  refuge  in  Gujarat. 

The  same  year  Begra  subdued  whole 
Cutch  i.e.  brought  Othaand  Gajan  lire 
of  Jareja  Sammas  under  his  domain,  by 
a  small  force  of  only  300  horses.  This 
he  achieved  not  by  battle  but  by  diplo- 
macy in  confirming  thteir  possessions  on 
them  and  acceptance  of  their  cadets  in 
their  line  in  his  court.  He  also  took 
back  daughter  of  Jareja  Hamirji  of 
L'khiarvira,  the  eighth  descendant  of 
Otha  in  his  harem.  Lakho,  the  eighth 
descendant  from  Gajan 's  line  was 
bestowed  Amran  and  Gondal. 

1485-86  AD.— 890  AH.: 

In  the  days  of  Mongol,  Sultan  Hussain 
Mirza  Baiqra,  of  Khurasan,  on  com- 
plaints of  the  merchants  of  Central  Asia 
(Herat  and  Qandhar),  that  they  were 
looted  by  Sir.dhis,  the  Sultan  sent  armed 
expedition  to  Sind  border,  which  after 
ir  itial  raids  returned  back  to  their  coun- 
try. A  declaration  of  victory  was 
issued  in  Herat  in  892  A.H.  (1487  A.D.). 
It  states  that  the  infidels  (Sindhis)  having 
come  to  know  of  Mongol  movements, 
collected  a  large  army  and  wanted  to 
make  a  surprise  attack  but  the  Islamic 
forces  (Mongols)  came  to  know  of  it  and 
made  offensive  attacks,  killing  many  of 


Firishta,  Bombay,  pp.  195-96,  states  that 
they  were  Baluchis  of  Shia  sect. 

Zafarul-Walih,  states  that  they  were 
pirates  who  dwelt  on  the  sea  coast  and 
owed  allegiance  to  none.  They  were 
well  skilled  in  archery. 


Williams,  pp.  102-104. 


Hussamuddin,  Makli  Nama,  p.  179, 
quoting  Sharaf  of  Khawaja  Abdullah 
Marwand,  pp.  101-105,  Wiesbaden, 
1951,  edited  by  Hana  Robert  Roemer, 
with  the  German  translation. 

Masumi,  p.  75,  does  not  give  the  date. 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi,  Vol.  II,  p.  274. 

Firishta   (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  pp.  319-20. 

v 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  517  assigns 

899  A.H.  to  it. 


356 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


these  Hindus  (forces  of  Jam  Nizam- 
uddin).  As  a  result  of  this  success  dec- 
laration of  victory  was  issued. 

This  may  have  been  an  attack  on  Sird 
border  without  any  results.  Amir  Zul- 
Noon  Arghoon,  then  was  Herat  s  Naib 
at  Qan.dh.ar.  He  seems  to  have  des- 
patched his  son  Shah  Beg  on  this  expe- 
dition- The  latter  captured  the  Sibi 
Fort  from  Jam  Nizamuddin's  agent 
Bahadur  Khan  and  installed  his  brother 
Sultan  Mohammad,  who  later  on  was 
defeated  ard  killed  by  Mubarak  Khan 
(Darya  Khan  Dullah)  near  Jalwagir  in 
Bolan  Pass,  close  to  Bibi  Nani. 

Masumi,  states  that  after  this  incident 
the  Mongols  did  not  turn  up  in  Sind 
during  the  life  of  Jam  Nizamuddin. 


Briggs,  Vol.  IV,  p.  249. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  106,  states  that 
Mongol  troops  had  advanced  as  far  as 
Chanduka,  Sardecha  and  Kot  Machhi, 
but  after  bei.-g  expelled  by  Darya  Khan, 
they  never  turned  back  '  during  Jam 
Nizamuddin's  life  time. 

Firishta   who   is    considered   to   be   an 
unreliable  historian  states  that  to  avenge 
the  death  of  his  brother  Shah  Beg  sent 
Mirza  Issa  Khan  to  oppose   Mubarak 
Khan  (Darya  Khan)  and  in  the  battle 
Darya  Khan  having  been  wounded,  fled 
to  the  fortress  of  Bakhar.     Shah  Beg 
hearing  of  the  success  of  his  general  came 
in  person  and  made  Qazi  Qazan,  the 
Gumashta  of  the  Sammas  for  the  Bakhar 
fortress,  to  submit.     He  put  Fazil  Beg 
Gokultash  ir.charge  of  Bakhar  fort  and 
went  to  reduce  Sehwan,  where  he  put 
Khwaja   Baqi  Begincharge.     After  Shah 
Beg's  return,  Jam  Nindo  (Nizamuddin), 
made  many  attempts  to  recover  the  lost 
territories  but  was  defeated  every  time 
and  finally  he  died  of  heart-failure  due 
to  this  shock. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  IU,  pp.  517-18, 
states  that  after  the  death  of  Sultan 
Muhammad,  Mirza  Issa  Tarkhan  was 
deputed  to  capture  Sibi.  After  its  fall  to 
Mirza  Issa,  Shah  Beg  captured  Bakhar, 
made  Qazi  Qazan  to  accept  the  terms  of 
peace  and  later  on  captured  Sehwan, 
where  he  put  Khwaja  Baqi  Beg  as  in- 
charge.  Jam  Ninda  sent  troops  to  capture 
Sibi,  but  without  results. 

The  statements  of  Nizamuddin  and 
Firishta  are  not  acceptable  as : 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


357 


-. 


\488  A.D.— 893  AH.  : 

Syed  Muhammad  Hussain  bin  Syed 
Ahmed  bin  Syed  Muhammad  Urf  Miran 
Muhammad  Shirazi  died  and  was  buried 
at  Thatta. 

1490  A.D.— 896  A.H.  : 

Birth  of  Shah  Hasan  Arghoon,  who 


(i)  The  incidents  took  place  in  890 
AH.  (1485-86  AD.)  and  Jam 
Nizamuddin  died  about  24  years 
later  in  914  AH.  (1508  AD.).  The 
heart-failure  would  then  must  have 
been  a  made  up  story. 

(ii)  Mirza  Issa  Tarkhan  died  in  973 
A.H.  (1565-66  A.D.)  and  may  not 
have  been  born  in  890  A.H.  (1485 
A.D.)  and  more  so  to  lead  the 
expedition,  even  if  he  had  been 
born  by  about  that  time,  his  name 
as  fighter  for  the  first  time  appeared 
in  933  AH.  (1526-27  A. D.). 

(iii)  The  ruler  of  Qandhar  was  Amir 
Zul-Noon,  and  not  Shah  Beg.  Amir 
Zul-Noon  's  name  is  absent  in  these 
two  histories. 

(iv)  Masumi  and  Tuhfat-ul-Karam  being 
local  histories  should  be  better 
informed. 

(v)  Mazhar  Shah  Jehani  has  all  praise 
for  Nizamuddin  and  does  not 
mention  any  kind  of  setback 
in  his  administration. 

(vi)  The  other  Sind  histories,  Tahiri, 
pp.  54-56,  Tarkhan  Nama,  and 
Beglar-Nama  also  do  not  contribute 

to  these  views. 

• 

(vii)   Qazi  Qazan  like  Issa  Tarkhan  must 
have  been  a  small  boy  then. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,     Sindhi     translation, 
p.  189. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OP  SIND 


ruled  over  Sind  for  31  years  from 
1524  AD. 

1490  A.D.,  April-May— 895  A.H., 
Jamadi-I  : 

Darya  Khan  (Mubarak  Khan)  built  his 
own  tomb  at  Makli  as  is  proved  from 
an  inscription  on  it.  The  same  year, 
Darya  Khan  defeated  the  Mughals 
(Arghoons)  of  al-Lahri  and  Qandahar 
(Shah  Beg's  forces  in  which  the  latter 's 
brother  Sultan  Muhammad  was  killed 
at  Jalwagir  near  Sibi  Nani  's  grave  in  the 
Bolan  Pass).  The  inscription  gives  the 
genealogy  of  Jam  Nizamuddin  as: 

• 

Mubarak  bin  Nizamuddin  Shah  bin 
Sadaruddin  Shah  bin  Salahuddin  Shah 
bin  Rukunuddin  Shah.  These  inscrip- 
tions are  earliest  of  Naskh  and  Thuluth 
in  Sir.d. 

The  calligrapher  was  Qutubuddin  bin 
Mahmud  Ahmad  bin  Darya  Khan. 

1491  A.D.— 1548   Samba t  : 

Inscription  of  Marwat  Fort  (Bahawal- 
pur  District)  on  a  brick  in  Sindhi  langu- 
age stating  that  Jam  Soomro,  who  was 
Malak  of  the  Fort,  repaired  it  on  behalf 
of  Samma.  It  has  shreds  of  Siraiki  and 
it  can  easily  be  categorised  as  Sindhi  or 
Seraiki. 

Arabic  probably  continued  to  be  used 
as  the  offcial  largiage  by  the  Soomras, 
but  with  the  advent  of  Sammas,  Persian 
was  adopted  as  official  language.  The 
abo\e  inscription  shows  that  the  use  of 
Sii  dhi  in  Devnagri  script  on  state  build- 
ings may  have  been  in  vogue  for  a  long 
time  and  Sir.dhi  alphabet  in  its  Arabic 
script  had  not  become  popular  until 
then. 


Makli  Nama,  pp.  110-111. 

Masumi,  p.  74  wrongly  calls  the  place  of 
Arghoon's  defeat  as  Jalwahgir. 

Mubarak  Khan  was  the  adopted  son  of 
Jam  Nizamuddin. 

Professor    Muhammad    Shah,    English 
Section,  p.  16. 


Bahawalpur  Gazetteer,  Vol.  XXXVI-A, 
1908  Edition,  p.  373. 


The  inscriptions  were  moulded  on  the 
wet  bricks,  before  drying  and  burning 
them,  a  process  probably  common  in 
those  days  in  Sind, 


s 

s 


SAMMAS  RFGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


■  ■ 


1492-93  A  D.— 898  AH.  : 

Birth  of  Sultan  Mahmud,  an  Arghoon 
who  ruled  the  Upper  Sird  from  Bakhar 
for  50  years. 


1492-1521  A  D.— 898-928  A  H.  : 

Q  jtubuddin  S/o  Mahmud  Calligrapher 
practised  Naskh  and  Thuluth  at  Thatta. 
He  was  commissioned  to  write  inscrip- 
tions on  the  tomb  of  Darya  Khan  dur- 
ing this  period. 

1494-1514  A.D.— 900  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Sufi  Qazi  Sadho  Jbn  Hamad, 
Jamali.     His  tomb  is  in  Vanheri. 

1494  A  D.  end— 900  A  H.  end  : 

Renovation  of  the  city  of  Thatta  by  Jan? 
Nizam  uddin. 


339 


Ma'athir-i-Rahimi.  Vol.  II,  p.  335. 


Masumi,  pp.  237-38  gives  his  birth  date 
and  also  the  date  of  his  death  at  the  age 
of  84  (lunar)  years  in  982  A.H.  or  1574 
AD. 

He  could  not  have  been  1 5  years  of  age 
in  928  A.H.  when  Shah  Beg  ordered  the 
massacre  of  Dhareja  tribal  chiefs,  as 
Masumi  has  wrorgly  stated  on  p.  122. 

Abdul  Ghafoor,  Calligraphers  of  Thatta, 
p.  57. 

Also  see  entry  1490  AD. 


Mahboob  Ali  Channa,  Mihran,  Vol.  14, 
No.  4,  1964,  p.  137,  basing  on  Hadiqat- 
ul-Auliya,  pp.  213-217. 

Masumi 's  statement  that  Jam  Nizam- 
uddin founded  Thatta  is  wrong.  Thatta 
existed  in  mid-I4th  century  as  capital  of 
Sind.  Nizamuddin  could  only  have  re- 
novated it. 

Dr.  N.  A.  Baloch,  basing  on  Tahiri, 
pp.  51-53,  is  of  the  view  that  it  was 
founded  between  1340-1351  by  the  Sam- 
mas  who  were  rising  to  power.  This 
statement  would  be  more  reasonable 
if  it  is  assumed  that  the  Soomras  found 
it  after  erosion  of  Muhammad  Tur  about 
the  same  period.  The  Samma  city  was 
Samui.  Thatta  may  have  been  partly 
destroyed  by  floods  and  Nizamuddin 
may  have  re-built  it. 


360 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1494  A.D.— 900  AH.  : 

Punyo  Narejo,  a  sufi,  died  and  was 
buried  in  the  village  of  Raida  on  the 
Ren  branch  of  the  river  Indus. 

1494  A.D.— 900  A.H.  : 

Allavddin  Bughio,  a  sufi,  died  and 
was  buried  in  Dasht  near  Bahman- 
abad. 

1494-1514  A.D.— 900  AH.  : 

Death  of  Sufi  Qazi  Sadho  Ibn  Hamad 
Jamali.    His  tomb  is  in  Vanheri. 


1495  A  D.— 901  AH. 


Syed  Yaqoob  and  Syed  Ishaque  Mash- 
hadi,  sufis,  came  from  Mashhad  and 
settled  in  Samti.  Syed  Yaqoob  died  in 
922  A.H.  (1516  AD.)  and  was  buried 

at  Samui. 

1495-96  A  D.— 901  A  H.  : 

Syed  Muhammad  Jaunpuri  who  later 
on  claimed  himself  as  Mahdi,  arrived  in 
Thatta,  to  proceed  for  performing 
the  Haj. 

1495  AD.— 901  A.H.  : 

Two  Syed  brothers  Yaqoob  and  Ishaq 
Mashhadi  came  from  Mashhad  in  the 
days  of  Jam  Nizamuddin  and  settled  in 
Samui  which  had  started  dwindling  due 
to  neigbhourhood  of  Thatta. 

1497-98  A.D.— 903  AH.  : 

Shaikh  Pariyo  Virdas,  originally  a  Hindu 
Brahman,  who  left    the  civilized  world 
ar  d  lived  in  hills  and  forests  and  finally 
settled  at  the  foot  of  the  Ganjo  Takar 
Hills,  died. 


Mahboob  Ali  Channa,  Mihran,  Vol.  14, 
No.  4, 1964,  p.  137. 


Hadiqat-ul-Auliya,  pp.  209-213. 

Mahboob  Ali  Channa,  Mihran,  Vol.  14, 
1964,  p.  137.  Tuhfatul-Karam  (Sindih), 
p.  145. 

Mahboob  All  Channa,  Mihran,  Vol.  14, 
No.  4,  1964,  p.  137,  basing  on  Hadiqat- 
ul-Auliya,  pp.  213-217. 

Mahboob  Ali  Channa,  Mihran,  Vol.  14, 
No.  4,  1964,  p.  162. 


Tuhfat*ul-Karam,  Sindhi     Translation, 
p.  190. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam  (Sindhi),  p.  190. 
Hadiqat-ul-Auliya,  pp.  231-235. 
Pariyo  is  a  common  name  in  Sind.    It 
means  'old  man'  or  'a  greyhair'.  Some 
sources  erroneously  call  him  Bhiryo. 


•• 

1 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


361 


The  author  of  Hadiqat-ul-Auliya  met 

him  and  listened  to  Ishaque  Ahinger's 

Sindhi  poems  from  him. 

He  is  buried  at  the  foot  of  Ganjo  Takar 

Hills. 

1498  A.D.: 

Vasco  da  Gama  reached  Calicut  via 
Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

1500  A  D.  and  after  : 

The  use  of  nails  for  joining  the  planks 
of  ships  introduced  in  the  Sub-Conti- 
nent,  due  to  contacts  with  the  Portu- 
guese. Previous  to  this,  planks  were 
sewn  together  by  a  special  thread. 

1500  A  D.  : 

Substitution  of  Ocean  for  steppes  or 
substitution  of  sea  routes  for  land 
routes,  a  technological  revolution  of 
vast  significance,  was  fully  established. 
It  swinged  the  balance  in  favour  of  the 
Europeans. 

1500-1505  AD- 906  A.H.  : 

Syed  Muhammad  Jaunpuri,  who  had 
declared  himself  Mahdi  and  was  oppos- 
ed by  Ulemas,  left  for  Sind  and  arrived 
in  Thatta  via  Nasarpur  in  1504  A.D. 

He  made  many  disciples,  among  them 
were  Shaikh  Sadaruddin  Mufti,  Darya 
Khan,  Qazi  Qazan,  Syed  Mubarak, 
Shaikh  Jhando  and  a  large  number  of 
Soomras  who  accompanied  him  to 
Khurasan. 


1500-1600  AD.  : 

Two  humped  Bactrian  camel  which  was 
favourite  in  countries  west  of  Indus 
between  1100—1400  A.D.  disappeared 
in  this  century. 


Hourani,  Indian  Seafaring,   pp.  89-97. 


• 


362 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  «ND 


1501-1503  A.D.— 907-8  AH.  : 

Syed  Muhammad  or  Mahcii  of  Jaunpur 
having  been  expelled  from  Gujarat  re- 
ached Nasarpur  along  with  360  of 
his  followers. 

1503  A  D.  : 

Albi  qierqi  e  came  as  Portuguese  Viceroy 
to  the  Irdian  Sub-Continent. 

1504  A  D.  : 

Venice  formed  an  alliance  with  Sultan 
of  Egypt  ard  the  King  of  Calicut  against 
the  Portuguese. 

1504-  05  A.D.  : 

Having  beer  expelled  from  Sind  by  Jam 
Nizamuddin  ard  having  lost  mary  of 
his  followers  Mahdhi  of  Jaurpur  left 
for  Qar.dhar. 

1504-05  A  D  — 910  AH.  : 

Two  Syed  brothers  Ahmed  and  Muha- 
mmad Mashhdis  having  left  Iran  in  906 
A.H.  (1500—01  A.D.),  due  to  Shia 
uprisings,  reached  Samui  and  were 
settled  in  Mughalwara. 

1505  A  D— 911  A.H.  : 

Shaikh  Mubarak  Reli  Sewistani,  son  of 
Shaikh  Khizir  and  the  father  of  Abul 
Fazal  ard  Faizi,  was  born  at  Rel,  a 
village  near  Sehwan.  He  stayed  in 
Sind,  received  his  education,  became  a 
disciple  of  Shaikh  Murid  Bukhari  and 
Shaikh  Umar  Thattavi  and  then  left  lor 
Nagar. 

1505  A  D.  : 

Mahmud  bin  Muzaffar  Shah  captured 
Nagar  Parkar  from  Soda  Rajputs  and 
built  the  present  Mosque  at  Bhodesar. 


Siddiqi,  (Dr.),  M.H.,  Mahdi  ol  Jaunpur 
in  Sind,  Journal,  Research  Society  of 
Pakistan,  April  1965,  pp.  101-110. 


• 

cm  m 

Wtl 

• 

Siddiqi,  (Dr.),  M.H.,  Mahdi  of  Jaunpur 
in  Sind,  Journal,  Research  Society  of 
Pakistan,  April  1965,  pp.  101-110. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi  Translation,  p. 


191. 


fett 

-w  faoi 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi,  p.  235. 

He  migrated  to  Agra  in  950  A.H.,  spent 
50  years  there  and  wrote  500  volumes  on 
various  subjects.    He  died  in  1001  A.H. 

Thar  \feen  Meeran  Ja  Qila  by  Sarup- 
chandur  'Dad'. 


J 

I 


^ 


SAMMAS  RAGAlN  INDEPENDENCE 


363 


1505-06  A  D— 911  A.H.  : 

Shah  Khairullah  also  called  Shah  Khair- 
uddin  son  of  Syed  Ahmed  Baghdadi  was 
born  at  Baghdad. 


Mihran,  No.  2,  1959,  pp.  139-150  and 
No.  1  and  2,  1958,  pp.  140-162. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi  Translation,  p. 
327. 


1506  A  D.,  21st  Feb.  to  1590  A.D.,  27th  Sept. 

911  A.H.,  27th  Ramzan  to  998  A.H., 
27th  Zul  Qad.  : 

Makhdoom  Nooh  lived  then. 

1507  AD.  : 

Defeat  of  Mir  Hussain's  fleet  by  the 
Portuguese.  The  Portuguese  defeated  an 
expedition  of  Sultan  of  Gujarat  and 
Mamluk  Sultan  of  Egypt.  Later  on, 
only  with  600  sailors,  they  defeated  the 
joint  naval  expedition  of  the  Sultan  of 
Gujarat  aid  the  Sultan  of  Turkey,  who 
had  7000  Turk  and  22,000  Gujarati 
soldiers. 

1506  A  D.— 911  A  H.  : 

Death  of  famous  Arab  historian 
Jalaluddin  al-Suyuti. 

1507-08  AD -913  AH.  : 

Shah  Beg  and  Muhammad  Muneem 
left  Qandhar  for  the  fear  of  Babur,  and 
reached  Shal  (Quetta)  and  Mastung. 


In  the  subsequent  year  914  A.H.  (prob- 
ably on  hearing  of  Jam  Nizamuddin's 
death)  he  came  and  occupied  Sibi. 

1507-C8  A  D— 913  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Amir  Zul-Noon  at  the  hands 

of  the  Uzbeks. 

■ 

1507-08  A  D.  : 

After  the  conquest  of  Kabul  and  Ghazni, 
Babur  attacked  Qandhar.  Muhammad 


In  this  battle,  Sind  must  have  contributed 
men  and  boats. 


Beveridge,  Babur  Nama,  Vol.  I,  p.  342. 


Masumi,  pp.  104-05,  puts  the  year  of  his 
movement  from  Qandhar  as  913  A.H. 
but  on  p.  72*,  he  also  states  that  as  long 
as  Jam  Nizamuddin  was  alive  the 
Arghoons  did  not  put  their  foot  on  the 
soil  of  Sind  since  890  A.H.  (1485  AD). 


Masumi,  p.  102. 


Masumi,  pp.  102,  103,  112,  113,  192-196 
and  226-227. 


364 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OP  SIND 


Muqeem  and  Shah  Beg,  both  sons  of 
Amir  Zul-Noon,  could  not  face  him  and, 
therefore,  they  took  to  flight.  Babur 
appointed  his  brother  Sultan  Nazir  as 
the  Governor  of  Qandhar  and  among 
the  captives  took  Mah  Begum,  the 
daughter  of  Muhammad  Muqeem.  She 
was  married  to  Muhammad  Qasim 
Koka  and  from  this  matrimony  gave 
birth  to  Naheed  Begum. 

After  the  departure  of  Babur,  Shah  Beg 
and  Muhammad  Muqeem  recaptured 
Qandhar. 

1508  AD.— 914  A.H    : 

Death  of  Jam  Nizamuddin  Samma  after 
48  years  rule  of  Sind  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  Nasiruddin  Abul  Fatah  Feroz 
Shah-II. 


1508-1510  A.D.  : 

Jareja  Samma  chief  Hamirji  was  mur- 
dered by  his  cousin  Rawal.  Latter 
seized  most  of  Cutch.  Hamirji's  son 
Khengar  sought  help  of  Mahmud  Begra, 
while  Rawal  got  help  from  Jam  Feroz. 
This  conflict  spoiled  Sind — Cutch  rela- 
tions and  Jam  Salahuddin  with  help  of 
Khengar  attacked  Sind  twice.  Conflict 
ended  the  Samma  rule  in  Sind. 

1508—1524  A  D. 

Sind  ruled  by  Nasiruddin  Abdul  Fateh 
Sultan  Feroz  Shah  bin  Sultan  Nizam- 
uddin Shah  Jam  Nizamuddin. 


She  later  on  escaped  from  Kabul  and 
married  Mirza  Shah  Hassan  and  Mirza 
Issa  Tarkhan  in  succession  in  1 526  and 
1554  A.D.  respectively.  She  rebelled 
against  Mirza  Baqi  and  was  captured, 
imprisoned  and  allowed  to  die  of  starva- 
tion in  977  A  H.  (1569-70  A.D.)  Nahid 
Begum's  daughter  Rajia  Begum  was 
married  to  Mirza  Baqi  and  was  killed  in 
an  encounter  with  Jam  Baba. 


. 

Daudpota  in  Masumi,  p.  302  states  that 
it  was  917  AH.  (1511  A.D). 

Tarikh-i-Tahiri,  p.  56,  puts  it  as  914 
A.H.  (1508  A.D.). 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  106,  also  agrees  with 
this  date  and  so  does  Beglar  Nama. 
The  inscription  on  his  tomb  gives 
the  year  of  construction  as  915  A.H. 
(1509-10  A.D.)  and  hence  he  may  have 
died  in  914  A.H. 


Williams,  pp.  113-114. 


Refe*  entry,  September,  1524. 


Dr.  N.A.  Baloch,  Tahiri,  p.  308    assigns 
p.  528  A.D.  as  the  end  of  his  rule. 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDEPENDENCE 


365 


1509  AD.  : 

•Construction  of  Dabir  Mosque  at 
Thatta.  It  is  one  of  the  earliest  ex- 
amples of  Kashi  tiles  from  kala  or 
Sehwan.  The  tile  body  is  made  of  hard 
baked  terracotta  unlik  the  Punjab  tiles 
which  are  made  ofsilicious  sand  with 
lime  or  other  ingredients  held  together 
with  some  cementing  material.  Kashi 
is  derived  from  Sindhi  'Kach'  or  glass 
o#  glazed  and  not  from  Kashgar  as 
Hala  potters  state,  taking  their  ancestry 
to  Sinkiang  (China). 

1509  A.D.  : 

The  oldest  Portuguese  map  of  the 
Indian  Ocean  and  the  first  scientific 
map,  which  also  shows  Sind,  was  pro- 
duced. 

1509-10  A.D.— 915  A.H.  : 

The  inscription  on  the  north  entrance  of 
Jam  Nizamuddin's  masoleum  set  up  at 
the  instructions  of  his  son  Feroz  Shah 
the  same  year,  gives  the  Samma 
genealogy  as: 

Al-Sultan  Feroz  Shah  Ibn  Al-Sultan, 
Nizamuddin  Shah  bin  Al-Sultan  Sadar- 
uddin  Shah  bin  Al-Sultan   Salahuddin 


Firishta  (Bombay),  Vol.  II,  pp.  319-20, 
assigns  927  A.H.  (1521  A.D.)  as  the  end 
of  his  rule,  putting  the  total  period  to 
13  years  which  is  incorrect.  Briggs 
calculates  his  rule  from  896  A.H. 
(894  A.H.  is  probably  a  printing  mistake) 
to  927  A.H.  or  1492-1520  A.D. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari  assigns  year  1521  A.D. 
to  the  fall  of  Thatta  and  end  of  his  rule. 

Masumi,  p.  113,  puts  the  end  of  Feroz 
Shah's  rule  as  1 1th  Muharram,  926  A.H. 


Map  in  the  Ducal  library    of  Wolfen- 
buttel,  published   by  Ulden   in  1938. 


Professor  Muhammad    Shaft,  Sanadid-i- 
Sind,  English  Section  17. 

This  inscription  gives  the  name  of  Jam 
Unar  I  as  Feroz  Shah,  Jam  Sanjar  as 
Sadaruddin  Shah.  The  tomb  was  started 
by  Jam  Nizamuddin  himself  and  com- 
pleted by  his  son  Jam  Feroz  in  1509-10 
A.D. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Shah  bin  Al-Sultan  Rukunuddin  Shah 
bin  Al-Sultan  Fcroz  Shah  (Jam  Unar-II). 

1509-10  A  D.— 915  A.H.  : 

Jam  Feroz  starts  the  construction  of  the 
tomb  of  his  father  Jam  Nizamuddin, 
though  the  construction  on  the  outside 
wall  was  started  by  Nizamuddin  him- 
self in  895  A.H.  (1490  A.D.) 

1509-1529  A.D.  : 

The  climax  of  Portuguese  cartography 
marked  by  maps  of  great  cartographers : 

Franciso  Rodriquez  (1513-15  A.D.), 
Lop  Homen  (1516  A.D.),  Reinel  Bros. 
(1519-22  A.D),  and  Diogo  Ribeiro 
(1523-29  A.D.). 

Sind's  maps  by  the  Portuguese  were 
used  as  guide  for  all  the  European  na- 
tions until  about  1830  A.D.  The  maps 
were  remarkably  superior  to  the  all  pre- 
vious ones. 

1510  A.D.  : 

Portugese  conquest  of  Goa. 

1510  AD.  : 

Albuquerque  sacked  Calicut,  and  also 
captured  Gova.  Yousuf  Adil  Shah  re- 
covered it  but  was  expelled  by  the  Por- 
tuguese the  same  year. 

In  the  following  year  Albuquerque  es- 
tablished Portuguese  factory  at  Calicut 
and  conquered  Malacca  (near  Singa- 
pore). By  about  this  time  they  must  have 
established  their  factory  at  Lahri  Bunder 
in  Sind  with  or  without  permission  and 
must  have  retained  control  over  it  even 
if  opposed. 


Armando  Corlesac  and  Avelino  Teizeira 
da  Mota;  Monuments  and  Portugal  is, 
Cartographica,  4  Volumes,  Lisbon,  1960, 
give  some  of  the  portions  of  these  maps. 


■   • 


• 


% 


SAMMAS  REGAIN  INDPPENDENCE 


367 


i 

; 


1510-1586  AD.  : 

Rule  of  Cutch  by  Jareja  Samma  chief 
Khengar,  as  vassal  of  Gujarat  from 
1510-1540  and  independent  rule  from 
1540-1586.  He  united  Cutch  as  one 
country. 

1511-12  A  D.— Earlier  than  917  A.H.  : 

The  marriage  of  Bibi  Rani  with  Sultan 
Muzaffar  (917-32  A.H.  or  151 1/12-1525/ 
26  AD.)  of  Gujarat. 

Bibi  Rani  was  grand  daughter  of  Sultan 
Sadaruddin  Shah  Jam  Sanjar  and  a 
cousin  of  Salahuddin,  both  born  of  Jam 
Sanjar 's  second  and  third  son  who  were 
brothers  of  Jam  Nizamuddin-II.  Most 
probably  the  family  had  shifted  to 
Gujarat  during  Jam  Nizamuddin's 
reign. 

1511-12  A.D.— 917  A.H.  : 

Jam  Salahuddin  Shah  with  the  help  of 
Sultan  Muzaffar  of  Gujarat  and  Rao 
Khengar  of  Cutch  conquered  the 
Lower  Sind,  from  Feroz  Shah-II. 


Williams,  pp.  113-14. 

He  helped  Jam  Salahuddin  and  Jam 
Feroz  in  the  Sind  politics  in  1512,  1521, 
and  1524  A.D. 


Zafarul  Walih,  p.  137  puts  the  date  of  the 
marriage  as  924  A.H.  (1518  A.D.)  which 
is  improbable  as  Sultan  Muzaffar  on 
occupying  the  throne  showed  interest  in 
Salahuddin 's  cousin.  Her  elder  dau- 
ghter was  married  to  Sultan  Adil  Shah 
Farooqi  of  Burhanpur  (918-26  A.H.) 
and,  therefore,  the  marriage  must  have 
taken  place  around  907  A.H.  Ma'arat-i- 
Sikandri,  pp.  206-7. 


SAMMA  FEUDS  AND  THEIR  FALL 


1512  A  D  — 918  A.H.,  Mufaarram  : 

Jam  Salahuddin  made  his  first  attack 
on  Thatta  with  the  help  of  Sultan 
Muzaffar  of  Gujarat,  who  was  married 
to  the  former's  cousin  Bibi  Rani.  At 
that  time  Jam  Feroz  had  neglected  the 
affairs  of  the  state,  refused  the  advice  of 
Darya  Khan,  who  had  to  retire  to  his 
Jagir  in  the  village  Ghaha  (Kahan^near 
Sehwan  and  these  failures  brought  his 
defeat  at  the  hands  of  Salahuduin  who 
thus  became  the  ruler  of  Sind.  Feroz 
Shah  along  with  his  mother  Madina 
Machhani  went  over  to  Ghaha  to  Darya 
Khan,  who  at  the  request  of  Madina 
agreed  to  help,  collected  troops  from 
Sehwan,  but  got  the  first  set-back  at  the 
hands  ot  Haji,  the  Vazier  of  Jam  Salah- 
uddin. As  luck  would  have  it  the 
Vazier 's  letter  about  the  success  of  the 
initial  battle  addressed  to  Jam  Salah- 
uddin fell  in  the  hands  of  Darya  Khan, 
who  had  it  replaced,  conveying  Salah- 
uddin that  the  Vazier 's  forces  had  been 
defeated  and  it  was  advisable  for  him 
to  abandon  Thatta.  This  was  quickly 
done.  Darya  Khan  then  moved  Feroz 
Shah  to  Thatta  and  installed  him  on 
1st  Shawwal,  918  A.H.  (1512  A  D.  12th 
October).  Salahuddin  then  returned  to 
Gujarat.  He  had  remained  in  posses- 
sion of  Thatta  for  about  eight  months 
and  must  have  collected  a  large  sum  of 
money  from  Thatta  and  organized  an- 
other battle. 


• 


Zafar-ul-Walih,  p.  138. 

Husamuddin  in  Makli  Nama,  pp.  114- 
1 15,  puts  the  year  as  918-19  A.H.  (March 
1512— Feb.  1514  A.D.)  and  period  of 
Salahuddin's  rule  as  8  months.  Salahuddin 
must  have  captured  Thatta  in  Muharram 
(March)  and  vacated  it  in  Ramzan 
(November  1512  A.D.)  to  be  re-occupied 
by  Feroz  on  the  Idd  day. 

Masumi,  pp.  77-78  suggests  the  year 
soon  after  Nizamuddin's  death  i.e.  915- 
16  A.H.  (April  1509-March  1511  A.D). 

This  is  incorrect  -as  Sultan  Muzaffar 
could  not  have  married  Salahuddin's  co- 
usin until  917  A.H.  (1511-12  A.D). 

Salahuddin  was  son  of  a  brother  of  Jam 
Nizamuddin  and  grand-son  of  Sadar- 
uddin  Shah  Jam  Sanjar  Raydhan.  His 
cousin  Bibi  Rani,  a  daughter  of  another 
brother  of  Jam  Nizamuddin  was  married 
to  Sultan  Muzaffar-II  of  Gujarat  (917-932 
A.H.  or  1511/12-1525/26  A.D.). 

It  appears  that  these  two  brothers  of 
Nizamuddin  may  have  had  differences 
with  him  and  may  have  gone  to  Gujarat. 

It  is  also  possible  that  Salahuddin  may 
haveMeft  Thatta  for  Gujarat  soon  after 
the  accession  of  Feroz  Shah,  and  may 
have  been  contestant  for  the  throne. 


I 


I 


: 


1508   A.D. 

3ND  BOUNDARIES  UNDER  JAM    NIZAMUDDIN 
AND  AREAS  UNDER   HIS   ACTIVE  INFLUENCE 


NOTEi- 

Karachi    harbour    then 
was     known     as    Kaurashi.     J 


*''■ 


INDEX 

I  PRESENT   TOWNS 0 

7  TOWNS     IN    EARLY   HTM    CENTURY • 

3  PRESENT    COURSE  OF   RIVER     IN005 -      Q|   , 

«.  OLO   BED    OF    HAKRA _ _ ,*, 

5  PROVINCIAL    BOONDAWES  .   , 

b  NIZAMUODINS  TERRITORIES ^mtmmSm 

T  AREAS    OF   ACTIVE  RVLUENCE     OF    NIZAMUOOtN   n^TT?"T^ 


«.   COURSE     OF    WOUS    IN    T50«  AD- «KMT.. 

9     tfTERNATIANAL     BOUNDARY 

SCALE 

P  SO  ^00  ISO  MikM 


:^$ 


WARE  -t  A"   •  •  •  5A  M  M  AJ  •  -OF- 


DRAWN    UNDER   6UKMHCE   OF    M-M.PANHWAR. 


J 


DRAWN   UNDER  GUIDANCE     OF      M    h  panhvvaR 


1524-1554  A.  D. 

SHAH  HASAN'S  MILITARY 
OPERATIONS  IN  SIND 

1.  10th  Aujutt   1524,  Shah    H««oA  coronation  ol  Naiarpur. 
2-  2nd  Sept.  1524,  March  to   Tatla  and  occupation  ot  Tatta  at 

end  Stat.  1524. 
3    F«b    1524.  March  towards   Rahim-ki-Bazar.  defeat  of 

jam  Feroi   Shah  and  back   to   Tatta. 
4.  Sept- 1525.  Tatta  to   Bakhar   »ia    Mafarpur,  Hala  Kondi  and 

Schwan. 

5  March  1521  From   Bakhar    to  Sibi. 

6  April  152«.  Frorr-  Sibi  lo  Bakhar   via  tahri  and  Chhatr- 
?.  July  152*.  March   trom   Bakhar  to  Multon. 

I  15th  Jan.  1527  AD.  On  way  to  Multan  tackina  ot  S«r*ahi, 

Bhutta  Wohen,  Dcrawar  and   uch 
».  1527.  Attack  on    Rao  Khcnjart   territoriei  in  Cytch. 
10  153*.  Tatta   to  Gujarat    viaNatarpur,  Najar  Parkar, 

Radhanpur    and    Patan. 


*** 


dhanpur'ff 
J 
Iff 


INDEX 

t  PRESENT   COURSE   OF    INDUS 

2.  OLD  COURSC  OF    INDUS. JSth.CfNTUVY 

3   ROUTES    OF   £XP.EDI.TiONS ..     -*..,..»«. 

4.  TOWNS. OF. IHh.  CENTURY. O 

f-PRESENT   BOUNDARY  OF   SIND «, 

6  MODFRN  TOWNS J  ...  Karachi 

7  BOUNDARY  OF   SIND  IN    1524  A.D - 


f 

it 


S^LE 


t 


< 


DRAWN     UNOER     OUIOANCE     OF    M.H.PANHWAR. 


? 


i 


i 


o 


o 


i 


■ 


? 


•5 


- 

\ 


z 


-O 

£ 
o 


o 


.. 


\ 


19.     Humayun  seated  on  throne. 


% 


\ 


I 


SAMMA  FEUDS  AND  THEIR  FALL 


H9 


In  this  expedition  he  was  helped  by  the 
Cutch.  Cutch  had  two  rival  factions 
under  Rawal  and  Khengar.  The  for- 
mer had  the  latter's  father  murdered  in 
1 506  A.D.  and  latter  had  acquired  parts 
of  Cutch  by  1512  A.D.  Rawal  was  very 
powerful!  at  this  period.  Sird  had 
good  re'ations  with  Rawal  and  therefore 
Khengar  helped  Salahuddin  Besides 
this  Khengar  was  also  vassal  of  the 
Sultan  of  Gujarat,  as  such  granting 
passage  to  Sind  was  obligatory  on 
Khengar,  who  also  controlled  the  easiest 
approach  to  Sind.  Sind  in  turn  help- 
ed Rawal,  Which  caused  rift  withXhen- 
gar  who  then  interfered  in  Sind  affairs. 
This  ultimately  helped  Arghoons. 

1512-13  A  D.— 918  A.H.  : 

Due  to  rebellion  of  Shah  Ismail  Safavi 
Makhdoom  Abdul  Aziz  Muhadith 
Ubhari  along  with  his  sons,  left  Herat 
and  came  and  settled  in  Ghaha  (Kah»n 
near  Seh  wan.  Hissors  Athiruddin  and 
Yar  Muhammad  wrote  sone  religious 
works  after  their  arrival  in  Sind. 


1512-13  A.D— Between  918-919  A.H.  : 

Jam  Salahuddin,  a  descendant  of  Jam 
San  jar,  defeated  Jam  Feroz  Samma  and 
himself  became  the  king  for  8  months, 
when  he  was  removed  with  the  help  of 
Darya  Khan  and  Feroz  was  reinstated. 

Masumi  states  that  due  to  misunder- 
standing, Salahuddin  had  left  for  Guja- 
rat. Darya  Khan  is  reported  to  have 
engineered  the  plot  for  Salahuddin s 
leaving  Thatta. 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari.  Vol.  Ill,  p.  518. 
William's  pp.  113-117. 


Masumi,  p.  76. 

It  seems  that  Kahan  had  achieved  an 
important  position  at  the  end  of  the  15th 
century  and  almost  every  person  of  some 
consequence  passed  through  it.  It  was 
in  the  Jagir  of  Darya  Khan  and  may 
be,  he  had  up-graded  the  town-fhip. 


Masumi,  pp.  76-78. 


370 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Salahuddin's  cousin  Bibi  Rani  was  mar- 
ried to  Muzaffar  of  Gujarat,  who  be- 
came Sultan  in  917  A.H.  (151 1-12  A.D.) 
and  helped  Salahuddin  to  conquer  Sind. 
This  incident,  therefore,  may  have  taken 
place  in  918-19  A.H.  (1512-13  A.D). 

1511-13  A  D.— 918  A.H.  : 

Bidi-uz-Za.man  Mirza  who  came  to  Sind 
from  Astrabad,   was  well  received  by 
Jam  Feroz  and  kept  as  state   guest.  He 
returned  to  Shah  Ismail    Safavi   after 
one  year's  stay  in  Thatta. 

1513  A.D.  : 

It  appears  that  simultaneously  'with 
their  activities,  the  Portugeuse  had  thre- 
atened Lahri  Bandar  and,  therefore,  the 
Sammas  had  to  recede  in  land.  By  this 
time  the  Portuguese  may  have  established 
a  factory  at  Lahri  Bunder  with  or  with- 
out permission  of  Sind's  ruler  and  may 
even  have  used  force  as  they  were  doing 
in  the  whole  of  the  Indian  Ocean. 

1513  A  D.— 919  A.H.  : 

Jam  Salahuddin  Shah  was  defeated  by 
Jam  Feroz  with  the  support  of  Shah 
Hasan  Arghoon  and  the  former  fled  to 
Gujarat. 

1517  A  D— 923  A.H.  : 

Babur's  second  expedition  against 
Qandhar,  in  which  he  became  seriously 
ill.  Taking  advantage  of  the  situation. 
Shah  Beg  made  an  offer  for  peace  which 
suited  the  other  party  too  and  was 
accepted.  Shah  Beg  felt  free  for  ad- 
ventures towards  Sind. 

1517  A.D.  : 

No  person  existed  who  could  be  called 
Khalifa  on  the  ground  of  his  descent 


Zafar-ulr-Walih,  p.  137. 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  518. 


Firishta,  Bombay,  f.  460  a. 

Firishta  (Naval  Kishore),  Vol.  II,  p.  511 


■ 


' 


Masumi,  pp.  J  09- 1 10  and  309  puts  the 
year  as  921  AH.,  but  Be  vc  ridge  in  Babur 
Nama,  Vol.  1,  pp.  365  and  431  proves  it 
to  be  923  A.  H.  Masumi 's  chronology 
since  this  date  falls  behind  by  2-3  years. 


• 


I 


ri 


SAM  MA   FEUDS  AND  THEIR  FALL 


I 


*-"»! 


i 


from  the  Abbasid  Khalifas  after  Sultan 
Salim's  capture  in  Cairo. 

1517-18  A  D.— 923-24  AD.  : 

Shah  Beg  moved  to  Sibi  and  made  it  as 
his  headquarters.  Meantime,  his  son, 
Shah- Hasan,  apparently  having  deve- 
loped uhcbrdial  relations  with  his  father, 
reached  Babur's  court  at  Kabul  and 
stayed,  there  for  two  years. 

It  is  suspected  that  this  was  attempted 
with  connivance  of  his  father  Shah  Beg 
so  as  to  keep  him  informed  of  Babur's 
moves. 

1518  A.D.— 924  A.H.  : 

Shah  Beg  lived  in  territories  of  Shal  and 
Siwi  under  hardship  and  distress  and 
decided  to  conquer  Sind. 

1518  A  D.,  20th  Nov.— 924  A.H., 
17th  Zul  Qad  : 

Shah  Beg  attacked  Ghana  (Kahan) 
(which  was  Jagir  of  Darya  Khan)  and 
Baghban  and  laid  waste  the  country 
around  them.  The  booty  among  other 
items  included  1000  camels  which  used 
to  operate  Persian  wheels  (fpr  rabi  crop). 
Of  this  booty  he  despatched  fine  horses 
to  Babur  as  gift.  Babur  received  this 
information  through  Shah  Beg's  am- 
bassador Qasil  Tawachi  in  Qartu  on 
25th  Rabi-I,  920  A.H.  or  30th  March, 

1519  AD. 

The  same  year  Babur  captured  Sawat, 
Bajwar,  Bhera,  and  Khoshab.  Mirza 
Shah  Hasan  (later  on  ruler  of  Sind)  was 
with  him  on  this  expedition. 

1519-21  A.D.  : 

Magellan's  voyage  around  the  World. 


Masumi,  p.  111. 

Beveridge,  Babur  Nama,  Vol.  I,  pp.  365 

and  430. 

• 

Babur  himself  has  stated  that  Shah  Hasan 
had  come  to  learn  the  techniques  of 
administration  and  court  procedures 
and  etiquettes. 

Masumi,  p.  112. 

All  future  actions  of  Shah  Beg  have  to 
be  viewed  from  this  incident.  Masumi 
has  tried  to  justify  his  actions  on  flimsy 
ground. 


Masumi,  p.  110,  puts  the  date  as  J  7th 
Zul  Qad,  928  A.H.  which  is  incorrect  by 
3  years.  Tarkhan  Nama  and  Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam  have  copied  Masumi's  date. 

Beveridge,  Babur  Nama,  Vol.  I,  pp.  395 
and  401  gives  the  date  of  arrival  of  the 
ambassador. 


Babur  Nama,  Vol.  1 ,  pp.    384-401    and 
414. 


372 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Between  1519-1528/29  A.D.-  925-935  A.H. 

Death  of  Shaikh  Bhirkiyo  Katiar,  prob- 
ably on  the  9th  of  the  month  of  Shaban. 
He  came  from  village  Katiar  (not  Mulla 
Katiar)  in  Nasarpur  Pargana. 

The  tomb  of  this  sufi  is  at  Shaikh  Bhir- 
kiyo, about  20  miles  ESE  of  Hyderabad. 
His  anniversary  is  being  celebrated  for 
3  days  from  the  9  to  1 1th  of  Shaban 
each  year. 


926  A.H.  : 

After  spending  2  years  in  Babur's  court, 
Shah  Hasan  left  and  joined  his  father 
at  Sibi. 

1520  A.D.,  21st  Dec— 927  A.H., 
11th  Muharram  : 

Darya  Khan  (Dulla)  or  Mubarak  Khan 
was  killed  by  Mongols.  He  was  a  slave 
of  Diwan  Lakhidar  and  was  adopted  as 
son  by  Jam  Nizamuddin.  His  real 
name  was  Qaboolo  (or  Qabool  Muham- 
mad) Syed.  He  rose  to  become  Madar- 
ul-Muham  (Prime  Minister)  and  was 
titled  as  Mubarak  Khan. 

There  are  different  versions  about  the 
last  days  of  his  life. 

Tahiri  states  that  the  courtiers  being 
jealous  of  his  power  and  position  per- 
suaded Feroz  Shah  to  crush  him,  but 
the  latter  finding  himself  incapable 
avoided  any  direct  conflict;  so  they  ap- 
proached Feroz 's  mother  Madina 
Machhar.i,  ad\ising  her  to  invite  the 
Mo.igols  and  Arghoons  to  free  Sind 
from  the  power  of  Darya  Khan.  Ac- 
cording to  this  plan  Madina  invited 
Srwh  Beg  from  Q.indhar.  Shah  Beg 
took    Baghban-Schwan      route    and 


Channa  Mahboob  Ali,  Mihran,  Vol.41, 
No.  4,  1964,  pp.  131-32. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi,  and  Hadiqat- 
ul-Auliya,  p.  84.  describe  his  life  and 
mention  that  he  was  contemporary  of 
Hala  Kandi's  Makhdooms  Ahmed 
and  Muhammad  both  of  whom  died  in 
934  A.H.  (1527/28  A  D  ).  Mahboob  Ali 
thiuks  that  he  died  in  930  A.H.  (1523/24 
A.D.). 

Masumi,  p.  111. 

An  inscription  at  the  north  oi  Mubarak 
Khan's  grave  calls  him  Al  Khanul  Azam 
Wa  Shahid  Mubarak  Khan  Ibn  Sultan 
Nizamuddin. 


Tahiri,  pp.  6-59, 


The  version  has  to  be  seen  in  the  light  of 
entries  922,  923,  and  924  A.H.  i.e. 
Babur's  determination  to  capture  Qand- 
har  and  Shah  Beg's  struggle  to  acquire 
a  new  land. 


*- 


K 


• 


SAMMA  FEUDS  AND  THEIR  FALL 


373 


*a 


x 

r 


encountered  Darya  Khan  near  'Khan 
Wan'  canal  which  he  had  himself  built 
to  irrigate  the  lands  of  village  Sankorah 
(Sakro)  and  other  areas  (of  Thatta  and 
Sakro  Talukas).  Darya  Khan  was  kill- 
ed while  fighting  bravely,  when  an  arrow 
hit  him  in  the  throat.  Feroz  Shah  kept 
aloof. 

Masumi  on  the  other  hand  reports  that 
some  Mongols  had  migrated  to  Thatta, 
and  entered  the  service  of  Jam  Feroz 
who  had  assigned  a  separate  quarter  to 
them  called  Mongol  Pura.  One  Mir 
Qasim  Kaibakian  Arghoon  encouraged 
and  induced  Shah  Beg  to  undertake  the 
conquest  of  Thatta  and,  therefore,  Shah 
Beg  made  preparations,  and  was  first 
opposed  near  Talhati  (Talti)  by  Matan 
Khan  (Motann  Khan)  son  of  Darya 
Khan,  but  avoiding  them  Shah  Beg 
reached  Khanwah  located  6  miles  north 
of  the  city  of  Thatta  (Masum  wrongly 
puts  3  Kurohs  south  of  the  city  of 
Thatta),  crossed  the  river  at  a  point 
where  it  was  shallow  and  reached  near 
Thatta.  Darya  Khan  left  Feroz  Shah 
in  the  city  and  came  out  to  fight  a  fierce 
battle,  which  he  lost,  and  was  captured 
by  Tingari  Birdi  Qabtasal  and  put  to 
sword  along  with  the  other  Samma 
soldiers.    Jam  Feroz  took  to  flight. 

Beglar  Nama  states  that  he  was  cap- 
tured and  killed. 

Zafar-ul-Walih  states  that  he  was  called 
by  the  Arghoons  to  discuss  the  terms  of 
peace  and  treacherously  murdered. 


Masumi,  pp.  1 13-14. 


■ 


This  version  puts  the  blame  of  aggression 
on  Shah  Beg.  It  is  possible  that  Mir 
Qasim  too  advised  him  to  attack  Sind 
and  sent  him  detailed  reports,  but  this 
must  have  been  only  after  seeing  Shah 
Beg's  preparations. 

This  version  apparently  is  more  plausible 
than  Tahiri's  version.  Tahjri  himself  be- 
ing a  Sindhi,  must  have  been  prejudiced 
against  Machhis  who  are  considered  a 
low  caste  by  some,  till  this  day. 


The  Kalri  branch  of  the  river  flowing 
north  of  Thatta  was  no  longer  the  main 
branch  and,  therefore,  was  shallow. 

Khan  Wah  existed  till  the  opening  of  the 
Kotri  Barrage.  Kalri,  an  inundation 
canal  after  covering  26  miles  bifurcated 
into  the  Kotri  Buthro  and  Khan  Wah. 
Latter  continued  and  discharged  into 
the  Gharo  Creek. 


374 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


1520  A.D  ,  22nd  Dec.— 31st  Dec. 

927  A.H.  11th  Muharram— 20th  Muharram: 

After  the  defeat  and  death  of  Darya 
Khan,  Shah  Beg  allowed  the  plunder  of 
Thatta  ard  disgraced  the  inhabitants. 
This  was  stopped  after  10  days  at  the 
request  of  Qazi  Qazan  to  Shah  Beg. 

He  also  ordered  giving  of  protection  to 
the  family  of  Feroz  Shah  who  had  taken 
shelter  at  Pir  Ar.  Tahiri  states  that  the 
ill  treatment  to  the  populace  is  in- 
describable. 


- 


1521  AD.,  January-February — 
927  A.H   End  Safar  : 

Shah  Beg  moved  out  his  camp  from 
Thatta.  Jam  Feroz  came  for  submis- 
sion, which  was  granted.  Sind  parti- 
tioned, the  Lower  Sind  south  of  Laki 
went  to  Jam  Feroz,  as  Shah  Beg 's  Go- 
vernor and  protege,  and  the  Northern 
Sind  was  annexed,  to  be  ruled  by  Shah 
Beg  directly  through  his  officers.  As 
protege  Feroz  agreed  to  share  a  part  of 
the  lard  revenue  with  Shah  Beg.  Due  to 


Masumi,  pp.  114-115,  puts  the  date  as 

926  A.H.  but  Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  II, 
p.  51    puts  the  date  as   927   A.H.    The 
source  used  the  chronogram  in  >&»  ^j** 
or  fall  of  Sind,  which  also  gives  the  date 

927  A.H. 

Tahiri,  pp.  58-59  also  gives  the  same 
chronogram,  but  from  it  he  has  derived 
the  date  of  Shah  Beg's  death  and  also 
Shah  Hasan's  driving  out  Jam  Feroz 
from  Sind. 

Badauni's  Muntakhab-ut  Tawarikh  (Cal- 
cutta Edition)  f.  75  b.  copies  Mir  Masum 
and  puts  the  date  as  926  A.H. 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi,  Vol  II,  pp.  276-77 
and  290-91  copies  from  Misumi  the  year 
926  A.H.  but  copies  chronogram  from 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari  and  p  its  929  AH. 
which  is  a  mis-writing  for  927  A.H. 

Since  soon  afterwards  Jam  Salahuddin 
attacked  Thatta asecond  time  in  928  A.H. 
(1521-22  A.D.),  when  Jam  Feroz  is  re- 
ported by  Masumi  to  have  sought  Shah 
Beg's  assistance,  the  date  of  927  A  H. 
appears  to  be  acceptable. 

Masumi,  pp.  115-416. 


Tahiri,  p.  59. 


^--^ 


i 


9AMMA  FEUDS  AND  THEIR  FALL 


375 


this  Feroz  lost  respect  and  prestige 
among  his  own  people. 

This  partition  gave  six  out  of  eight 
Sarkars,  to  Feroz  though  area-wise  the 
two  Sarkars  of  the  Upper  Sind  were 
larger  than  6  Sarkars  of  the  Lower 
Sind.  The  most  fertile  Sarkar  of  the 
period,  Sehwan,  also  went  with  the 
Upper  Sind.    These  Sarkars  were: 

Bakhar  Sarkar  with  twelve  Mahals; 
Bikhar,  Uch,  Mathelo,  Ubarro,  Alore, 
Darbelo,  etc. 

Sehwan  Sarkar  with  nine  Mahals;  Sen- 
war.,  Pat,  Baghban,  Kahan  (Ghana), 
Lakhpat,  etc. 

Chachkan  Sarkar  with  eleven  Mahals; 
Chachkan,  Jun,  Fateh  Bagh,  etc. 

Nasarpar  Sarkar  with  seven  Mahals; 
Nasarpur,  Amarkot,  Hala  Kandi, 
Samma-vali,  etc. 

Chakar  Hala  Sarkar  with  eight  Mahals ; 
Chakar  Hala,  Ghazipur,  etc. 

Thatta  Sarkar  with  eighteen  Mahals; 
Thatta,  Lalri  Bandar,  Bathoro,  Bahram- 
pur,  Sakro,  etc. 

1521  A  D.,  Mid-February,  Mid-March— 
92~  A  H ,  End  of  Rabi-T,  Beginning  of 
Rabi-TI  : 

After  departing  from  Thatta  Shah  Beg 
reached  Sehwan. 

The  Santa  (a  branch  of  the  Sammas 
some  of  whom  were  Muslims,  the  others 
Hindus  even  before  independence)  and 
Soda  (a  branch  of  the  Parmar  Rajputs 
who  held  the  Thar  area  for  many  centu- 
ries and  even  to  this  day  exercise  influ- 
ence on  both  the  sides  of  the  border) 


Mazhar-i-Shah  Jahani  and  Ain-i-Akbari 
give  the  details  of  these  Sarkars. 


■ 

■ 

I 

Tod,  Vol.  I,  p.  85  a.  gives  a  description 
of  these  tribes. 


K 


376 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


tribes  took  pledge  to  fight  the  intruder 
till  death.  In  spite  of  the  resistance 
Shah  Beg  occupied  Sehwan  and  put  it 
in  charge  of  his  four  officials  belonging 
to  Arghoon,  Tarkhan  and  Beglar  clans 
and  also  put  a  FCokaltash  in  charge  of 
Bakhar,  probably  in  order  to  win  sup- 
port of  these  clans,  who  were  losing 
faith  in  him  due  to  pressure  of  Babur  on 
Qandhar. 

Three  days  later,  Shah  Beg  was  inform- 
ed that  two  sons  of  Darya  Khan, 
Mahmud  Khan  and  Matan  (Motann) 
Khan  and  also  another  Samma  tribal 
leader  Sarang  Khan  were  ready  to  sub- 
mit but  Makhdoom  Bilawal  was  prevent- 
ing them  and  encouraging  them  to  fight. 
Shah  Beg,  therefore,  stormed  Talti  and 
captured  and  looted  it.  In  the  battle  a 
large  number  of  Sammas  and  Sodhas 
were  killed. 

Makhdoom  Bilawal  was  captured  and 
punished  (i.e.  he  may  have  been  im- 
prisoned, tortured  and  allowed  to  die  a 
slow  death,  if  not  crushed  alive  in  oil 
expeller  as  is  believed  by  the  people  of 
Sind  specially  of  Baghban,  where  he  is 
buried). 


1520-21  AD— 927  A.H. 


The  probable  date  of  death  of  Makh- 
doom Jaffar  of  Bubak  who  was  alive  at 
the  time  of  Shah  Beg's  campaign  of 
Sind. 


' 


Masumi,  pp.  116  and  117. 

Masumi,  pp.  198  and  99,  Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam,  Vol.  Ill  give  biography 
and  put  his  death  in  919  AH.  which  is 
incorrect.  According  to  Miyar,  f.  426  a 
he  died  in  929  A.H.  (1522/23  AD). 

Makhdoom  Bilawal  *s  grave  is  near  Bagh- 
ban, 6  miles  r4w  of  the  town  of  Dadu 
and  there  is  a  congregation  held  on  the 
eve  of  the  first  Friday  every  month.  It 
is  not  at  Thatta  as  some  historians  state. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam  puts  it  as  920  A.H., 
which  is  wrong  as  the  first  campaign 
of  Shah  Beg  started  in  926  A.H. 


i 


\ 


\ 


SAMMA  FEUDS  AND  THEIR  FALL 


377 


b 


1521  A  D  — 927  A.H.  : 

Shah  Beg  promised  Babur  that  he  would 
surrender  Qandhar  to  him,  the  follow- 
ing year  i.e.  928  A.H.  (1522  A.D.). 


Shah  Beg's  future  actions  in  Sind  were 
goverr.ed  by  Babur's  pressure  on  Qand- 
har and  his  fear  to  lose  it. 

This  promise  was  made  only  a/ter  he 
felt  himself  secure  in  Sind,  and  wanted 
a  grace  period  of  one  year  to  complete 
the  conquest  of  it  and  subdue  the  tribes 
as  is  proved  by  his  very  actions. 

1521  A.D.— 927  A.H.  : 

Qazi  Syed  Shukurullah,  son  of  Wajih- 
uddin  son  of  Syed  Na'amatullah  son  of 
Syed  Arab  Shah  Hussaini  Dastaki,  un- 
der the  orders  of  Shah  Beg  came  to 
Thatta  from  Qandhar,  where  he  had 
migrated  from  Herat  in  906  A.H.  (1500- 
1501  AD). 

1521  A.D.,  November— 927  A.H.,  End  ; 

Jam  Salahuddin  collected  10,000  horse- 
men comprising  of  Jarejas  (a  sub-caste 
of  the  Sammas  considered  of  Rajput 
origin,  settled  in  Cutch  and  who  had 
migrated  there  possibly  due  to  differ- 
ences with  the  Soomras),  Sodhas,  Sam- 
mas and  Khengars,  and  proceeded  to 
capture  Thatta.  Jam  Feroz  fled  to 
Sehwan.  Salahuddin  occupied  Thatta. 
The  Cutchi  forces  were  supplied  by 
Khengar  who  controlled  most  of 
Cutch  then. 


Irskine,  Vol.  I,  p.  355. 

Beveridge,  Babur  Nama,  Vol.  I,  pp.  432- 
33. 

Dr.  Daudpota  in  Masumi,  p.  310  accepts 
the  year  as  927  A.H.  against  Masumi's 
year  922  A.H.  in  the  text,  p.  111. 

Masumi's  version  on  causes  of  Shah  Beg's 
attack  on  Sind  is  completely  distorted. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  193. 
Tahiri,  p.  14. 


Masumi,  pp.  117-118. 

• 
The     tribal    background    is    given    by 
Todd  in  'The  Annals  and    Antiquities 
of  Rajistan',   Vol.  I,  pp.  78-79. 

Burgess,  Archaeological  Survey  of  West 
India,  Cutch  and  Kathiwar,  p.  195. 
v 

Gazetteer  of  Bombay  Presidency,  Vol.  V 
Cutch  etc.,  p.  57. 


378 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Jam  Feroz  Shah  now  an  Arghoon  pro- 
tege informed  Shah  Beg's  officials  at 
Sehwan  and  requested  for  help.    They 
informed  Shah  Beg  of  this. 

Jareja  Samma  chief  Khengar  had  occu- 
pied Rahimki  Bazar  and  Virawah,  the 
two  border  posts  on  Southern  Sind 
and  was  interfering  in  Sind's  affairs,  as 
Jam  Feroz  had  helped  Rawal,  the  ad- 
versary of  Khengar  in  Cutch.  Occu- 
pation of  these  border  posts  was  with 
the  purpose  of  stopping  the  help  to 
Rawal  from  Sind.  • 

1521  A.D ,  14th  December— 928  A.H., 
14th  JVfuharram  : 

To  help  Jam  Feroz  Shah  against  Salah- 
uddin,  Shah  Hassan  on  the  orders  of 
his  father  Shah  Beg,  left  Shal  (Quetta) 
and  after  20  days  reached  Sehwan  where 
he  was  opposed  by  Jam  Sarang  Khan, 
Rana  Sodha  and  others  who  dug  tren- 
ches near  Talti,  but  Shah  Hasan  instead 
of  fighting  them  avoided  their  path,  pro- 
ceeded towards  Thatta  to  fight  Jam 
Salahuddin,  who  was  encamped  at  Jun. 


Burnes  James,    'Visit  to     the    Court 
Sinde',  pp.  147-235. 

Ranchodji  Amarji,  'Tarikh-i-Sorath', 
English  translation  by  Burgess,  J. A., 
'History  of  Cutch  and  Gujrat ',  Bombay, 
1882,  pp.  240-41. 

Williams. 


Masumi,  pp.  117-119  puts  the  year  as 
927  AH.  (December  1520  A  J).),  which 
is  incorrect. 

Beglar    Nama,    puts    17th .  Muharram, 

927  A.H. 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi,  Vol.  II,  p.  276  gives 

928  AH.,   but   on  pp.   292-3   follows 
Masumi. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  518-519, 
puts  928  A.H. 

Zafar-ul-Walih  also  puts  927  A.H. 


< 


I 


SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  TO  REGAIN  SI  NO 


I 


1522  A  D  ,  early  February— 

928  A.H  ,  end  Safar  or  early  Rabi-I  : 

Jam  Salahuddin  Samma  was  killed  by 
Hamid  Sarban  in  the  battle  with  Shah 
Hasan  Arghoon  near  Chelar.  His  son 
Haibat  Khan  (or  Beg'ar  Nama's  Fateh 
Khan)  after  being  captured  was  ordered 
to  be  killed  by  Mir  Khushi  Muhammad 
Beglar.  Shah  Hasan's  men  advised 
him  to  kill  Jam  Feroz  too,  but  this  was 
avoided  for  the  time  being.  Feroz 
smelling  that  is  reported  to  have  escap- 
ed to  Cutch  at  opportunate  time,  but  re- 
turned soon  afterwards. 

One  effect  of  death  of  Salahuddin  was 
normalizing  of  relations  with  Jareja  chief 
Khengar  who  controlled  most  of  Cutch. 
It  is  possible  that  Khengar  gave  protec- 
tion to  Feroz  Shah  to  win  the  Sind 
support  against  Rawal  his  adversary. 
Feroz  Shah  could  not  have  easily  escap- 
ed to  Cutch  along  the  land  routes  of 
Rahim  ki  Bazar  and  Virawah  which 
were  in  Khengar 's  occupation.  By  cut- 
ting off  Sind's  support  to  Rawal  he 
quickly  ousted  him  from  his  terri- 
tories, but  latter  remained  in  his  fort 
until  1540  AD.  when  he  occupied 
Nawar.agar  and  established  a  new  Jareja 
Samma  dynasty  under  the  title  Jam  of 
Nawanagar,  which  ruled  upto  June  1948. 


Beglar  Nama,  pp.  12, 13, 17. 

Masumi,  pp.  119-120  and  230. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  518-19  and 
Vol.  II,  p.  35,  puts  the  year  as  928  A.H. 

Masumi,  puts  the  name  of  the  place  as 
Jun  but  Beglar  Nama's   Chelar  is  more 
reliable  as  the  author  Khushi  Muhammad 
Beglar,  was  the  killer's  own  tribesman. 

Haibat  Khan's  wife  was  daughter  of 
one  of  the  Rajput  wives  of  Muzaffar 
Shah.  The  two  wives  are  named  as 
Lakham  Bai  and  Raj  Bai.  Salahuddin 
had  also  married  the  daughter  of.Sultan 
Muzaffar. 

Mirat-i-Sikandari,  p.  218,  on  the  other 
hand  states  that  Fateh  Khan  was  in 
Gujarat  when  his  brother-in-law  Sikandar 
was  killed  in,  932  A.H.  (1525-26  A.D.), 
and  those  who  refused  to  take  the  oath 
of  allegiance  to  new  Sultan  Mar-mud 
included  Fateh  Khan.  Beglar  Nama  puts 
Fateh  Khan  instead  of  Haibat  Khan  as 
the  son  of  Salahuddin. 

Haibat  Khan's  wife  Ruqayya  was  dau- 
ghter of  Sultan  Muzaffar  and  sister  of 
Sultan  Mahmud-I  as  stated  by  Mirat-i- 
Sikandari,  ff.  177  b,  187  b,  188  b. 


380 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  S1ND 


1522  A.D.,  March— 928  A  H.,  Rabi-H : 

After  the  defeat  (and  death)  of  Jam 
Salahuddin  by  Shah  Hasan,  Shah  Beg 
arrived  and  camped  near  Baghban  and 
summoned  Shah  Hasan  there  to  show 
favours  and  distinction  on  him.  He 
also  ordered  killing  of  the  whole  Machhi 
tribe  residing  on  the  out-skirts  of  Bagh- 
ban as  they  had  become  disobedient. 
Their  properties  and  cattle  were  plun- 
dered and  houses  and  castles  were  raised 
to  ground. 

Shah  Beg  also  communicated  to  Jam 
Feroz  Shah  that  he  intended  to  conquer 
Gujarat.  (This  was  obviously  to  avenge 
on  tribes  of  Cutch  who  helped  Salah- 
uddin and  also  to  avenge  on  Sultan 
Muzaffar). 

A  large  number  of  Machhi  tribesmen 
must  have  escaped  Shah  Beg's  aggres- 
sion, as  even  today  there  are  a  number 
of  Machhi  villages  around  Baghban  and 
Bahawalpur  which  lie  two  miles  apart. 

Shah  Beg  was  determined  to  evacuate 
Qandhar,  as  much  as  Babur  was  deter- 
mined to  capture  it.    This  act  of  Shah 


Zafar-ul-Walih,  p.  138. 

Zafar-ul-Walih  states  that  after  the  death 
of  Sultan  Muzaffar  Feroz  Shah  captured 
some  parts  of  Si  d,  but  when  Arghoon 
retaliated  he  took  flight  to  Gujarat.  He 
was  well  received  by  Sultan  Bahadur  bin 
Muzaffar.  This  happened  in  935  A.H. 
(1528-29  A.D.). 

Masumi,  on  the  other  hand,  states  that 
Shah  Hasan  was  very  kind  to  Feroz  and 
there  was  no  intention  of  his  removal. 
Circumstantial  evidence  is  against  this 
version. 

Masumi,  pp.  121-120,  puts  the  year  as 
927  A.H. 


Even  his  subsequent  actions  show  that  he 
kept  this  aim  in  view,  though  not  re- 
corded by  Mas  urn. 


c 


5 


3 


4 


SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  TO  REGAIN  SIND 


381 


Beg  at  Baghban  must  have  been  aimed 
as  settling  his  men  who  had  already 
arrived  with  the  families  there. 


1522  A  D.,  April-May.— 928  AH, 
Jamadi-T,  II.  : 

Shah  Beg  arrived  in  Bakhar  and  ordered 
the  execution  of  Lali  Mahr  and  his  men 
and  also  47  Dhareja  chiefs  of  various 
villages  who  had  come  to  offer  respects 
but  had  attempted  to  oppose  his  Gover- 
nor of  Btikhar  earlier.  They  were  killed 
at  night  time  and  their  bodies  thrown 
down  from  the  tower  of  the  fort  since 
then  named  as  Khuni  Burj  (Bloody 
Tower). 

The  Syeds  occupying  the  fort  were  also 
ordered  to  be  removed  but  allowed  to 
settle  in  the  Rohri  town. 

The  quarters  within  the  fort  were  allotted 
to  his  nobles  and  officers.  The  fort  of 
Alore  was  demolished  and  its  bricks 
were  utilized  for  renovating  the  Bakhar 
fort  and  the  dwel'ings  of  the  Sammas 
and  Turks  around  the  fort  were  also 
demolished  for  the  same  purpose . 

1522  A  D  ,  September  1—928  A.H., 
Shawwal  13  : 

Babur  was   handed  over  the  keys  of 
Qandhar  by  Shah  Beg. 


1522  A  D  —929  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Makhdoom  Bilawal  of  Bagh- 
ban, where  he  is  buried.  He  organized 
resistance  against  Shah  Beg  Arghoon. 


Masumi,  pp.  112-124. 

The  Syeds  of  Bakhar,  were  descendants 
of  Syed  Muhammad  Maki  who  came 
from  Yaman  to  Sind  and  founded 
Bakhar,  where  he  died  in  644  A.H. 
(1246-47  A.D.),  as  is  stated  by  Tuhfat- 
ul-Karam. 

Dharejas  were  Sammas  and  the  massacre 
of  these  innocent  men  was  done  to  terro- 
rise the  populace  which  had  risen 
against  the  Mongols.  Shah  Beg  did  not 
do  any  thing  excepting  killing  and  looting 
of  powerful  or  innocent  population  for 
seven  continuous  years  since  he  had 
occupied  Sibi  first.  Psychologists  would 
categorise  him  a  sadist. 


Dr.  Daudpota  in  Masumi,  p.  310,  accepts 
this  year  against  Masumi 's  923  AH., 
stated  on  pp.  Ill  and  1 12. 

Beveridge,  Babur  Nama,  Appendix,  J. 
XXX,  II.  XXXV  and  Vol.  I,  p.  432, 
puts  the  year  as  928  A.H. 

Makli  Nama  and  Tuhfat-ul-Tahirin, 
wrongly  state  that  he  is  buried  near 
Shaikh  Hamad  Jamali  at  Makli.  Masumi, 


382 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


His  disciples  included  Hyder  Shah  of 
Sann. 


1523  A.D  — 929  A  H.,  Mid  to  end  : 

Shah  Beg  sent  a  party  of  his  soldiers 
from  Bakhar  to  42  villages  of  the 
Baluchis  to  stay  with  them  in  disguise 
and  on  an  appointed  day  and  hour 
to  destroy  the  whole  village.  Thus 
people  of  these  village  were  killed  un- 
awares. 


pp.  198-99,  Tuhfat-ul-Tahirin,  pp.  30-31. 
Hadiqat-ul-Aulya,  pp.  79-81,  and  Tuhfat- 
ul-Karam,  give  his  biography.  The 
local  tradition  that  he  was  crushed  alive 
in  an  oil  expeller  by  Shah  Beg  is  not 
supported  by  any  contemporary  autho- 
rity. The  Archaeological  Department 
can  be  allowed  to  open  up  the  grave  for 
examination  as  the  Russians  did  in  the 
case  of  Timurlane  and  Ulul  Beg  to  verify 
lame-ness  and  cutting  off  the  head  res- 
pectively. 

Hadiqat-ul-AuIiya  confirms  that  he  is 
buried  at  Baghban. 


Masumi,  pp.  124  and  125. 

The  names  of  vi'lages  or  the  Sarkar  are  not 
mentioned.     Mazhar  Shah  Jehani  states 
that  there  was  concentration   of  Balochis 
in  the  present  Chanduka.    The  Jacob- 
abad  District  was    settled  by  the  Balo- 
chis only  after  the  mid-  19th    century. 
There  were  a  few    Balochi  settlements 
to  the  north  of  Ubavro  but  in  between 
Bakhar  and  these  places  lived  Dahars 
and  Mahrs  who  were  yet  to  be  subdued. 
The   Balochi      villages   of  Sibi    Mahal 
were  very  scattered  and  definitely   diffi- 
cult to  be  subdued  by  any  foreigners  of 
whom  they  are  suspicious  to  this  day  and 
won't  allow  their  entry.    In  the  villages 
of  Sind    any  body  could  get   in,  under 
the  cloak  of  a  'Musafir'    (traveller)  and 
get   shelter   and   as   a  last   resort  in   a 
mosque.    Shah    Hasan    had    to    make 
special  trip  to  crush  the     Balochis  of 
Kachhi  and    Sibi.     The  42    Balochee 
villages  destroyed,  this  time  must  have 
been  in  Chanduka. 


> 


SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  TO  REGAIN  SIND 


v 

1 


1523  A  D.— 930  A.H.  : 

Death  of  Makhdoom  Ahmed,  a  sufi  of 

Ha'akandi. 


1523  A.D  ,  November— 930  A.H.,  : 

early  Winter  : 

Shah  Beg  while  at  Bakhar  appointed 
Payirda  Muhammad  Khan  as  the 
Governor  of  Bakhar  and  moved  south 
with  a  large  army  for  the  conquest  of 
Gujarat  and  on  way  to  Sehwan  punished 
the  tribes  living  on  both  sides  of  the 
river  Indus.  After  staying  for  15  days 
in  Sehwan  and  inflicting  punishment  on 
the  populace,  he  proceeded  towards 
the  Lower  Sind.  It  took  him  7  to  8 
months  march  upto  Agham  (Aghamani) 
30  miles  SES  of  Hyderabad. 

He  seems  to  have  marched  along  the 
left  bank  of  the  river  Indus  (which  re- 
mained a  strong  hold  of  the  Sammas  for 
the  next  150  years),  to  subdue  them.  He 
may  even  have  the  intention  of  capturing 
Thatta  by  surprise  and  may  have  delibe- 
rately taken  that  route.    The    destruc- 
tion of  the  Samma  strong  holds  may 
have  been  with  intention  of  cutting  of 
assistance  to  Jam  Feroz. 


1524  AD,  June  26—930  A.H., 
Shaban  22nd  : 


Shah  Beg  died  at  Aghamani.  The  same 
night  the  nobles  and  chiefs  swore  allegi- 
ance to  his  son  Mirza  Shah  Hasan. 
Three  years  later,  Shah  Beg's  body  was 
sent  to  Mecca  for  burial. 

His  death  occurred  soon  after  he  heard 
the  news  that  Babur  had  arrived  in  the 


Hadiqat-ul-Auliya,  p.  100,  assigns  935 
A.H.  (1527  A.D.)  to  it.  Mahboob  Ali 
Channa,  Mihran,  Vol.  14,  No.  4,  p.  35 
puts  it  as  930  A.H. 


Masumi,  pp.  125-126. 


■ 

Mazhar  Shah  Jehani  gives  the  details 
of  these  Samma  strong  holds  and  con- 
tinuance of  their  struggle  for  freedom 
even  1 1 0  years  later. 


Based  on  chronogram,  "^-^l^.  Masumi, 
pp.  126  and  127  and  141  has  worked  out 
the  year  as  928  A.H.  and  has  adjusted  the 
preceding  dates  accordingly. 

Hodivala,  Vol.  I,  p.  125  thinks  that  the 
year  is  930  A.H. 


384 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


vicinity  of  Bhira  and  Khushab  with  in- 
tention of  conquering  Hind. 

This  news  upset  him  with  the  fear  that 
Babur  would  make  him  vacate  Si  ad  like 
Qandhar,  with  the  Jesuit  that  he  got  a 
heart-attack  which  caused  his  death. 


1524  AD,  August— 930  A.H.,  Ramzan: 

Jam  Feroz  Shah  sent  envoys  to  Shah 
Hasan  the  Arghoon,  condoling  his 
father's  death.  He  also  sent  presents  of 
submissiveness  and  assurance  of  good 
conduct.  The  two  envoys  were  Hafiz 
Rashid  Khus  Navis  (of  Jam  Nizam- 
uddin  and  Jam  Feroz)  and  Qazi  Haji 
Mufti. 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  520,  puts 
it  as  930  A.H. 


Firishta,    Vol.     II, 
Nizamuddin's  date. 


p.     621,    follows 


Beveridge,  Babur  Nama,  p.  437  also 
puts  it  as  930  A.H.  He  discusses  it  in 
JRAS  (1914),  pp.  293-08. 

Dr.  Daudpota,  p.  314  does  not  accept 
Masumi's  version  and  accepts  930  A.H. 

Beglar  Nama,  p.  15. 

The  two  places  were  conquered  in  925 
A.H.  (Feb.  1519  A.D.)  and  Babur  came 
back  5  years  later  to  conquer  India.  He 
crossed  the  Jhelum  in  Rabi-I,  930  (22cd 
January,  1524  A.D.). 

Masumi,  p.  142. 

Masum  states  that  these  envoys  of  Jam 
Feroz  informed  Shah  Hasan  in  confidence 
that    their     mission    was    an    outward 
pretence  and  the  Jam  was,  in  fact,  pre- 
paring for  war. 

This  is  improbable,  as  the  populace  of 
Sind  had  turned  against  the  Jam  for  his 
submission  to  the  Arghoons  and  he  had 
become  too  we^k  to  fight  a  war. 

Beglar  Nama,  pp.  12  and  13  states  that 
after  the  defeat  and  killing  of  Salahuddin 
and  his  son  at  Chelar  in  928  A.H.,  Shah 
Hasan  was  advised  to  kill  Jam  Feroz 
Shah  too.  This  advice  was  rejected  that 
time  because  the  whole  of  the  Upper 
Sind  was  preparing  to  fight  against  the 
Arghoons  as  various  incidents  show 
and,    therefore,    action    against    Feroz 


<, 


/ 
* 


^ 


SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  TO  REGAIN  SIND 


385 


. 


1524  A  D.,  30th  August— 930  A.H., 
1st  Shawwal  : 

Shah  Hasan  was  coronated  at   Nasar- 
pur. 


1524  A.D.,  2nd  September— 930  A.H., 
4th  Shawwal  : 

Shah  Hasan  started  marching  from 
Nasarpur  to  Thatta  to  crush  Jam  Feroz. 
Hearing  of  his  approach,  Jam  Feroz 
abandoned  Thatta  (probably  the  same 
month)  and  crossed  over  the  river.  He 
was  now  between  Baghar  and  Ren 
Branch  of  the  river  Indus. 


Shah  was  postponed.  The  envoys  of 
such  great  reputation  telling  Shah  Hasan 
in  private,  appears  to  be  a  made-up 
story  either  by  Shah  Hasan  and  his  aides, 
or  by  Masum. 

Tahiri,  pp.  59  and  66,  states  that  Jam 
Feroz  neither  sent  condolence  nor  a 
congratulatory  message  on  Shah  Hasan's 
accession  and  had  decided  to  rebel.  This 
resulted  in  Shah  Hasan's  attack  on  Sind. 
This  is  also  in  conformity  with  Zafarul 
Walih's  statement  vide  entry  February 
1522  A.D. 


Masumi,  p.  142,  reports  that  he  expressed 
his  unwillingness  regarding  Khutba  to  be 
read  in  his  name  and,  instead,  suggested 
that  it  may  -be  read  in  the  name  of 
Zaheeruddin  Babur  Badshah.  This  may 
be  improbable,  as  Babur  had  not  estab- 
lished himself  in  the  Sub-Continent  then 
and  only  1 1  years  earlier  his  father  was 
forced  to  surrender  the  fort  of  Qandhar 
to  Babur. 

His  attitude  towards  Humayun  also 
shows  that  he  could  not  have  shown  this 
degree  of  sincerity  to  the  Timurids. 
Masumi  may  have  written  this  to  please 
his  masters,  the  descendants  of  Babur. 


Masumi,  p.  142,  states  that  Shah  Hasan 
started  after  the  Idd,  which  is  normally 
celebrated  for  3  days. 


?86 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTONARY  OF  SIND 


1524  A.D.,  September— 930  A.H., 

Shawwa!  '■ 

Shah  Hasan  crossed  the  river  (Kalri 
Branch)  and  occupied  Thatta.  In  the 
process  of  crossing  Jam  Feroz's  son-in- 
law  Mannek  used  a  naval  fleet  to  oppose 
the  Argooons,  but  the  fleet  along  with 
the  leaders  was  either  killed  or  drowned. 

Hearing  this  news  Jam  Feroz  fled  to 
Cutch  to  collect  troops  from  the  Samma 
tribes  of  that  area.  This  time  he  could 
rely  upon  Jareja  Samma  chief  Khengar, 
who  also  needed  support  of  Sind  against 
Rawal  as  well  as  to  gain  independence 
of  Gujarat  at  opportune  time. 

930  AH.: 

Soon  after  his  accession,  Mirza  Shah 
Hasan  married  Gulbarg  Begum,  daugh- 
ter of  Mir  Khalifa,  Vakil  (Prime  Minis- 
ter) of  Babur.  The  engagement  had 
taken  place  in  925  A.H.  (1519  A.D.), 
with  the  permission  of  Babur,  who  sent 
her  to  Sind  under  protection  of  her 
brother  Hussamuddin  Mirak,  who  was 
given  Districts  of  Pat  and  Baghban 
(present  Dadu,  Johi  and  parts  of  Kakar 
Talukas)  as  Jagir. 


The  river  Indus  that  time  had  three 
branches.  The  Ren,  which  separated 
from  the  main  stream  between  Tando 
Muhammad  Khan  and  Matli  and  flowed 
to  Koree  creek.  The  other  two  were  Kalri 
and  Baghar.  The  last  one  was  the  main 
stream  and  Kalri  was  a  small  shallow 
stream,  from  which  Khan  Wah  had  its 
mouth. 


Masumi,  p.  147  gives  no  date  but  des- 
cribes the  event  after  Babur 's  conquest 
of  Hindustan  and  that  would  be  932  A.H. 
which  is  incorrect. 

Beveridge  in  Babur  Nama,  Vol.  I,  p.  366 
as  well  as  Humayun  Nama,  AppendU 
A,  p.  230,  give  the  date  of  engagement. 

Humayun  Nama,  pp.  37-129  and  fn. 
159-230  states  that  the  marriage  was 
dissolved  two  years  later  and  Gulbarg 
Begum  seems  to  have  been  admitted  in 
Humayun 's  Harem  either  as  a  wife  or  as 
a  mistress.  'This  according  to  Mrs. 
Beveridge  was  reason  of  Shah  Hasan's 
hostility  to  Humayun. 


1524  A.D.  September  end— 

930  AIL,  Shawwal  end  or  Zul  Qad  beginning  : 

Shah  Hasan  entered  Thatta  and  ordered        Tahiri,  pp.  68  and  62. 
a  general  massacre  to  the  degree  that 
the  stomachs    of  pregnant  women  were 
ripped  open  and  the  embryoes  were 


! 


• 


SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  TO  REGAIN  SlND 


387 


taken  out  with  the  point  of  arrows.  No 
male  member  irrespective  of  age  was 
spared.  The  majority  of  the  Samma 
women  and  children  due  to  the  fear  of 
the  Mongols  jumped  into  the  river 
Indus  and  were  drowned,  and  those  who 
survived  were  imprisoned  and  humiliat- 
ed to  the  degree  that  according  to  Tahir 
Niyasi ;  'God  should  not  show  such  a 
day  to  any  believer  or  unbeliever'. 

1524  A  D  ,  December  to  1525  AD., February— 
931  AH,  Beginning  : 

Havir.g  left  Thatta  for  Cutch,  Jam  Feroz 
collected  50,000  troops  both  horsemen 
and  foot-soldiers  belonging  to  the  Sam- 
ma tribes  of  Jareja  and  others,  equipped 
them  well  and  reached  the  villages  of 
Rahman  (Rahim  Ki  Bazar,  on  the  Koree 
Creek  at  the  edge  of  the  Rann  of  Cutch, 
30  miles  south  of  Kadhan)  and  Chach- 
kan  (Badin-Tando  Bago  area)  to  give 
Shah  Hasan  a  battle.  Shah  Hasan  also 
collected  the  troops  and  reached  the 
place  of  battle,  Khari  Khabarlo. 

Feroz  Shah's  troops,  a  suicidal  squad, 
got  down  from  the  horses,  tied  their 
turbans  around  the  waists  and  again 
tied  the  corners  of  this  cloth  to  each 
other  and  fought  fiercely,  but  lost  the 
battle  with  a  total  or  20,000  dead  on 
both  the  sides.  Shah  Hasan  stayed  for 
three  days  at  the  battle  site,  to  collect 
and  distribute  the  spoils  of  war.  Feroz 
Shah  fled  to  Cutch. 

The  suicidal  squad  is  typical  of  Hindu 
Rajpoots.  These  soldiers  must  have 
been  supplied  by  the  Jareja  Samma 
chief,  Khengar  of  Cutch.  He  also  con- 
trolled Rahim  ki  Bazar  and  Virawah. 


Masumi,  pp.  143-144,  states  that  he  fled 
to  Cutch,  but  other  historians  state  that 
he  fled  to  Gujarat.  The  latter  version  is 
improbable  as  Sultan  Muzzffer  Shfh 
had  twice  helped  Salahuddin  agairst  him 
and  so  he  probably  took  shelter  in  Cutch. 
The  most  suitable  time  to  cross  the  Rann 
of  Cutch  would  have  been  November  to 
February  and,  therefore  the  battle  might 
have  taken  place  during  those  morths. 
It  would  also  give  Feroz  Shah  about  4 
to  6  months  to  collect  50,0G0  troops  and 
equip  them. 

Tuhfatul  Karam,  p.  115  and  Ma'athir-i- 
Rahimi,  Vol.  II,  pp.  297  and  98  state 
that  he  collected  troops  fiom  Gujarat 
which  is  incorrect.  His  troops  must  have 
been  drawn  from  Cutch,  Chackhan  and 
other  parts  of  the  Lower  Sir.d. 

Haig,  Indus  Delta  Country,  pp.  88-90 
and  fn.  109,  identifies  the  site  of  battle 
as  Khari  Rhabarlo. 

Tark^ian  Nama,  p.  26  does  not  agree 
with  Masumi  and  states  that  he  went  to 
Gujarat. 


388 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


To  avenge  on  Khengar  an  expedition 
had  to  be  taken  to  Cutch  by  Shah  Hasan 
at  a  later  date. 

1525  A  D.,  March-September  : 

Shah  Hasan  stayed  in  Thatta  for  6 
months  and  settled  in  the  fort  of  Tugh- 
luqabad. 

Tahir  Niyasi  states  that  during  this 
period  he  created  terror  among  the  Sam- 
mas  (almost  70  per  cent  of  ir.diger  ous 
Sindhi  population  betorgs  to  the 
Samma  tribe  of  Rajput  origin).  The 
respected  and  educated  people,  Sardars, 
and  soldiers,  were  converted  into  pea- 
santry and  others  to  marual  and  mean 
occupations.  Thus  they  were  given 
plough  instead  of  sword,  and  bullocks 
instead  of  horses,  depriving  them  of  self- 
assertion  and  self-respect.  If  anybody 
resented  this  slavery,  he  was  not  allowed 
to  stay  alive.  The  terror  reached  the 
limits  that  women  aborted  on  seeing 
the  armoured  Mongols. 

As  a  result  of  this  there  was  large  scale 
migration  of  Sindhi  scholars,  saints  and 
businessmen  to  Cutch,  Kathiawar, 
G  jarat,  Burhanpur  and  Arabia. 

1525  A  D ,  September.— 931  AH.  : 

Shah  Hasan  left  Thatta  for  the  Upper 
Sind  to  subjugate  the  tribes  who  were 
yet  not  under  his  control.  He  marched 
via  Nasarpur  and  Hala  Kandi  (Old 
Hala  which  is  2  miles  from  New  Hala 
ai  d  36  mi'es  north  of  Hyderabad)  to 
Sehwan,  where  the  Sahta  tribe  and  other 
people  of  Darbelo  (all  of  the  Samma 
tribe)  offered  their  allegiance  and  Mir 
Farrukh  was  imposed  as  jagirdar  on 
them  the  very  day.  He  then  left  for 
Bakhar  via  Babarlu. 


Tahiri,  pp.  63  and  64. 

This  fort  was  built  by  Jam  Tughluq  on 
the  site  of  the  Old  Fort  which  was  called 
Kala  Kot  said  to  be  named  after  one 
Raja  Kala,  though  the  name  may  possibly 
have  come  from  Kali  Devi's  shrire  in  a 
cave  on  the  Makli  Hills.  It  is  located 
4  miles  SWS  of  Thatta  ard  on  a  small 
hill  in  a  depression  which  used  to  remain 
flooded  with  water  most  of  the  year  until 
the  mid-sixties  of  this  century.  No  arch- 
aeological explorations  have  been  done 
to  find  its  antiquity,  which  may  also  give 
clue  to  the  founding  of  Thatta. 

Panhwar,  M.  H.,  Sind's  struggle 
against  Feudalism,  1500-1843  A.D.;  Sind 
Quarterly,  September,  1976,  pp.  27-28. 


Masumi,  p.  144. 


s 


Si 


< 


SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  To  REGAIN  SlND 


1525  AD.  : 

Mirkar  Shaikh  Mahmood  Purani  came 
to  Sind  from  Qandhar,  and  settled  at 
Thatta  and  later  on  was  appointed  as 
Shaikh-ul-Islam. 

1525  A  D.,  October-November — 

932  A  H  ,- Beginning: 

Rebellion  of  the  Dahars  and  Machhis 
of  Ubauro  and  Bhatti  Wahan  (located 
1 0  miles  north  of  Rahim  Yar  Khan)  and 
also  of  the  Balochis  of  Sarwahi  (8  miles 
north  of  Sabzal  Kot),  and  heavy  mass- 
ing of  the  Mahars  of  Mathelo,  was  re- 
ported to  Shah  Hasan. 

In  the  action  which  followed  important 
offcials  of  Shah  Hasan  like  Mir  Abdul 
Fattah  and  Baba  Ahmed  bin  Fazil 
Kokaltash  lost  theii  lives  before  these 
tribes  were  subdued. 

Since  the  Sind  tribes  extended  into  Uch 
(Rahim  Yar  Khan  and  Bahawalpur) 
and  Multan  territories,  and  they  had 
been  continuously  opposing  the  Ar- 
ghooas  since  923  A.H.,  Shah  Hasan 
after  the  overthrow  of  Jam  Feroz  in  931 
A.H.,  seems  determined  to  capture  the 
area  upto  Multan  before  subduing  the 
Samma  tribes  of  Cutch,  who  had  helped 
Jam  Salahuddin  and  Jam  Feroz,  and 
could  still  give  him  another  battle. 

1526  AD.,  March-April— 932  A.H., 
Beginning  : 

Shah  Hasan  while  planning  to  conquer 
Multan,  decided  to  make  Sibi  (Siwi) 
safe  from  any  attacks  of  the  Balochis. 
He  reached  Sibi  (150  miles  from  Bakhar) 
with  a  thousand  horsemen,  strengthen- 
ed the  fort  quickly  in  a  week,    and  on 


Masumi,  p.  144. 
T.  K.  P. 


Masumi,  pp.  144-146,  puts  the  date  as 
928  AH.  (December  1522)  which  is  in- 
correct as  the  same  year  he  heard  about 
Babur's  conquest  of  Delhi  and  Agra. 

• 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  540,  reports 
that  after  occupying  the  Punjab,  Babur 
asked  Shah  Hasan  to  capture  Multan, 
but  this  is  doubtful.  Babur  wanted  to 
maintain  cordial  relations  from  the  posi- 
tion of  strength  and  Shah  Hasan  was 
suspicious  of  Babur.  Shah  Hasan  left 
Thatta  fully  prepared  for  suppression  of 
the  Sind  tribes  of  the  Upper  Sind.  Babur 
Nama  also  does  not  make  any  reference 
to  Shah  Hasan  being  asked  to  capture 
Multan. 


■ 


390 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  Of  SIND 


the  way  back  attacked  Rind  and  the 
Bughti  (or  possibly  Mangsi)  tribes  of 
Lahri  and  Chattar,  35  and  50  miles 
respectively  south  of  Sibi  in  Kachi 
District,  and  brought  them  to  obedience 
and  subservience. 

Soon  afterwards  he  heard  the  news  of 
Babur's  conquest  of  India,  which  took 
place  in  early  1526  A.D. 

1526  A.D.,  April  18—932  A.H., 
Rajab  8,  Friday  : 

Babur  won  the  first  battle  of  Panipat 
against  Ibrahim  Lodhi.  He  reached 
Delhi  on  Rajab  12th  and  on  Rajab  21st 
entered  Agra  and  became  the  Sultan  of 
Delhi.  This  was  the  5th  attack  of  Babur 
on  the  Sub-continent.  The  campaign 
had  started  in  Safar  932  A.H.,  i.e  Nov- 
ember 1515  A.D.  and  ended  in  April 

1526  A.D. 

Shah  Hasan,  on  hearing  this  news  at 
Bakhar,  sent  e.woys  with  presents  and 
memorandum  to  the  court  of  Babur 
Badshah.  This  was  before  he  marched 
on  Multan. 

1527  AD.,  15th  January— 933  A.H., 
11th  Rabi-I  : 

Fall  of  Multan  to  Shah  Hasan.  He 
appointed  Dost  Mir  Akhur  and  Kha- 
waja  Shamsuddin  Mehhuni  to  the  Go- 
vernment of  Multan  before  his  de- 
parture for  Bakhar  by  about 
March  1527  A.D. 

Masum  reports  that  all  males  between 
the  age  of  7  to  70  at  Multan  were  taken 
a  s  prisoners.  The  city  was  converted 
into  hell  due- to  plunder  and  slaughter 
Even  the  people   taking  shelter  in  the 


Akbar  Nama,  Vol.  I,  pp.  196  and  239. 


Masumi,  p.  147. 


Masumi,  pp.  151  and  161. 


This  statement  reflects  on  general  be- 
haviour of  the  Arghoons  to  the  popu- 
lace of  Sind. 


N 


SAMMAS   STRUGGLB  TO  REGAIN    SIND 


391 


t 


Khanqah  of  the  great  Shaikhs,  were 
massacred  and  looted  and  the  Khanqah 
was  on  fire  10 — 12  days  after  fall  of  the 

city. 

1527  AD. 

On  the  return  from  the  conquest  of 
Multan,  Shah  Hasan  proceeded  to 
crush  the  Kanghars  of  Cutch.  There 
are  two  versions.     Mas  mm  states  that: 

On  return  from  Multan  to  Bakhar 
possibly  around  end  of  April,  Shah 
Hassan  heard  the  news  that  Rana  Kan- 
ghar  ( a  Jareja  chief )  of  Cutch  was 
threatening  to  attack  Thatta,  oo  the 
pleas  that  his  brother  Amar  Amrani 
had  been  killed  by  the  former's  men 
(in  the  battle  with  Jam  Salahuddin), 
but  had  waited  for  the  arrival  of  Shah 
Hasan  from  Multan,  as  Rajput  chivalry 
demanded  delay  until  his  return. 

Shah  Hasan  rushed  to  Cutch  with  four 
divisions  under  Sultan  Mahmood  Khan 
of  Bakhar,  Mir  Farrukh  and  Shah 
Hasan  Tajudari  and  Mirea  Issa  Tar- 
khan,  who  was  also  helped  by  Mir 
AUka  and  met  Kanghar  forces  just 
after  the  Sind— Cutch  border.  The 
Kanghar  troops,  dismounted  fiom  their 
horses,  tied  their  turban  around  their 
waists  and  the  ends  of  the  turbans  with 
each  other,  then  linked  their  shields 
to  make  an  impregnable  iron  wall.  In 
three  hours  battle  the  two  front  rows 
of  the  Cutch  army  were  wiped  out  by 
Sultan  Mahmood  Khan  and  the  rest 
fled  from  the  field,  but  ma  ny  were  killed 
by  Mir  Farrukh.  A  large  booty  consist- 
ing of  horses,  camels,  cows,  and  cattle 
fell  into  hands  of  the  Arghcon  troops. 
Mirza  Shah  Hasan  returned  to  Thatta. 


Masumi. 


392 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SIND 


Tahir,  on  other  hand,  reports  that  while 
in  Thatta  Shah  Hasan  realized  that  the 
Sindhis  of  Thatta  and  Samui  who  had 
taken  shelter  in  Cutch,  would  be  a 
source  of  danger  to  his  rule,  he  add- 
ressed a  letter  to  Kanghar  Samma 
Hindu  Zamindar  of  Cutch  asking  him 
to  bring  the  famous  horses  of  Cutch  for 
him,  enter  his  service  and  settle  in  Sind, 
his  mother-land  and  lead  a  peaceful 
life.  Kanghar  replied  that  they  were 
living  in  poverty,  depending  on  loot- 
ing and  could  not  send  horses  but 
would  not  submit  either. 

Though  this  excuse  of  insulting  ,Sha  a 
Hasan  in  this  reply  was  inadequate, 
Shah  Hasan  marched  on  Cutch.  The 
Rajput  chief  instead  of  meeting  in  an 
open  battle  adopted  guerilla  tactics, 
made  night  attacks  and  poisoned  wells 
and  ponds  with  dead  animals  and 
cactus.  Shah  Hasan  started  burning  the 
villages  and  fields  but  finally  peace  was 
restored  through  intermediaries  and 
Kanghar  agreed  to  pay  annual  tribute. 


1527-28  A.D.— 934  AH.  : 

Due  to  terrorism  of  Shah  Beg  and 
Shah  Hasan  Arghoons,  Qazi  Abdullah 
Bin  Qazi  Ibrahim  of  Darbelo,  a  scholar 
and  sufi,  migrated  to  Gujarat  and  from 
there  left  for  Madina.  where  he  died. 
It  was  the  beginning  of  the  mass  mig- 


Tahri,  pp.  64-67. 

Masumi  does  not  record  the  final  fate 
of  Kanghar.  Since  he  had  challenged 
Shah  Hasan,  he  should  have  fought 
to  death  but  instead  he  invited  the 
enemy,  allowed  him  to  kill  his  men  and 
loot  the  country,  which  apparently  is 
improbable. 


The  attack  on  Cutch  was  motivated  by 
inflicting    punishment    on    the   Jareja 
Sammas  who  had    helped    both   Jam 
Salahuddin  and  Jam   Feroz  to  attack 
Sind  and  also  to    loot  and   massacre. 
This  object  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
achieved  as  the  same  Kanghar,  son  of 
Jam  Hamir,  with  help  ef  Sultan  Baha- 
dur of  Allahabad  made  himself  head  of 
the  tribe,  and  master  of  the  whole  pro- 
vince and  also  won  title  of  Rao  in  1540 
A.D.  Until   then  he  was  a    Zamindar. 
As  Rao,  he  paid  no  regular  tribute,  but 
was    liable     to    military     service      of 
dOOO  horses. 

Jareja  house    of    Kanghar  ruled   Cutch 

upto  1947  A.D. 

• 

I.G.I.    Provincial  Series,  Bombay  Presi- 
dency, Vol.  II,  pp.  329-331. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  p.  141,  since  Jam 
Feroz  Shah  Samma  had  taken  asylum 
in  Gujarat  many  Sindhi  immigrants  also 
took  shelter  there. 


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393 


' 


ration  of  educated,  well-to-do,  saintly 
men  and  business  community  of  Sind. 

1527  A.D.  : 

Birth  of  Hamida  Bano  Begum  who  was 
to  give  birth  to  Akbar  the  Great 
1 5  years  later. 

1529  AD.,  March— 935  A.H.  Middle  : 

Jam  Feroz  Shah  with  his  50  thousand 
troops  tried  to  recover  Sind  but  after 
being  defeased  by  Shah  Hasan  Arghoon 
left  for  Gujarat. 

935  A  H.,  Shawwal  : 

Jam  Feioz  Shah  reached  Gujarat  and 
sought  shelter  with  Sultan  Bahadur 
Bin  Muzaffar  (932-943  A.H.)  who  pro- 
mised him  necessary  help  to  reconquer 
Sind. 

1531  AD  ,  May— 937  A.H.,  4th  Shaban  : 
Syed  Hyder  of  Sann  who  had  opposed 
Arghoon 's   intrusion  in  Sird  died    at 
Sann. 

1531-32  AD.— 938-39  A.H.  : 

Sultan  Bahadur  of  Gujarat  married  a 
daughter  of  Jam  Feroz  Shah,  the  last 
Samma  ruler  of  Sind. 


1535-36  A.D.— 942  A.H.  : 

Jam  Feroz  Shah  Samma,  while  busy  in 
collecting  troops  in  Gujarat  to  attack 
Shah  Hasan  Arghoon,  was  captured  by 
the  Mughal  forces  in  the  war  between 
Sultan  Bahadur  and  Humayun  Badshah, 
and  was  killed. 

1536  AD- 943  A.H.  : 

Humayun  issued   a    "farman"  in    the 
name  of  Mirza  Shah  Hasan  asking  him 


Ishwari  Parshad,  Huma>un,  pJ02. 


Zafar-ul-Walih,  p.  138. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  211. 
Tuhfat-ul-Karam. 


Mira'at-i-Sikandri,  English  Translation, 
p.  162,  Tabaqat-i-Akbari,  Vol.  II,  p.  211 
and  Zafar-ul-Walih,  p.  138,  state  that 
Jam  Feroz  came  for  shelter  during 
this  year. 

Maului  Shedai,  'Sindhi  Buzirgan  Jo 
Siyasat  Men  Hisso,  Mehran,  No.  3, 
1958. 

■ 

Ain-i-Akbari,  Vol.  II,  p.  347. 

Mira'at-i-Sikandri,  f.  225. 
Ma'athir-i-Rahimi,  Vol.  II,  p.  277. 
Zafar-ul-Walih,  pp.  138. 


Tabaqat  -  i  -  AJibari, 


Vol.   II,    p.    35. 


He  must  have  gone    via  Nagarparkar. 
Radhanpur   is   34  miles  east  of  Patan 


394 


CHRONOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY  OF  SlND 


to  proceed  to  Gujarat  and  report  on 
reaching  Patan.  Shah  Hasan  started 
from  Nasarpur  by  the  way  of  Radhan- 
pur. 

The  fort  of  Patan  was  surrendered  by 
Khizr  Khan  who  held  it  on  behalf  of 
Sultan  Bahadur  of  Gujarat  to  Shah 
Hasan,  on  the  payment  of  130,000 
Firuz  Shahi  Tankas.  Shah  Hasan  then 
occupied  this  fort.  The  area  all  around 
upto  Mahmudabad  was  plundered  by 
the  Arghoons.  Soon  afterwards,  Shah 
Hasan  fearing  that  his  joining  Huma- 
yun  may  result  into  people  deserting 
him,  or  he  may  be  forced  to  accept  a 
subordinate  role  in  Sird  returned  back 
on  the  false  excuse  that  disorder  had 
risen  in  Sind.  He  brought  back  vast 
riches,  clothes  and  money  exacted  from 
rich  Gujaratis.  On  his  way  back 
through  Nagarparkar,  he  subjected  the 
Jareja  and  Sodha  tribes  to  great  slaugh- 
ter and  rapine. 

1536-37  A.D.-943  A.H.  : 

After  the  death  of  Sultan  Bahadur  of 
Gujarat,  Sultan  Mahmood  bin  Lutuf 
Khan  bin  Sultan  Muzaffar-li  became 
the  Sultan.  His  mother  was  daughter 
of  Bah  ram  Khan  Sindhi,  a  descendant 
of  Tamim  Antari. 

1537-38  A.D.— 944  A.H.  : 

Syed  Shah  Abdul  Karim  of  Bulri,  an 
ancestor  of  Shah  Abdul  Latif,  was 
born.  He  grew  up  to  become  a  great 
Sufi  and  poet  and  composed  in 
Sindhi  language. 

1539  A.D.— 946 AH.  : 

Shah  Hasan  sent  Mir  Alika  Arghoon 
to  the  court  of  Humayun  to  congratu- 


which    was  known  as    Naharwala    or 
Anhilvada  in  the  days  of  the  Tughluqs 
and  is  60  miles  North- West  of  Ahmed- 
abad. 

Humayun  attacked  Gujarat  after  the 
fall  on  Chambanir  in  Safar  943  A.H. 
(  July  1536  A.D. )  as  stated  by  Tabaqat- 
i-Akbari,  Vol.  II,  and,  therefore, 
Shah  Hasan  may  have  started  for  Patan 
in  the  beginning  of  943  A.H. 
Masumi's  date  of  942  A.H.,  p.  162  is, 
therefore,  incorrect.  He  must  have 
returned  the  same  year  in    945  A.H.  at 


•stated  by  Masumi,  p.  165. 


■ 
- 

Mira'at-i-Sikandri,  (Baroda),  p.  329. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam,  Sindhi,   p.  171. 


■ 


Masumi,  p.  166. 


SAMMAS  STRUGGLE  TO  REGAIN  SIND 


395 


; 

\ 


< 


late  him  on  the  conquest  of  Gujarat 
and  Mir  Khush  Muhammad  Arghoon 
to  Mirza  Kamran  to  congratulate  him 
on  the  conquest  of  Qandhar.  These 
emissaries  heard  the  news  of  the  defeat 
of  Humayun  at  the  hands  of  Sher  Shah 
while  in  Delhi. 

1539  AD.— 946  A.H.  : 

On  hearing  of  the  defeat  of  Humayun 
at  Chausa  by  Sher  Shah  from  Mirza 
Alika,  Shah  Hasan  decided  to  lay  waste 
the  whote  of  the  country  from  Uch 
(then  part  of  Sind)  to  Bakhar  on  both 
the  sides  of  the  river  and  destroy  all 
the  crops.  • 


Shah  Hasan  must  have  been  relieved  on 
Jam  Feroz  Shah  Samma's  death  and  the 
emissary  must  have  been  sent  to  convey 
his  gratefulness  to  Humayun. 


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